A new dagger nematode, Xiphinema poasense n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae), from Costa Rica

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A new dagger nematode, Xiphinema poasense n. sp., is described and illustrated from three populations extracted from soil associated with a combined plantation of Eucalyptus sp., Cupressus sp. and Pennisetum sp. and wild plants from a tropical pre-montane forest in Costa Rica. The new dagger nematode is characterised by a moderate body size 2612 (2416-3042) μm long, a rounded lip region 15.0 (13.5-16.5) μm broad, separated from the body contour by a shallow depression, amphidial fovea large, stirrup-shaped, a very long odontostyle (175 (164-188) μm), stylet guiding ring located 167 (136-181) μm from anterior end, vulva situated anterior to mid-body (36-40%), anterior genital branch complete but strongly reduced, without uterine differentiation, female tail short, hemispherical to convex-conoid with a c′ ratio = 0.7 (0.6-0.8) and bearing two pairs of caudal pores, and male absent. Integrative diagnosis was completed with molecular data using D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA, ITS1 region, partial 18S-rRNA and the partial mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (coxI). The phylogenetic relationships based on D2-D3 segments of this species with other Xiphinema spp. of the X. non-americanum group indicated that X. poasense n. sp. clustered with other species with a reduced anterior genital branch from the morphospecies Group 2, viz., X. costaricense and X. krugi. However, the phylogeny of coxI and partial 18S rRNA gene revealed that the new species did not cluster with Xiphinema species having the anterior genital branch absent or reduced (i.e., morphospecies Groups 1 and 2, respectively).

Nematology

International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Nematological Research

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References

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Figures

  • Line drawings of Xiphinema poasense n. sp. A: Female pharyngeal region; B: Female lip region; C, D: Female tail region; E: First-stage juvenile tail region.

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  • Line drawings of Xiphinema poasense n. sp. A: Detail of anterior and posterior female gonads; B, C: Detail of anterior gonad. Abbreviations: a = anus; af = amphidial fovea; b = basal bulb; c = cardia; fl = flanges; gr = guiding ring; tro = tip of replacement odontostyle; V = vulva.

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  • Light micrographs of Xiphinema poasense n. sp. A: Female pharyngeal region; B-F: Female lip region; G: Detail of odontophore flanges; H: Detail of tip of reserve odontostyle; I: Detail of cardia; J: Vulval region; K-M: Female tail region; N-Q: First-, second-, third-, and fourth-stage juvenile tails (J1-J4), respectively. Abbreviations: bb = basal bulb; e = egg; c; V = vulva. (Scale bars: A, B = 50 μm; C-Q = 20 μm.)

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  • Light micrographs of Xiphinema poasense n. sp. A, B: Detail of anterior genital branch showing position of basal bulb; C-F: Detail of anterior genital branch showing differences in development of anterior ovary. Abbreviations: bb = basal bulb; e = egg; ov = anterior ovary; V = vulva. (Scale bars: A, B = 100 μm; C-F = 20 μm.)

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  • Relationship of body length to length of functional and replacement odontostyle (Ost and rOst, respectively); length in all developmental stages from first-stage juveniles (J1) to mature females of Xiphinema poasense n. sp.

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  • Phylogenetic relationships within the Xiphinema non-americanum group complex. Bayesian 50% majority rule consensus tree as inferred from D2 and D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA sequence alignment under the transversion model with invariable sites and a gamma-shaped distribution (TVM + I + G). Posterior probabilities greater than 0.70 are given for appropriate clades. Newly obtained sequences in this study are shown in bold. (Scale bar = expected changes per site.)

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  • Phylogenetic relationships within the Xiphinema non-americanum group complex. Bayesian 50% majority rule consensus tree as inferred from partial 18S rRNA gene sequence alignment under the general time-reversible model of sequence evolution with correction for invariable sites and a gamma-shaped distribution (GTR + I + G). Posterior probabilities greater than 0.70 are given for appropriate clades. Newly obtained sequences in this study are shown in bold. (Scale bar = expected changes per site.)

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  • Phylogenetic relationships within the Xiphinema non-americanum group complex. Bayesian 50% majority rule consensus tree as inferred from partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coxI) sequence alignment under transversion model with invariable sites and a gamma-shaped distribution (TVM + I + G). Posterior probabilities greater than 0.70 are given for appropriate clades. Newly obtained sequences in this study are shown in bold. (Scale bar = expected changes per site.)

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