Paurodontella gilanica n. sp. (Nematoda: Sphaerularioidea) from Iran

in Nematology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Paurodontella gilanica n. sp. is described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characters. The new species is characterised by its small body size, four lines in the lateral field, weak stylet with minute asymmetrical knobs, female reproductive system lacking a diverticulum but with small post-vulval uterine sac, elongate conoid tail with pointed, sometimes filiform, tip, males common with small spicules and cloacal bursa not reaching tail tip. Morphological differences between the new species and seven known species of the genus, namely P. asymmetrica, P. auriculata, P. balochistanica, P. minuta, P. myceliophaga, P. parapitica and P. persica, are discussed. The new species is also compared with four known species of Paurodontus having four lines in the lateral field. Using a 1123 nt long partial 18S rDNA sequence of the new species to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships revealed that it formed a clade with members of the Sphaerulariidae and Paurodontidae. Using a 746 nt long partial sequence of the 28S rDNA D2-D3 segment revealed that P. gilanica n. sp. formed a clade with Abursanema iranicum in both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses with 0.99 Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) and 89% bootstrap support value (BS). The morphological affinities of Paurodontella and Paurodontus are discussed.


International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Nematological Research



Anderson, R.V. (1985). Emendation of the genus Paurodontella Husain & Khan, 1968 and description of P. auriculata n. sp. from Western Canada (Nematoda: Paurodontidae). Journal of Nematology 17, 201-205.

Andrássy, I. (2007). Free-living nematodes of Hungary, II (Nematoda errantia). Pedozoologica Hungarica No. 4 (Series Editors: Csuzdi, C. & Mahunka, S.). Budapest, Hungary, Hungarian Natural History Museum and Systematic Zoology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Bastian, H.C. (1865). Monograph on the Anguillulidae, or free nematoids, marine, land, and freshwater; with descriptions of 100 new species. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 25, 73-184. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1865.tb00179.x

Blaxter, M.L., De Ley, P., Garey, J.R., Liu, L.X., Scheldeman, P., Vierstraete, A., Vanfleteren, J.R., Mackey, L.Y., Dorris, M., Frisse, L.M. et al. (1998). A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum Nematoda. Nature 392, 71-75. DOI: 10.1038/32160

Castresana, J. (2000). Selection of conserved blocks from multiple alignments for their use in phylogenetic analysis. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17, 540-552. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026334

Das, V.M. & Shivaswamy, V. (1980). Paurodontus brassicae n. sp. and Nothotylenchus singhi n. sp. from South India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Parasitology 1, 62-65.

De Grisse, A.T. (1969). Redescription ou modifications de quelques techniques utilisées dans l’étude des nématodes phytoparasitaires. Mededlingen Rijksfaculteit der Landbouwwetenschappen Gent 34, 351-369.

Dufour, L. (1837). Recherches sur quelques entozoaires et larves parasites des insectes orthoptères et hymenoptères. Annales des Sciences Naturelles 7, 5-20.

Edgar, R.C. (2004). MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research 32, 1792-1797. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkh340

Esmaeili, M., Heydari, R. & Ye, W. (2016). Paurodontella parapitica n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran. Journal of Nematology 48, 109-115. DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2017-016

Esmaeili, M., Heydari, R. & Ye, W. (2017). Molecular and morphological characterisation of Paurodontella persica n. sp. (Hexatylina: Sphaerulariidae) from soil in Iran. Nematology 19, 57-68. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00003031

Fortuner, R. & Raski, D.J. (1987). A review of Neotylenchoidea Thorne, 1941 (Nemata: Tylenchida). Revue de Nématologie 10, 257-267.

Gagarin, V.G. (1999). Nematode fauna in rotten wood of birch, aspen, and pine in Borok (Yaroslavl’ district, Central Russia). Zoologichesky Zhurnal 78, 146-157.

Golhasan, B., Heydari, R. & Miraeiz, E. (2016). Paurodontella iranica sp. nov. of Sphaerulariidae (Nematoda) from North West Iran. Annales Zoologici 66, 125-130. DOI: 10.3161/00034541ANZ2016.66.1.009

Handoo, Z.A., Iqbal, Y.E., Kazi, N. & Fayyaz, S. (2010). Two new species of Paurodontella Husain & Khan, 1968 (Nematoda: Sphaerulariidae) associated with wheat and a diagnostic compendium to the genus. Nematology 12, 181-192. DOI: 10.1163/156854109X461730

Husain, S.I. & Khan, A.M. (1965). A new genus and six new species of nematodes from India belonging in the family Neotylenchidae with an amendation of the subfamily Ecphyadophorinae. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 32, 7-15.

Husain, S.I. & Khan, A.M. (1968). Paurodontella n. gen. and three new species of nematodes from North India (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). Nematologica 13(1967), 493-500. DOI: 10.1163/187529267X00274

Kanzaki, N., Kosaka, H., Sayama, K., Takahashi, J.I. & Makino, S.I. (2007). Sphaerularia vespae sp. nov. (Nematoda, Tylenchomorpha, Sphaerularioidea), an endoparasite of a common Japanese hornet, Vespa simillima Smith (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Zoological Science 24, 1134-1142. DOI: 10.2108/zsj.24.1134

Khan, E. & Basir, M.A. (1964). On a new species Paurodontus neosimilis (Nematoda: Paurodontinae) from Gorakhpur (U.P.). Indian Science Congress Association 3, 469.

Khan, E., Mathur, V.K., Nand, S. & Prasad, S.K. (1968). Two new nematode species in the family Neotylenchidae from India. LABDEV Journal of Science and Technology 6(B), 186-189.

Larget, B. & Simon, D.L. (1999). Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for the Bayesian analysis of phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16, 750-759. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026160

Lubbock, J. (1861). On Sphaerularia bombi. Natural History Review 1, 44-57.

Maqbool, M.A. (1982). Three new species of the superfamily Neotylenchoidea (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from Pakistan. Journal of Nematology 14, 317-323.

Miraeiz, E., Heydari, R., Álvarez-Ortega, S., Pedram, M. & Atighi, M.R. (2015). Molecular and morphological characterization of Veleshkinema iranicum n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Iran. Zootaxa 4000, 531-546. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4000.5.3

Miraeiz, E., Heydari, R. & Golhasan, B. (2017). A new and a known species of Deladenus Thorne, 1941 (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) from Iran, with an updated species checklist of the genus. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 69, 307-316.

Mobasseri, M., Pedram, M. & Pourjam, E. (2017). A new species of the rare genus Anguillonema Fuchs, 1938 (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) with its molecular phylogenetic study. Journal of Nematology 49, 286-294.

Mullin, P.G., Harris, T.S. & Powers, T.O. (2005). Phylogenetic relationships of Nygolaimina and Dorylaimina (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) inferred from small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Nematology 7, 59-79. DOI: 10.1163/1568541054192199

Nandakumar, C. & Khera, S. (1969). Paurodontus aberrans n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida) with a note on special branch of the oviduct. Indian Journal of Helminthology 21, 1-5.

Nanjappa, C.K. & Khan, E. (1970). Paurodontus indicus sp. nov. and Boleodorus teres sp. nov. (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from India. Bulletin of Entomology 11, 138-142.

Nunn, G.B. (1992). Nematode molecular evolution. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Nylander, J.A.A. (2004). MrModeltest v2. Sweden, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University. Available online at

Rambaut, A. & Drummond, A.J. (2009). Tracer version 1.5 (computer program). Available online at

Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2003). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19, 1572-1574. DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180

Siddiqi, M.R. (1961). A new species of the genus Paurodontus Thorne, 1941 (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) from India. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 28, 213-215.

Siddiqi, M.R. (2000). Tylenchida parasites of plants and insects, 2nd edition. Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing.

Silvestro, D. & Michalak, I. (2011). raxmlGUI: a graphical front-end for RAxML. Organisms Diversity and Evolution 12, 335-337. DOI: 10.1007/s13127-011-0056-0

Sumenkova, N.I. (1975). [Nematodes of plants and soil. Neotylenchoidea.] Moscow, USSR, Izdatel’stvo, Nauka.

Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. & Kumar, S. (2013). MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30, 2725-2729. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/mst197

Taylor, D.P. & Pillai, J.K. (1967). Paraphelenchus acontioides n. sp. (Nematoda: Paraphelenchidae), a mycophagous nematode from Illinois, with observations on its feeding habits and a key to the species of Paraphelenchus. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 34, 51-54.

Thorne, G. (1941). Some nematodes of the family Tylenchidae which do not possess a valvular median esophageal bulb. Great Basin Naturalist 2, 37-85.

Thorne, G. (1949). On the classification of the Tylenchida, new order (Nematoda, Phasmidia). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 16, 37-73.

Tikyani, M.G. & Khera, S. (1968). Neopaurodontus asymmetricus n. g., n. sp. (Nematoda: Paurodontinae) from rhizosphere of great Millet. Indian Journal of Helminthology 20, 34-39.

Whitehead, A.G. & Hemming, J.R. (1965). A comparison of some quantitative methods of extracting small vermiform nematodes from soil. Annals of Applied Biology 55, 25-38. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1965.tb07864.x

Yaghoubi, A., Pourjam, E., Pedram, M., Siddiqi, M.R. & Atighi, M.R. (2014). Description of Abursanema iranicum n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Iran and its phylogenetic relationships. Zootaxa 3826, 301-314. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3826.2.1


  • Line drawings of Paurodontella gilanica n. sp. A: Male entire body; B: Anterior body region with details of pharynx; C: Head region; D: Variation in pharynx extension into intestine; E: Female reproductive system; F: Stylet; G: Spicules and gubernaculum; H: Female entire body; I: Female tail; J: Male cloacal region.

    View in gallery
  • Photomicrographs of Paurodontella gilanica n. sp. A, B: Details of anterior end; C: Part of pharynx; D: Variation in extension of pharynx into intestine; E: Vulva to anus region; F, G: Cloacal region; H: Part of female reproductive system; I: Female tail. (Scale bars = 10 μm.)

    View in gallery
  • Morphometrics of Paurodontella gilanica n. sp. All measurements are in μm and in the form: mean ± s.d. (range).

    View in gallery
  • Consensus 50% majority rule Bayesian phylogenetic tree of Paurodontella gilanica n. sp. based on 18S rDNA sequences under GTR + I + G model. Bayesian posterior probabilities and maximum likelihood bootstrap values more than 50% are given on appropriate clades in the form BPP/ ML BS. The new sequence is in boldface.

    View in gallery
  • Consensus 50% majority rule Bayesian phylogenetic tree of Paurodontella gilanica n. sp. based on 28S D2-D3 rDNA sequences under GTR + G model. Bayesian posterior probabilities and maximum likelihood bootstrap values more than 50% are given on appropriate clades in the form BPP/ML BS. The new sequence is in boldface.

    View in gallery
  • Some useful morphological and morphometric data of species of the genera Paurodontus and Paurodontella.

    View in gallery


Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 9 9 7
Full Text Views 7 7 7
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0