A molecular phylogeny of the Rhigonematomorpha De Ley & Blaxter, 2002 as inferred from SSU and LSU rDNA sequences

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Summary

A molecular hypothesis of the Infraorder Rhigonematomorpha is presented. The phylogeny recovered using combined SSU and LSU markers suggests that the Rhigonematomorpha is nested within a larger clade that includes Ascaridomorpha, Spiruromorpha and Oxyuridomorpha and is strongly supported by maximum likelihood (ML) bootstrap support values (BS) and Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP). SSU and LSU ML and Bayesian analyses recovered Rhigonematomorpha as a paraphyletic clade. In the ML and Bayesian analyses of a combined matrix of complete to partial sequences of SSU and LSU, respectively, Rhigonematomorpha is recovered as a monophyletic clade with moderate BPP but low BS. Highly supported BS and BPP of a combined SSU and LSU matrix support a hypothesis of a monophyletic Superfamily Ransomnematoidea that includes the families Carnoyidae, Hethidae, Ransomnematidae plus a Brumptaemilius, Cattiena, Insulanema clade, and a monophyletic Superfamily Rhigonematoidea that probably includes the paraphyletic families Rhigonematidae and Ichthyocephalidae. It is suggested that the future inclusion of more families and genera might help resolve the monophyly of the Infraorder Rhigonematomorpha as advanced here.

Nematology

International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Nematological Research

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Figures

  • SSU and LSU gene sequences and GenBank accession numbers used in the phylogeny of Rhigonematomorpha.

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  • (Continued.)

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  • List of primers used in this study.

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  • ML SSU tree of 137 taxa of a sample of Clade III and Rhigonematomorpha. Results from bootstrap resampling are shown above (ML) and posterior probabilities below (Bayesian) internal nodes for clade frequencies exceeding 50%.

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  • ML LSU tree of 68 taxa of a sample of Clade III and Rhigonematomorpha. Results from bootstrap resampling are shown above (ML) and posterior probabilities below (Bayesian) internal nodes for clade frequencies exceeding 50%.

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  • ML SSU plus LSU tree of 67 taxa of a sample of Clade III and Rhigonematomorpha. Results from bootstrap resampling are shown above (ML) and posterior probabilities below (Bayesian) internal nodes for clade frequencies exceeding 50%.

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  • Monophyly of the different taxa/clades of Rhigonematomorpha (sensu De Ley & Blaxter (2002)) with related infraorders.

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  • A: SSU ML tree of 137 taxa of a sample of Clade III and Rhigonematomorpha. Bootstrap values appear above internal nodes.

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  • (Continued.) B: SSU Bayesian tree of 137 taxa of a sample of Clade III and Rhigonematomorpha. Bayesian posterior probabilities appear above internal nodes.

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  • A: LSU ML tree of 68 taxa of a sample of Clade III and Rhigonematomorpha. Bootstrap values appear above internal nodes. B: LSU Bayesian tree of 68 taxa of a sample of Clade III and Rhigonematomorpha. Bayesian posterior probabilities appear above internal nodes.

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  • (Continued.)

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  • A: SSU plus LSU ML tree of 67 taxa of a sample of Clade III and Rhigonematomorpha. Bootstrap values appear above internal nodes. B: SSU plus LSU Bayesian tree of 67 taxa of a sample of Clade III and Rhigonematomorpha. Bayesian posterior probabilities appear above internal nodes. *SSU sequences matched with LSU sequences from different species within the same genus. Only name of SSU species is shown.

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  • (Continued.)

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