Bursaphelenchus geraerti n. sp. (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) found in packaging wood from the United Arab Emirates

in Nematology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Bursaphelenchus geraerti n. sp., isolated in Tianjin, P.R. China, from packaging wood made of Pinus sp. imported from the United Arab Emirates, is described. It is characterised by the lateral field with three lines, a stylet 13-14 μm long with small basal swellings, excretory pore located posterior to nerve ring, spicule mitten-shaped, ventrally arcuate with lamina smoothly tapering towards distal tip, with a distinct bend near 60% of total length, condylus elongated with rounded tip, rostrum conical with finely rounded tip, and cucullus weakly developed or absent. The bursal flap is wide and spade-like with the posterior margin truncate or rounded and starts posterior to P6 gland papillae. A vulval flap is absent and the tail is conical, strongly ventrally curved with the terminus pointed and sometimes appearing as a mucron. The new species is characterised by morphological and molecular analysis and is close to B. decraemerae, B. gerberae and B. sakishimanus.

Bursaphelenchus geraerti n. sp. (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) found in packaging wood from the United Arab Emirates

in Nematology



BraaschH. (2004). Morphology of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus compared with other Bursaphelenchus species. In: MotaM. & VieiraP. (Eds). The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Proceedings of an international workshop University of Évora Portugal August 20-22 2001. Nematology Monographs and Perspectives 1. Leiden, The NetherlandsBrill pp. 127-143.

BraaschH.BurgermeisterW. & GuJ. (2009). Revised intrageneric grouping of Bursaphelenchus Fuchs, 1937 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae). Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics 1265-88.

BurgermeisterW.BraaschH.MetgeK.GuJ.SchroderT. & WoldtE. (2009). ITS-RFLP analysis, an efficient tool for differentiation of Bursaphelenchus species. Nematology 11649-668. DOI: 10.1163/156854108/399182

DarribaD.TaboadaG.L.DoalloR. & PosadaD. (2012). jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods 9772. DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.2109

De GrisseA.T. (1969). Redescription ou modifications de quelques techniques utilisées dans l’étude de nématodes phytoparasitaires. Mededelingen Rijksfaculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Gent 34315-359.

De LeyP.FélixM.A.FrisseL.M.NadlerS.A.SternbergP.W. & ThomasW.K. (1999). Molecular and morphological characterisation of two reproductively isolated species with mirror-image anatomy (Nematoda: Cephalobidae). Nematology 1591-612. DOI: 10.1163/156854199508559

FangY.GuJ.WangX. & LiH. (2014). Description of Aphelenchoides stellatus n. sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) found in packaging wood from Japan. Nematology 16621-630. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-0000280

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2003). Guidelines for regulating wood packaging material in international trade. International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) No. 15. Rome, ItalyFAO.

FerrisV.R.FerrisJ.M. & FaghihiJ. (1993). Variation in spacer ribosomal DNA in some cyst forming species of plant parasitic nematodes. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 16177-184.

Giblin-DavisR.M.KanzakiN.YeW.CenterB.J. & ThomasW.K. (2006). Morphology and systematics of Bursaphelenchus gerberae n. sp. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), a rare associate of the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum in Trinidad. Zootaxa 118939-53.

GuJ.BraaschH.BurgermeisterW. & ZhangJ. (2006). Records of Bursaphelenchus spp. intercepted in imported packaging wood at Ningbo, China. Forest Pathology 36323-333.

GuJ.MariaM.FangY.HeJ.BraaschH. & LiH. (2016). Bursaphelenchus saudi n. sp. (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) found in packaging wood from Saudi Arabia. Nematology 18475-488. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00002971

GuJ.KanzakiN. & TomalakM. (2017). Proposal of Bursaphelenchus wuae n. comb. and its two junior synonyms. Nematology 19869-870. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00003091

HoltermanM.van der WurffA.van den ElsenS.van MegenH.HolovachovO.BakkerJ. & HelderJ. (2006). Phylum wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward crown clades. Molecular Biology and Evolution 231792-1800. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msl044

HuangR.E. & YeJ.R. (2006). Seinura lii n. sp. and S. wuae n. sp. (Nematoda: Seinuridae) from pine wood in China. Nematology 8749-759. DOI: 10.1163/156854106778877848

KanzakiN.AkibaM.KanetaniS.TetsukaK. & IkegameH. (2014). Bursaphelenchus osumiana n. sp. (Tylenchomorpha: Aphelenchoididae) isolated from dead Pinus armandii var. amamiana in Osumi Islands in Japan. Nematology 16903-916. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00002817

KanzakiN.OkabeK. & KoboriY. (2015). Bursaphelenchus sakishimanus n. sp. (Tylenchomorpha: Aphelenchoididae) isolated from a stag beetle, Dorcus titanus sakishimanus Nomura (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), on Ishigaki Island, Japan. Nematology 17531-542. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00002887

KatohK. & StandleyD.M. (2013). MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30772-780. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/mst010

LargetB. & SimonD.L. (1999). Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for the Bayesian analysis of phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16750-759. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026160

LarssonA. (2014). AliView: a fast and lightweight alignment viewer and editor for large datasets. Bioinformatics 303276-3278. DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btu531

LiH.TrinhP.Q.WaeyenbergeL. & MoensM. (2008). Bursaphelenchus chengi sp. n. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) isolated at Nanjing, China, in packaging wood from Taiwan. Nematology 10335-346. DOI: 10.1163/156854108783900294

LiH.TrinhP.Q.WaeyenbergeL. & MoensM. (2009). Characterisation of Bursaphelenchus spp. isolated from packaging wood imported at Nanjing, China. Nematology 11375-408. DOI: 10.1163/156854109X446971

MariaM.FangY.HeJ.GuJ. & LiH. (2015). Bursaphelenchus parantoniae n. sp. (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) found in packaging wood from Belgium. Nematology 171141-1152. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00002929

MariaM.FangY.GuJ. & LiH. (2016). Redescription of Bursaphelenchus parapinasteri (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) isolated from Pinus thunbergii in China with a key to the hofmanni-group. Nematology 18933-947. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00003006

MotaM.M. & VieiraP. (Eds) (2008). Pine wilt disease: a worldwide threat to forest ecosystems. Berlin, GermanySpringer.

RonquistF. & HuelsenbeckJ.P. (2003). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 191572-1574. DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180

RyssA.PolyaninaK.S.PopovichevB.G. & SubbotinS.A. (2015). Description of Bursaphelenchus ulmophilus sp. n. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchinae) associated with Dutch elm disease of Ulmus glabra Huds. in the Russian north west. Nematology 17685-703. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00002902

SeinhorstJ.W. (1959). A rapid method for the transfer of nematodes from fixative to anhydrous glycerin. Nematologica 467-69. DOI: 10.1163/187529259X00381

StöverB.C. & MüllerK.F. (2010). TreeGraph 2: combining and visualizing evidence from different phylogenetic analyses. BMC Bioinformatics 117. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-11-7

TanakaS.E.TanakaR.AkibaM.AikawaT.MaeharaN.TakeuchiY. & KanzakiN. (2014). Bursaphelenchus niphades n. sp. (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) amensally associated with Niphades variegatus (Roelofs) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Nematology 16259-281. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00002763

VieiraP.MotaM. & EisenbackJ. (2003). Pinewood nematode taxonomic database. Blacksburg, VA, USAMactode Publications. (CD-ROM).

VrainT.C. (1993). Restriction fragment length polymorphism separates species of the Xiphinema americanum group. Journal of Nematology 25361-364.

WangX.WangP.GuJ.WangJ. & LiH. (2013). Description of Aphelenchoides xui n. sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) in packaging wood from South Africa. Nematology 15279-289. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00002675

WangX.GuJ.MariaM.FangY. & LiH. (2018). Bursaphelenchus decraemerae n. sp. (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) found in packaging wood from the USA. Nematology 20119-131. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00003129

YeW.Giblin-DavisR.M.BraaschH.MorrisK. & ThomasW.K. (2007). Phylogenetic relationships among Bursaphelenchus species (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) inferred from nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 431185-1197. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2007.02.006


  • View in gallery

    Bursaphelenchus geraerti n. sp. A: Female; B: Male; C: Anterior body region showing lateral field; D: Head region; E: Male tail in ventral view showing caudal papillae and bursa; F: Male tail in lateral view; G: Male spicules; H: Female gonad; I: Female tails. (Scale bars = 10 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Light micrographs of Bursaphelenchus geraerti n. sp. male. A: Entire body; B, C: Tail in ventral view showing caudal papillae and bursa; D-G: Tail in lateral ventral view (caudal papillae = P + number). (Scale bars = 10 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Light micrographs of Bursaphelenchus geraerti n. sp. female. A: Entire body; B, C: Pharyngeal region showing excretory pore (arrow); D: Vulval region in lateral view (vulva visible in posterior part); E: Post-uterine sac region; F: Lateral field; G-I: Tail. (Scale bars = 10 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Scanning electron microscopy of Bursaphelenchus geraerti n. sp. Male tail showing papillal arrangement (P + number). (Scale bar = 10 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Morphometrics of Bursaphelenchus geraerti n. sp. All measurements are in μm and in the form: mean ± s.d. (range).

  • View in gallery

    ITS-RFLP patterns of Bursaphelenchus geraerti n. sp. Restriction fragments were obtained by digestion of the amplified rDNA fragment (1) with RsaI (2), HaeIII (3), MspI (4), HinfI (5) and AluI (6). M = DNA marker (100 bp ladder, Invitrogen Life Technologies).

  • View in gallery

    Sizes of DNA restriction fragments obtained for Bursaphelenchus geraerti n. sp. and B. decraemerae in ITS-RFLP analysis and calculated on sequencing results.

  • View in gallery

    Phylogenetic relationships of Bursaphelenchus geraerti n. sp. and aphelenchid nematodes based on concatenated dataset (partial 18S rDNA + full length of ITS rDNA + partial 28S D2-D3 rDNA). The 10001st Bayesian tree was inferred under GTR + I + G model, Aphelenchoides besseyi served as the outgroup species. Posterior probability values exceeding 50% are given on appropriate clades.

  • View in gallery

    Sequences of nematode species used for the phylogenetic analyses.

  • View in gallery


Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 6 6 6
Full Text Views 9 9 9
PDF Downloads 1 1 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0