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Free-living nematodes associated with pine cones of Pinus thunbergii and P. taeda at Japanese coastal and inland forest sites

In: Nematology
Authors:
Yudai Kitagami Laboratory of Forest Mycology, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan

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Natsumi Kanzaki Kansai Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Nagai-kyutaro, Momoyama, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-0855, Japan

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Toko Tanikawa Kansai Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Nagai-kyutaro, Momoyama, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-0855, Japan

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Yosuke Matsuda Laboratory of Forest Mycology, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan

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Summary

We surveyed the distribution of nematodes in 56 cones of Pinus thunbergii collected from both live branches and on the forest floor in three coastal and inland habitats and in 11 cones of P. taeda collected at different heights. We identified 47 nematodes to family or genera by analysis of an 18S small subunit rRNA gene sequence. The frequencies of occurrence of free-living cone nematodes were 97% in coastal P. thunbergii, 92% in inland P. thunbergii, and 82% in P. taeda. Phylogenetic analysis assigned the nematodes to four clades with high bootstrap values. Nine sequences that were found only in cones on live branches were clustered with Panagrobelus stammeri and an unknown Panagrobelus sp. Our results imply that nematodes are commonly associated with cones in pine forest ecosystems and that a capacity for anhydrobiosis may be a key to surviving above-ground.

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