Taxonomic revision of the free-living marine nematode genus Deontostoma (Enoplida: Leptosomatidae) and inclusion of a new species from the Southern Ocean

In: Nematology
Daisuke ShimadaDepartment of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, N10 W8, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810Japan

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Naoto JimiSugashima Marine Biological Laboratory, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Toba, Mie 517-0004, Japan
Centre for Marine & Coastal Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia

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A new species of free-living marine nematode, Deontostoma quadridentatum sp. nov., is described from a deep-sea sediment sample collected off the South Orkney Islands, the Southern Ocean, during a cruise (KH-19-6-Leg 4) conducted on the R/V Hakuho-Maru. Deontostoma quadridentatum sp. nov. differs from its congeners by the possession of: i) a cephalic capsule with a smooth posterior edge and without intralobar lacunae; ii) interlobar fenestrae with two posterior incisions; iii) four odontia on each mandible; iv) three onchia; v) spicules with velum and lateral process; vi) gubernacula with a hollow triangular crus, vii) one ventromedian supplement; viii) two precloacal subventral rows consisting of 8-10 setae and 12-20 papillae; and ix) by the lack of ocelli. Partial 18S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene sequences were determined for D. quadridentatum sp. nov., and the diagnosis of Deontostoma and the dichotomous keys to the subfamilies of Leptosomatidae, genera of Deontostomatinae, and species of Deontostoma were revised. Two known species, Triceratonema montredonense comb. nov. and Triceratonema papillosum comb. nov., were transferred from Deontostoma. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis did not clarify the position of Deontostoma quadridentatum sp. nov., but we placed this species into Deontostoma based on morphological observations. We also tried to find a relationship between distribution and morphological characteristic because it seems that there are two phylogenetic lineages that exist in Deontostoma based on the distribution of all species. However, no such relationships could be found from our literature survey.

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