Meloidogyne graminicola, the rice root-knot nematode, has become a constraint on Asian rice production due to rice cropping intensification and increasing scarcity of water. This work relates to the assessment of crop rotation, fallow and nematicide treatments in naturally infested fields to manage M. graminicola populations and prevent yield losses. One or two consecutive crops of cowpea or seasons of fallow before a rice crop lowered nematode populations and improved rice yield by 30-80%. Methyl bromide was used to determine yield potential and almost eradicated the nematode, trebling rice yield. Carbofuran improved yield of the first rice crop but did not affect the second rice crop. Due to its short life cycle, M. graminicola populations were similar after only a single rice crop and after three consecutive crops. It is recommended that, to ensure higher rice yields, M. graminicola populations should be maintained at low density by non-host crop rotations or fallows, ideally for two seasons before planting rice.