Material of the nematode previously known as Heterocephalobus elongatus (and the type of the genus) was collected in four localities from the southern Iberian Peninsula and is described and illustrated. The first SEM study of the species is presented. The species is transferred to the genus Pseudacrobeles on the basis that the lateral field fades out near the phasmid. Within this genus it is classified under the subgenus Pseudacrobeles as the lip region has a triradiate symmetry. The combination Pseudacrobeles (Pseudacrobeles) elongatus (de Man, 1880) comb. n. is proposed. As a result of synonymising the type of Heterocephalobus, the genus itself becomes a junior synonym and is herein placed under the genus Pseudacrobeles, subgenus Pseudacrobeles. The species formerly listed under Heterocephalobus are returned to their original combination and listed as species incertae sedis or species inquirendae.