This study describes the nematode community in a semi-natural grassland and investigates if certain individual plant species can cause a spatial structure in the nematode fauna. Nematode communities were analysed in soil under Trifolium repens, Festuca ovina and from randomly taken samples. Seventy-nine nematode genera were identified. Some of the species found have not previously been reported from Sweden. Multivariate analysis separated the nematode communities associated with the two selected plant species from each other, and several individual nematode genera differed in abundance between the plant species. Trifolium repens supported greater populations of the plant feeder Tylenchorhynchus and the bacterial feeders Eucephalobus, Chiloplacus, Eumonhystera and Panagrolaimus, but fewer numbers of the bacterial feeder Achromadora. Soil under F. ovina contained more nematodes from the family Alaimidae. A comparison is given with other studies from grassland systems in Sweden.