Contrary to the expectation, rats at an ambient temperature of 40°C displayed less care of the fur than rats do at an ambient temperature of 24°C. Rats in the 40°C environment curtailed their activities by lying flat; the autonomic response salival secretion appeared excessively, but the saliva was not spread on the fur by means of washing or licking. In a 4°C environment the rats displayed as much care of the fur as they do in a 24°C environment. In the 4°C environment the location of body contact for grooming changed compared to the 24°C environment. Scratching did not play a role according the lining up of the hairs during piloerection.