In this study the arterial vascular supply of the upper abdominal organs in the rat was investigated. In general the main anatomical features seem to be in accordance with the anatomy in man. However there are some important differences worth mentioning and the nomenclature used in the rat is not adequate in all respects: 1. The branch of the celiac artery which bifurcates into the hepatic artery proper and the gastroduodenal artery should not be given the incorrect name hepatic artery but is named common hepatic artery. 2. The hepato-esophageal artery is a constantly present branch of the hepatic artery proper running in the hepatogastric ligament. 3. The right gastric artery, present in about 40% of the specimens, is a branch of the gastroduodenal artery which runs towards the lesser curvature where it communicates freely with a left gastric artery branch. 4. The gastrosplenic artery is one of the branches of the splenic artery. It divides into a gastric and a splenic branch. The gastric branch is the only short gastric artery present in the rat. 5. A gastro-epiploic artery at the splenic side of the stomach is not present in the rat. The continuation of the splenic artery into the greater omentum has been referred to as the left epiploic artery. Anastomoses with epiploic branches of the gastro-epiploic artery are present in the greater omentum.