The Nordic Environmental Protection Convention (NEPC) has been in force over 20 years. At present, however, its future depends very much on the coming into force of the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention).It is the purpose of this article to analyze the consequences of the coming into force of the Espoo Convention to the applicability of the NEPC. Of importance is to understand how much overlap exists between these two conventions, and review which rules govern this overlap. Although some norms of the NEPC will be replaced by the Espoo Convention, the practical influence of the NEPC to the management of transboundary pollution problems may actually increase. Also, as some already concretized cases show, the Espoo Convention provides a much more efficient way of handling the potential environmental conflicts between states.