Discussions are underway for a new Nordic Sami convention. A number of human rights issues of both substance and form need to be considered in the course of preparations for such a treaty. On substantive issues, a new convention must not fall below existing minimum human rights standards under international law, including ILO Convention No. 169 and other indigenous and minority-specific rights in treaties, customary law and case-law. Access to procedural and other monitoring avenues at the national and international levels must also be guaranteed. Furthermore, it is suggested that the Sami should be a party/parties to an eventual convention because their participation is closely related to equal rights, dignity, identity and the justice to which indigenous peoples aspire.