Foreign Direct Liability Claims in Sweden: Learning from Arica Victims KB v. Boliden Mineral AB?

in Nordic Journal of International Law
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

On 12 September 2013 what may be the first foreign direct liability claim in Sweden was filed in the County Court of Skellefteå, a court action reflective of a growing wave of civil liability suits in European jurisdictions to hold transnational corporations accountable for human rights violations and environmental damages. This article examines the feasibility of foreign direct liability claims in Sweden, focusing on enabling conditions with regards to jurisdiction, collision rules and applicable law, substantial legal basis, procedural and practical circumstances, and the theories by which parent companies can be held liable for negligence in supervising acts of subsidiaries and contractors. It is demonstrated that foreign direct liability claims on environmental damage are indeed possible in Sweden, albeit with considerable constraints, primarily of a procedural and financial character. The conclusion provides some cautious remarks on the merits of the claim against Boliden and the reform options available to a Swedish government committed to improving the access to justice for victims of violations perpetuated by Swedish companies, their subsidiaries and contractors.

Foreign Direct Liability Claims in Sweden: Learning from Arica Victims KB v. Boliden Mineral AB?

in Nordic Journal of International Law

Sections

References

12

Andersonsupra note 2.

15

Josephsupra note 10.

21

Ennekingsupra note 2 p. 175.

26

J. Ebbesson‘Ansvar i Sverige för miljöskadlig verksamhet utomlands’Juridisk Tidskrift (2006–07) pp. 279–308.

27

Ennekingsupra note 2.

36

P. H. Lindblom‘The Growing Role of the Courts and the New Functions of Judicial Process – Fact or Flummery?’Scandinavian Studies in Law (2007) pp. 281–10. For example the Anti-Discrimination Act (2008:567) the first law to prohibit discrimination was passed only as an ECHR requirement.

44

Sandströmsupra note 42.

49

Sandströmsupra note 42.

50

Sjåfjellsupra note 23.

57

Wikholm and Hamzehsupra note 54. In contrast in Norway the Civil Disputes Act (act no. 90 of 17 June 2005) states (Section 4–3) that disputes in ‘international matters’ may only be brought before Norwegian courts when there is a “sufficiently strong connection to Norway”. According to some scholars this principle was applied in some cases even before the act was modified to its current form.

60

Bogdansupra note 55. It is common in Scandinavia to rely on analogies from existing legislation if no specific rules apply to a claim. See also Hellner supra note 28.

61

Wikholm and Hamzehsupra note 54 lists the following decisions by the Supreme Court: NJA 1981 p. 386 NJA 1988 p. 440 NJA 1998 p. 361 NJA 2004 p. 891.

63

In its decision NJA 1986p. 729 a Swedish citizen domiciled in England became co-defendant with two other Swedish defendants on the basis of a connection between the claims and a minor relation to Sweden. See Wikholm and Hamzeh supra note 54.

65

Bogdansupra note 58.

70

Bogdansupra note 58.

73

Bogdansupra note 55.

74

Ebbessonsupra note 26.

81

Hellnersupra note 75.

85

Mobergsupra note 48.

94

Government of Swedensupra note 90.

98

Ebbessonsupra note 26.

103

Hellner and Radetzkisupra note 77.

104

Lindblomsupra note 36.

105

Pålssonsupra note 62.

108

Amnesty International Swedensupra note 30.

109

Pålssonsupra note 62; furthermore according to RB 18:2–3 so-called ‘kvittning’ that each party covers own costs is applicable in a limited number of situations.

111

Pålssonsupra note 62.

113

Sjåfjellsupra note 23.

114

E. Strömbäck‘Personal Injury Compensation in Sweden Today’Scandinavian Law Journal (1999) pp. 431–452.

118

Lindblomsupra note 36.

124

Nordhsupra note 119.

125

Lindblomsupra note 123.

128

Lindblomsupra note 36.

129

Ebbessonsupra note 26 p. 309.

130

Saage-Masssupra note 71.

132

Swedish Ministry of Justicesupra note 126.

133

Andersonsupra note 89.

134

Ennekingsupra note 2.

136

Ennekingsupra note 2.

139

Government of Swedensupra note 126.

145

Ebbessonsupra note 26.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 23 23 9
Full Text Views 95 91 63
PDF Downloads 10 7 5
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0