According to the Greek life of Adam and Eve, before his expulsion from Paradise, Adam received permission to take four kinds of aromatic fragrances to use as earthly incense offerings. These four spices do not correspond with the ingredients of the biblical incense offering. The kinds of spices and the fact that they were taken from Paradise attests to the Christian nature of this tradition. The aromatic fragrances are the earthly remains of Paradise and a kind of substitute for the tree of life whose oil, which symbolized Christ, bestows eternal life and was promised to Adam only at the end of time—at the resurrection. The Christian nature of the fragrances in GLAE is also expressed in its role as a means for atonement and its theological meaning at Adam's funeral and death.