Romans 9-11 has attracted much scholarly attention, and the amount of secondary literature is nearly overwhelming. Yet, no serious scholarly-length article has emerged that wrestles with the textual issues of 11:31. Why? How might a full treatment of this variation unit impact the interpretation of the surrounding chapters? This article seeks to answer these questions by examining the social situation of Jewish-Christian relations and hostilities from the late first to the late second centuries CE. It reflects a trend in early Christian textual criticism away from questing after an “original” text to instead examining the social context of variation units.