This paper demonstrates that a number of striking similarities between the expansion of Gen 3:15 found in the Palestinian Targums and the drama of Revelation 12 indicates that both are derived from the same Jewish tradition that interprets Gen 3:15 messianically. The implications of such a study are threefold. First, the primary intertext for Revelation 12 should be understood as Gen 3:15. Second, such a relationship between the New Testament and the Targumic traditions indicates that the Palestinian Targums should not be neglected in New Testament studies, as has been the recent trend. Finally, the so-called protoevangelium is ultimately a Christian adaptation of a Jewish messianic interpretation of Gen 3:15.