Long-lost Brothers: On the Co-histories and Interactions Between the Comparative Science of Religion and the Anthropology of Religion

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Abstract

This article briefly surveys and compares the histories of research in the comparative science of religion (beginning with Friedrich Max Müller) and the anthropology of religion. The article notes the close interactions between these two fields and argues that the comparative science of religion drew significant inspiration from anthropology and sociology during the twentieth century until about the 1970s when anthropology came under heavy fire from critics. The postcolonial, feminist, and postmodern wave did not have a significant impact on the comparative science of religion until the 1990s. But already during the 1980s a new approach to religion, championed by Jonathan Z. Smith, contributed to a theoretical and critical analysis of religion that neither bought into postmodernism nor into the sui generis approach to religion. During the 1990s, another new approach began making an impact, namely, the cognitive science of religion, championed by E. Thomas Lawson, Robert N. McCauley (both scholars of religion), and Pascal Boyer (anthropologist). The article suggests in conclusion that the two disciplines can once again meet in the growing fields of experimental anthropology and experimental science of religion and in the need to explore and address how culture affects and rewires the brain. Furthermore, evolutionary theory is also beginning to serve as a common framework for thinking about religion.

Numen

International Review for the History of Religions

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9

His book in Swedish on methodology (1973) has been used in many university courses in the Nordic countries.

23

Thagaard 1996:10. See also his delightful book 2010. Note a few selected rcc publications: A. Geertz 2004b; A. Geertz 2010; Geertz and Jensen 2011; Jensen 2002; Jensen 2010; Martin and Sørensen 2011; and Sørensen 2007a. See also rcc confederate Ann Taves (1999, 2009).

25

See Hutchins 1995 and Lave and Wenger 1991.

26

See Clark 1997; Clark 2008; and Rowlands 2003.

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