Arresting Alternatives

Religious Prejudice and Bacchantic Worship in Greek Literature

in Numen
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

Ancient Greek descriptions of ecstatic and mystic rituals, here broadly labeled as Bacchantic worship, regularly include elements of moral corruption and dissolution of social unity. Suspicions were mostly directed against unofficial cult groups that exploited Dionysiac experiences in secluded settings. As the introduction of copious new cults attests, Greek religion was receptive to external influences. This basic openness, however, was not synonymous with tolerance, and pious respect for all deities did not automatically include their worshippers. This article reconsiders the current view of ancient religious intolerance by regarding these negative stereotypes as expressions of prejudice and by investigating the social dynamics behind them. Prejudices against private Bacchantic groups are regarded as part of the process of buttressing the religious authority of certain elite quarters in situations where they perceive that their position is being threatened by rival claims. It is suggested that both the accentuation and alleviation of prejudice is best understood in relation to the relative stability of the elite and the religious control it exerted.

Arresting Alternatives

Religious Prejudice and Bacchantic Worship in Greek Literature

in Numen

Sections

References

  • AllanWilliam. 2004. “Religious Syncretism: The New Gods of Greek Tragedy.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 102: 113155.

  • AltyJohn. 1982. “Dorians and Ionians.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 102: 114.

  • AngenendtArnold. 2007. Toleranz und Gewalt: Das Christentum zwischen Bibel und Schwert. Münster: Aschendorff.

  • ArmstrongKaren. 2014. Fields of Blood: Religion and the History of Violence. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

  • AssmannJan. 1997. Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • AssmannJan. 2008. Of God and Gods: Egypt Israel and the Rise of Monotheism. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

  • AssmannJan. 2010 [2003]. The Price of Monotheism. Robert Savage (trans.). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

  • AssmannJan. 2017. “Politics, Religion and Violence: The Maccabean Wars.” In C. Allen Speight and Michael Zank (eds.) Politics Religion and Political Theology (Boston Studies in Philosophy Religion and Public Life 6) Dordrecht: Springer151164. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1082-2_10.

  • AuffarthChristoph. 1995. “Aufnahme und Zurückweisung ‘Neuer Götter’ im spätklassischen Athen: Religion gegen die Krise, Religion in der Krise?” In Walter Eder (ed.) Die athenische Demokratie im 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Vollendung oder Verfall einer Verfassungsform? Akten eines Symposiums 3.–7. August 1992 BellagioStuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag337365.

  • AugoustinosMartha and Katherine Jane Reynolds. 2001a. “Prejudice, Racism, and Social Psychology.” In Martha Augoustinos and Katherine J. Reynolds (eds.) Understanding Prejudice Racism and Social ConflictLondon: Sage Publications123.

  • AugoustinosMartha and Katherine Jane Reynolds (eds.). 2001b. Understanding Prejudice Racism and Social Conflict. London: Sage Publications.

  • BeardMaryJohn North and Simon Price. 1998. Religions of Rome vol. 1: A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • BerchmanRobert M. 2008. “Greco-Roman Paganism: The Political Foundations of Tolerance in Greco-Roman Period.” In Jacob Neusner and Bruce Chilton (eds.) Religious Tolerance in World ReligionsWest Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press6098.

  • BernabéAlbertoMiguel Herrero de JáureguiAna Isabel Jiménez San Cristóbal and Raquel Martín Hernández (eds.). 2013. Redefining Dionysos (MythosEikonPoiesis 5). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  • BorgeaudPhilippe. 2010. “Introduction: The Religion of the Alien and the Limits of Toleration, Ancient Perspectives.” History of Religions 50(1): 16. DOI: 10.1086/651722.

  • BouvrieSynnøve des. 1998. “Euripides, Bakkhai and Maenadism.” In Lena Larsson Loven and Agneta Strömberg (eds.) Aspects of Women in Antiquity: Proceedings of the First Nordic Symposium on Women’s Lives in Antiquity Göteborg 12.–15.6.1997Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag5868.

  • BremmerJan N. 1984. “Greek Maenadism Reconsidered.” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 55: 267286.

  • BremmerJan N. 1995. “Religious Secrets and Secrecy in Classical Greece.” In Hans G. Kippenberg and Guy G. Stroumsa (eds.) Secrecy and Concealment (Studies in the History of Mediterranean and Near Eastern Religions 65) Leiden: Brill5978.

  • BremmerJan N. 1999. “The Birth of the Term ‘Magic.’ Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 126: 112.

  • BremmerJan N. 2011. “Religious Violence and its Roots: A View from Antiquity.” Asdiwal: Revue genevoise d’anthropologie et d’histoire des religions 6: 7179.

  • BremmerJan N. 2014. Initiation into the Mysteries of the Ancient World (Münchner Vorlesungen zu Antiken Welten 1). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  • BrownRupert. 2010. Prejudice: Its Social Psychology2nd ed. Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.

  • Bruit ZaidmanLouise and Pauline Schmitt Pantel. 1992 [1989]. Religion in the Greek City. Paul Cartledge (trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Burkert Walter. 1983. “Itinerant Diviners and Magicians: A Neglected Element in Cultural Contacts.” In Robin Hägg (ed.) The Greek Renaissance of the Eighth Century B.C.: Tradition and Innovation. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium at the Swedish Institute in Athens 1–5 June 1981 (Acta Instituti Atheniensis Regni Sueciae Series in 4° XXX) Stockholm: Paul Åströms Förlag 115–119.

  • BurkertWalter. 1993. “Bacchic Teletai in the Hellenistic Age.” In Thomas H. Carpenter and Christopher Faraone (eds.) Masks of DionysusIthaca, NY: Cornell University Press259275.

  • BurkertWalter. 2006 [1977]. “Orphism and Bacchic Mysteries: New Evidence and Old Problems of Interpretation.” In Kleine Schriften III: Mystica Orphica PythagoricaFritz Graf (ed.) (Hypomnemata Supplement-Reihe 2.3) Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht3746.

  • BurkertWalter. 2007 [1990]. “Herodot als Historiker fremder Religionen.” In Kleine Schriften VII: Tragica et HistoricaWolfgang Rösler (ed.) (Hypomnemata Supplement-Reihe 2.7) Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht140160.

  • CarpenterThomas H. and Christopher A. Faraone (eds.). 1993. Masks of Dionysus. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

  • Casadesús BordoyFrancesc. 2013. “Dionysian Enthusiasm in Plato.” In Alberto BernabéMiguel Herrero de JáureguiAna Isabel Jiménez San Cristóbal and Raquel Martín Hernández (eds.) Redefining Dionysos (MythosEikonPoiesis 5) Berlin: Walter de Gruyter386400.

  • CavanaughWilliam T. 2009. The Myth of Religious Violence: Secular Ideology and the Roots of Modern Conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • CerriGiovanni. 1983. “La Madre degli Dei nell’Elena di Euripide: tragedia e rituale.” Quaderni di storia 18: 155195.

  • ChaniotisAngelos. 2011. “Emotional Community through Ritual: Initiates, Citizens, and Pilgrims as Emotional Communities in the Greek World.” In Angelos Chaniotis (ed.) Ritual Dynamics in the Ancient Mediterranean: Agency Emotion Gender Representation (Heidelberger althistorische Beiträge und epigraphische Studien 49) Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag263290.

  • ClarkeSteve. 2014. The Justification of Religious Violence. Chichester: Wiley.

  • ClarkeSteveRussell Powell and Julian Savulescu (eds.). 2013. Religion Intolerance and Conflict: A Scientific and Conceptual Investigation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • ClintonKevin. 1992. Myth and Cult: The Iconography of the Eleusinian Mysteries. The Martin P. Nilsson Lectures on Greek Religion delivered 19–21 November 1990 at the Swedish Institute at Athens (Acta Instituti Atheniensis Regni Sueciae 8oXI). Stockholm: Paul Åströms Förlag.

  • ColeSusan Guettel. 1980. “New Evidence for the Mysteries of Dionysos.” Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies 21(3): 223238.

  • CollinsDerek. 2001. “Theoris of Lemnos and the Criminalization of Magic in Fourth-Century Athens.” Classical Quarterly 51(2): 477493.

  • CondorSusan and Lia Figgou. 2011. “Rethinking the Prejudice Problematic: A Collaborative Cognition Approach.” In John Dixon and Mark Levine (eds.) Beyond PrejudiceCambridge: Cambridge University Press 200−221.

  • DelnieriFrancesca. 2006. I culti misterici stranieri nei frammenti della commedia attica antica. Bologna: Pàtron Editore.

  • DickieMatthew W. 2001. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World. London: Routledge.

  • DilleryJohn. 2005. “Chresmologues and Manteis: Independent Diviners and the Problem of Authority.” In Sarah Iles Johnston and Peter T. Struck (eds.) Mantikê: Studies in Ancient DivinationLeiden: Brill167230.

  • DillonMatthew. 2001. Girls and Women in Classical Greek Religion. London: Routledge.

  • DixonJohn and Mark Levine. 2011. “Introduction.” In John Dixon and Mark Levine (eds.) Beyond PrejudiceCambridge: Cambridge University Press123.

  • DoverK. J. 1976. “The Freedom of the Intellectual in Greek Society.” Talanta 7: 2454.

  • DowdenKen. 1989. Death and the Maiden: Girls’ Initiation Rites in Greek Mythology. London: Routledge.

  • DrozdekAdam. 2007. Greek Philosophers as Theologians: The Divine Arche. Abingdon: Ashgate.

  • EdgarC. C. 1906. “Two Bronze Portraits from Egypt.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 26: 281283.

  • EdmondsRadcliffe G.III. 2008. “Extra-Ordinary People: Mystai and Magoi, Magicians and Orphics in the Derveni Papyrus.” Classical Philology 103(1): 1639. DOI: 10.1086/590092.

  • EdmondsRadcliffe G.III. 2009. “Who Are You? Mythic Narrative and Identity in the ‘Orphic’ Gold Tablets.” In Giovanni Casadio and Patricia A. Johnston (eds.) Mystic Cults in Magna GraeciaAustin: University of Texas Press7394.

  • EidinowEsther. 2010. “Patterns of Persecution: ‘Witchcraft’ Trials in Classical Athens.” Past and Present 208: 935. DOI: 10.1093/pastj/gtq001.

  • EidinowEsther. 2011. “Networks and Narratives: A Model for Ancient Greek Religion.” Kernos 24: 938. DOI: 10.4000/kernos.1925.

  • EidinowEsther. 2016. Envy Poison and Death: Women on Trial in Classical Athens. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • EidinowEsther. 2017. “In Search of the ‘Beggar-Priest.’ ” In Richard L. GordonGeorgia Petridou and Jörg Rüpke (eds.) Beyond Priesthood: Religious Entrepreneurs and Innovators in the Roman Empire (Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarbeiten 66) Berlin: De Gruyter255276. DOI: 10.1515/9783110448184-011.

  • EngelsDavid and Peter Van Nuffelen. 2014. “Religion and Competition in Antiquity: An Introduction.” In David Engels and Peter Van Nuffelen (eds.) Religion and Competition in AntiquityBrussels: Éditions Latomus944.

  • ErlewineRobert. 2010. Monotheism and Tolerance: Recovering a Religion of Reason. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

  • ErlewineRobert. 2013. “Reason and the Bounds of Religion: Assmann, Cohen, and the Possibilities of Monotheism.” In Randi Rashkover and Martin Kavka (eds.) Judaism Liberalism and Political TheologyBloomington: Indiana University Press269288.

  • FanthamElaine. 1975. “Sex, Status and Survival in Hellenistic Athens: A Study of Women in New Comedy.” Phoenix 29(1): 4474. DOI: 10.2307/1087583.

  • FlowerMichael Attyah. 2008. The Seer in Ancient Greece. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • FriesenCourtney J. P. 2015. Reading Dionysus: Euripides’ Bacchae and the Cultural Contestations of Greeks Jews Romans and Christians (Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum 95). Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

  • GarnseyPeter. 1984. “Religious Toleration in Classical Antiquity.” In W. J. Sheils (ed.) Persecution and Toleration: Papers Read at the Twenty-Second Summer Meeting and the Twenty-Third Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society (Studies in Church History 21) London: Blackwell127.

  • GehrkeHans-Joachim. 2011. “Plädoyer für Pentheus oder: Vom Nutzen und Nachteil der Religion für die griechische Polis.” In Renate Schlesier (ed.) A Different God? Dionysos and Ancient PolytheismBoston: De Gruyter357369.

  • GherchanocFlorence. 2012. “La beauté dévoilée de Phryné. De l’art d’exhiber ses seins.” Mètis 10: 201225.

  • GirardRené. 1977. “Dionysus and the Violent Genesis of the Sacred.” Sandor Goodhart (trans.). boundary 2 5(2): 487506. DOI: 10.2307/302207.

  • GoffBarbara E. 2004. Citizen Bacchae: Women’s Ritual Practice in Ancient Greece. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • GoldhagenDaniel Jonah. 1997 [1996]. Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York: Vintage Books.

  • GouldJohn. 1985. “On Making Sense of Greek Religion.” In P. E. Easterling and J. V. Muir (eds.) Greek Religion and SocietyCambridge: Cambridge University Press133.

  • GrafFritz. 1974. Eleusis und die orphische Dichtung Athens in vorhellenistischer Zeit (Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarbeiten 33). Berlin: De Gruyter.

  • GrafFritz. 1997. Magic in the Ancient World. Franklin Philips (trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • GrafFritz. 2013. “Dionysiac Mystery Cults and the Gold Tablets.” In Fritz Graf and Sarah Iles JohnstonRitual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets2nd ed.London: Routledge137164.

  • GrafFritz and Sarah Iles Johnston. 2013. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets2nd ed. London: Routledge.

  • GriffithsFrederick T. 1979. Theocritus at Court. Leiden: Brill.

  • HallEdith. 1989. Inventing the Barbarian: Greek Self-Definition through Tragedy. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  • HartogFrançois. 1988. The Mirror of Herodotus: The Representation of the Other in the Writing of History. Janet Lloyd (trans.). Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • HaslamNick and Stephen Loughnan. 2011. “Prejudice and Dehumanization.” In John Dixon and Mark Levine (eds.) Beyond PrejudiceCambridge: Cambridge University Press89104.

  • HazzardR. A. 2000. Imagination of a Monarchy: Studies in Ptolemaic Propaganda. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

  • HenrichsAlbert. 1969. “Die Maenaden von Milet.” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 4: 223241.

  • HenrichsAlbert. 1978. “Greek Maenadism from Olympias to Messalina.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 82: 121160.

  • HenrichsAlbert. 1982. “Changing Dionysiac Identities.” In Ben F. Meyer and E. P. Sanders (eds.) Jewish and Christian Self-Definition III: Self-Definition in the Greco-Roman WorldPhiladelphia: Fortress Press137160.

  • Herrero de JáureguiMiguel. 2015. “The Construction of Inner Religious Space in Wandering Religion of Classical Greece.” Numen 62(5–6): 596626. DOI: 10.1163/15685276-12341395.

  • HoffmanR. J. 1989. “Ritual License and the Cult of Dionysus.” Athenaeum 67: 91115.

  • HolzhausenJens. 2008. “Poetry and Mysteries: Euripides’ Bacchae and the Dionysiac Rites.” Electronic Antiquity 12(1): 4172. https://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/ElAnt/V12N1/holzhausen.pdf (accessed 6 November 2015).

  • HumphreysSally C. 2004. The Strangeness of Gods: Historical Perspectives on the Interpretation of Athenian Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • HunsbergerBruce and Lynne M. Jackson. 2005. “Religion, Meaning, and Prejudice.” Journal of Social Issues 61(4): 807826. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005.00433.x.

  • Jaccottet Anne-Françoise. 2005. “Du thiase aux mystères. Dionysos entre le ‘privé’ et ‘l’officiel.’ ” In Véronique Dasen and Marcel Piérart (eds.) Ἰδίᾳ καὶ δηµοσίᾳ. Les cadres “privés” et “publics” de la religion grecque antique. Actes du IXe colloque du Centre International d’Étude de la Religion Grecque Antique (CIERGA) tenu à Fribourg du 8 au 10 septembre 2003 (Kernos Supplément 15) Liège: Centre International d’Étude de la Religion Grecque Antique 191‒202.

  • JacksonLynne M. and Bruce Hunsberger. 1999. “An Intergroup Perspective on Religion and Prejudice.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 38(4): 509523. DOI: 10.2307/1387609.

  • JamesonMichael H. 1993. “The Asexuality of Dionysus.” In Thomas H. Carpenter and Christopher Faraone (eds.) Masks of DionysusIthaca, NY: Cornell University Press4464.

  • JamesonMichael H. 1997. “Women and Democracy in Fourth-Century Athens.” In Pierre Brulé and Jacques Oulhen (eds.) Esclavage guerre économie en Grèce ancienne: Hommages à Yvon GarlanRennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes95107. DOI: 10.4000/books.pur.20971.

  • JettenJolanda and Matthew J. Hornsey. 2014. “Deviance and Dissent in Groups.” Annual Review of Psychology 65: 461485. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115151.

  • JohnstonSarah Iles. 1999. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • JustRoger. 1989. Women in Athenian Law and Life. London: Routledge.

  • KavkaMartin. 2017. “The Discourse of the Enemy.” In C. Allen Speight and Michael Zank (eds.) Politics Religion and Political Theology (Boston Studies in Philosophy Religion and Public Life 6) Dordrecht: Springer165176. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1082-2_11.

  • KindtJulia. 2009. “Polis Religion — A Critical Appreciation.” Kernos 22: 934. DOI: 10.4000/kernos.1765.

  • KindtJulia. 2012. Rethinking Greek Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • KochKlaus. 2003. “Monotheismus als Sündenbock?” In Jan AssmannDie Mosaische Unterscheidung: Oder der Preis des MonotheismusMunich: Hanser221238.

  • KovacsDavid. 2016. “New Religion and Old in Euripides’ Bacchae.” In David Stuttard (ed.) Looking at Bacchae London: Bloomsbury97108.

  • KurkeLeslie. 1992. “The Politics of ἁβροσύνη in Archaic Greece.” Classical Antiquity 11(1): 91120. DOI: 10.2307/25010964.

  • KuschelKarl-Josef. 2003. “Moses, Monotheismus und die Kultur der Moderne. Zum Gespräch über Jan Assmanns Moses der Ägypter unter Rückgriff auf die Moses-Deutungen von Heinrich Heine und Thomas Mann.” In Jan AssmannDie Mosaische Unterscheidung: Oder der Preis des MonotheismusMunich: Hanser273286.

  • LateinerDonald. 1993. “The Perception of Deception and Gullibility in Specialists of the Supernatural (Primarily) in Athenian Literature.” In Ralph Mark Rosen and Joseph Farrell (eds.) Nomodeiktes: Greek Studies in Honor of Martin OstwaldAnn Arbor: University of Michigan Press179195.

  • LateinerDonald. 2017. “Insults and Humiliations in Fifth-Century Historiography and Comedy.” In Emily Baragwanath and Edith Foster (eds.) Clio and Thalia: Attic Comedy and Historiography (Histos Supplement 6) Newcastle upon Tyne: Histos3361.

  • LeCouteurAmanda and Martha Augoustinos. 2001. “The Language of Prejudice and Racism.” In Martha Augoustinos and Katherine J. Reynolds (eds.) Understanding Prejudice Racism and Social ConflictLondon: Sage Publications 215−230.

  • LefkowitzMary R. 1989. “ ‘Impiety’ and ‘Atheism’ in Euripides’ Dramas.” Classical Quarterly 39(1): 7082. DOI: 10.1017/S0009838800040489.

  • LeinieksValdis. 1996. The City of Dionysos: A Study of Euripides’ Bakchai (Beiträge zur Altertumskunde 88). Stuttgart: B. G. Teubner.

  • Le PersonGwenaëlle. 2009. “Soigner l’épilepsie (Hippocrate, Maladie sacrée). Existe-t-il une opposition entre la médicine ‘populaire’ des magoi et la médicine ‘rationnelle’ des Hippocratiques dans le traitement de la maladie?” In Lydie BodiouVéronique MehlJacques OulhenFrancis Prost and Jérôme Wilgaux (eds.) Chemin faisant. Mythes cultes et société en Grèce ancienne. Mélanges en l’honneur de Pierre BruléRennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes285295.

  • LevineDaniel. 1987. “Lysistrata and Bacchae: Structure, Genre, and ‘Women on Top.’ ” Helios 54: 2938.

  • LloydGeoffrey Ernest Richard. 1979. Magic Reason and Experience: Studies in the Origins and Development of Greek Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • LockeVance and Lucy Johnston. 2001. “Stereotyping and Prejudice: A Social Cognitive Approach.” In Martha Augoustinos and Katherine J. Reynolds (eds.) Understanding Prejudice Racism and Social ConflictLondon: Sage Publications 107−125.

  • LosehandJoachim. 2009. “‘The Religious Harmony in the Ancient World.’ Vom Mythos religiöser Toleranz in der Antike.” Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft 12: 99132. http://gfa.gbv.de/drgfa0122009a06.pdf (accessed 16 December 2015).

  • LyonsDeborah. 2007. “The Scandal of Women’s Ritual.” In Maryline Parca and Angeliki Tzanetou (eds.) Finding Persephone: Women’s Rituals in the Ancient MediterraneanBloomington: Indiana University Press2951.

  • MarshallC. W. and Stephanie van Willigenburg. 2004. “Judging Athenian Dramatic Competitions.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 124: 90107. DOI: 10.2307/3246152.

  • MartinLuther H. 2000. “Kingship and the Consolidation of Religio-Political Power during the Hellenistic Period.” Religio: Revue pro religionistiku 8(2): 151160.

  • Martín HernándezRaquel. 2013. “Herodotus’ Egyptian Dionysos. A Comparative Perspective.” In Alberto BernabéMiguel Herrero de JáureguiAna Isabel Jiménez San Cristóbal and Raquel Martín Hernández (eds.) Redefining Dionysos (MythosEikonPoiesis 5) Berlin: Walter de Gruyter250260.

  • MastronardeDonald. 2005. “The Gods.” In Justina Gregory (ed.) A Companion to Greek TragedyMalden, MA: Blackwell Publishing321332.

  • MikalsonJon D. 2006. “Greek Religion: Continuity and Change in the Hellenistic Period.” In Glenn R. Bugh (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic WorldCambridge: Cambridge University Press208222.

  • MillsSophie. 2016. “The Grandsons of Cadmus.” In David Stuttard (ed.) Looking at BacchaeLondon: Bloomsbury133146.

  • MontiglioSilvia. 2005. Wandering in Ancient Greek Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • NeusnerJacob and Bruce Chilton (eds.). 2008. Religious Tolerance in World Religions. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.

  • NilssonMartin P. 1957. “Royal Mysteries in Egypt.” The Harvard Theological Review 50(1): 6566. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0017816000028376.

  • NilssonMartin P. 1975. The Dionysiac Mysteries of the Hellenistic and Roman Age. New York: Arno Press.

  • NockArthur Darby. 1928. “Notes on Ruler-Cult, I–IV.” Journal of Hellenic Studies 48: 2143.

  • NorthJohn. 1979. “Religious Toleration in Republican Rome.” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 205: 85103. DOI: 10.1017/S0068673500004144.

  • ObbinkDirk. 1993. “Dionysus Poured Out: Ancient and Modern Theories of Sacrifice and Cultural Formation.” In Thomas H. Carpenter and Christopher Faraone (eds.) Masks of DionysusIthaca, NY: Cornell University Press6586.

  • OsborneCatherine. 1997. “Heraclitus and the Rites of Established Religion.” In Alan B. Lloyd (ed.) What is a God? Studies in the Nature of Greek DivinityLondon: Duckworth3542.

  • OsborneRobin. 1997. “The Ecstasy and the Tragedy: Varieties of Religious Experience in Art, Drama, and Society.” In Christopher Pelling (ed.) Greek Tragedy and the HistorianOxford: Clarendon Press187211.

  • O’SullivanL.-L. 1997. “Athenian Impiety Trials in the Late Fourth Century B.C.” Classical Quarterly 47(1): 136152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cq/47.1.136.

  • PakkanenPetra. 1996. Interpreting Early Hellenistic Religion: A Study Based on the Mystery Cult of Demeter and the Cult of Isis (Papers and Monographs of the Finnish Institute at Athens 3). Helsinki: Finnish Institute at Athens.

  • ParkerRobert. 1996. Athenian Religion: A History. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  • ParkerRobert. 1997. “Gods Cruel and Kind: Tragic and Civic Theology.” In Christopher Pelling (ed.) Greek Tragedy and the HistorianOxford: Clarendon Press143160.

  • ParkerRobert. 2011. On Greek Religion. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

  • ParkerRobert. 2017. Greek Gods Abroad: Names Natures and Transformations. Oakland: University of California Press.

  • PlatowMichael J. and John A. Hunter. 2001. “Realistic Intergroup Conflict: Prejudice, Power, and Protest.” In Martha Augoustinos and Katherine J. Reynolds (eds.) Understanding Prejudice Racism and Social ConflictLondon: Sage Publications 195−213.

  • Porres CaballeroSilvia. 2013. “Maenadic Ecstasy in Greece: Fact or Fiction?” In Alberto BernabéMiguel Herrero de JáureguiAna Isabel Jiménez San Cristóbal and Raquel Martín Hernández (eds.) Redefining Dionysos (MythosEikonPoiesis 5) Berlin: Walter de Gruyter159184.

  • PriceSimon. 1999. Religions of the Ancient Greeks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Rauhala Marika. 2012. “The Great Other of the Gods: The Greek Elite’s Image of the Cult of Kybele until the First Century CE.” Ph.D. dissertation University of Oulu.

  • RauhalaMarika. 2013. “Danger and Delusion: Ancient Literary Images of Religious Prejudices.” In Raimo HakolaNina Nikki and Ulla Tervahauta (eds.) Others and the Construction of Early Christian IdentitiesHelsinki: Finnish Exegetical Society283312.

  • ReicherStephen. 2011. “From Perception to Mobilization: The Shifting Paradigm of Prejudice.” In John Dixon and Mark Levine (eds.) Beyond PrejudiceCambridge: Cambridge University Press2747.

  • ReitzammerLauri. 2008. “Aristophanes’ Adôniazousai.” Classical Antiquity 27(2): 282333. DOI: 10.1525/ca.2008.27.2.282.

  • RendtorffRolf. 2003. “Ägypten und die ‘Mosaische Unterscheidung.’” In Jan AssmannDie Mosaische Unterscheidung: Oder der Preis des MonotheismusMunich: Hanser193207.

  • ReynoldsKatherine J. and John C. Turner. 2001. “Prejudice as a Group Process: The Role of Social Identity.” In Martha Augoustinos and Katherine J. Reynolds (eds.) Understanding Prejudice Racism and Social ConflictLondon: Sage Publications159178.

  • ReynoldsKatherine J.S. Alexander Haslam and John C. Turner. 2011. “Prejudice, Social Identity and Social Change: Resolving the Allportian Problem.” In John Dixon and Mark Levine (eds.) Beyond PrejudiceCambridge: Cambridge University Press4869.

  • ReynoldsKatherine J.Emina SubasicLuisa Batalha and Benjamin M. Jones. 2017. “From Prejudice to Social Change: A Social Identity Perspective.” In Chris G. Sibley and Fiona Kate Barlow (eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of the Psychology of PrejudiceCambridge: Cambridge University Press4764.

  • RobertLouis. 1975. “Une nouvelle inscription grecque de Sardes: Règlement de l’autorité perse relative à un culte de Zeus.” Comptes-rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 119(2): 306330.

  • RobertsonNoel D. 1998. “The Two Processions to Eleusis and the Program of the Mysteries.” American Journal of Philology 119(4): 547575.

  • RobertsonNoel D. 2003. “Orphic Mysteries and Dionysiac Rituals.” In Michael B. Cosmopoulos (ed.) Greek Mysteries: The Archaeology and Ritual of Ancient Greek Secret CultsLondon: Routledge218240.

  • RoismanHanna M. 2016. “Euripides’ Bacchae — A Revenge Play.” In David Stuttard (ed.) Looking at BacchaeLondon: Bloomsbury121131.

  • RubelAlexander. 2014 [2000]. Fear and Loathing in Ancient Athens: Religion and Politics during the Peloponnesian War. Michael Vicers and Alina Piftor (trans.). Durham: Acumen.

  • RudhardtJean. 1992. “De l’attitude des grecs à l’égard des religions étrangères.” Revue de l’histoire religions 209(3): 219238.

  • RüpkeJörg. 2016. “Creating Groups and Individuals in Textual Practices.” Religion in the Roman Empire 2(1): 39.

  • SchneiderDavid J. 2004. The Psychology of Stereotyping. New York: Guilford Press.

  • ScodelRuth. 2011. “Euripides, the Derveni Papyrus, and the Smoke of Many Writings.” In André LardinoisJosine Blok and Marc van der Poel (eds.) Sacred Words: Orality Literacy and ReligionLeiden: Brill7998.

  • SeafordRichard. 1981. “Dionysiac Drama and the Dionysiac Mysteries.” Classical Quarterly 31(2): 252275. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0009838800009575.

  • SeafordRichard. 1993. “Dionysus as Destroyer of the Household: Homer, Tragedy, and the Polis.” In Thomas H. Carpenter and Christopher Faraone (eds.) Masks of DionysusIthaca, NY: Cornell University Press115146.

  • SeafordRichard. 2005. “Tragedy and Dionysus.” In Rebecca Bushnell (ed.) Companion to TragedyMalden, MA: Blackwell Publishing2538.

  • SeafordRichard. 2016. “Mysteries and Politics in Bacchae.” In David Stuttard (ed.) Looking at BacchaeLondon: Bloomsbury8390.

  • SegalCharles. 1982. Dionysiac Poetics and Euripides’ Bacchae. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

  • Sfameni GasparroGiulia. 1985. Soteriology and Mystic Aspects in the Cult of Cybele and Attis. Leiden: Brill.

  • SibleyChris G. and Fiona Kate Barlow. 2017. “An Introduction to the Psychology of Prejudice.” In Chris G. Sibley and Fiona Kate Barlow (eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of the Psychology of PrejudiceCambridge: Cambridge University Press320.

  • SidaniusJimSarah CotterillJennifer Sheehy-SkeffingtonNour Kteily and Héctor Carvacho. 2017. “Social Dominance Theory: Explorations in the Psychology of Oppression.” In Chris G. Sibley and Fiona Kate Barlow (eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of the Psychology of PrejudiceCambridge: Cambridge University Press149187.

  • SlavetEliza. 2010. “A Matter of Distinction: On Recent Work by Jan Assmann.” AJS Review 34(2): 385393. DOI: 10.1017/S0364009410000656.

  • SommersteinAlan H. 2016. “Bacchae and Earlier Tragedy.” In David Stuttard (ed.) Looking at Bacchae London: Bloomsbury2941.

  • Sourvinou-InwoodChristiane. 1990. “What is Polis Religion?” In Oswyn Murray and Simon Price (eds.) The Greek City from Homer to AlexanderOxford: Clarendon Press295322.

  • Sourvinou-InwoodChristiane. 1997. “Tragedy and Religion: Constructs and Readings.” In Christopher Pelling (ed.) Greek Tragedy and the HistorianOxford: Clarendon Press161186.

  • Sourvinou-InwoodChristiane. 2005. Hylas the Nymphs Dionysos and Others: Myth Ritual Ethnicity. Martin P. Nilsson Lecture on Greek Religion Delivered 1997 at the Swedish Institute at Athens (Acta Instituti Atheniensis Regni Sueciae 8oXIX). Stockholm: Paul Åströms Förlag.

  • Steinmetz-JenkinsDaniel. 2011. “Jan Assmann and the Theologization of the Political.” Political Theology 12(4): 511530. DOI: 10.1558/poth.v12i4.511.

  • StoreyIan C. 2003. Eupolis: Poet of Old Comedy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • StrattonKimberly B. 2007. Naming the Witch: Magic Ideology and Stereotype in the Ancient World. New York: Columbia University Press.

  • StuttardDavid. 2016. “Introduction — Bacchae in Context.” In David Stuttard (ed.) Looking at BacchaeLondon: Bloomsbury110.

  • TerryDeborah J.Michael A. Hogg and Leda Blackwood. 2001. “Prejudiced Attitudes, Group Norms, and Discriminatory Behaviour.” In Martha Augoustinos and Katherine J. Reynolds (eds.) Understanding Prejudice Racism and Social ConflictLondon: Sage Publications 140−156.

  • TondriauJ. 1946. “Les Thiases dionysiaques royaux de la cour ptolémaïque.” Chronique d’Egypte 41: 149171. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1484/J.CDE.2.307493.

  • TopperKathryn R. 2015. “Dionysos Comes to Thrace: The Metaphor of Corrupted Sacrifice and the Introduction of Dionysian Cult in Images of Lykourgos’s Madness.” Arethusa 48(2): 139171. DOI: 10.1353/are.2015.0009.

  • Tortorelli GhidiniMarisa. 2013. “Dionysos versus Orpheus?” In Alberto BernabéMiguel Herrero de JáureguiAna Isabel Jiménez San Cristóbal and Raquel Martín Hernández (eds.) Redefining Dionysos (MythosEikonPoiesis 5) Berlin: Walter de Gruyter144158.

  • TugendhaftAaron. 2012. “Images and the Political: On Jan Assmann’s Concept of Idolatry.” Method and Theory in the Study of Religion 24(3): 301306. DOI: 10.1163/157006812X635718.

  • Valdés GuíaMiriam. 2013. “Redefining Dionysos in Athens from the Written Sources: The Lenaia, Iacchos and Attic Women.” In Alberto BernabéMiguel Herrero de JáureguiAna Isabel Jiménez San Cristóbal and Raquel Martín Hernández (eds.) Redefining Dionysos (MythosEikonPoiesis 5) Berlin: Walter de Gruyter100119.

  • Van WeesHans and Nick Fisher. 2015. “The Trouble with ‘Aristocracy.’ ” In Hans van Wees and Nick Fisher (eds.) ‘Aristocracy’ in Antiquity: Redefining Greek and Roman ElitesSwansea: The Classical Press of Wales157.

  • VerdegemSimon. 2010. Plutarch’s Life of Alcibiades: Story Text and Moralism. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

  • VersnelHenk S. 1990. Ter Unus. Isis Dionysos Hermes: Three Studies in Henotheism. Inconsistencies in Greek Religion 1 (Studies in Greek and Roman Religion 6.1). Leiden: Brill.

  • VersnelHenk S. 2011. “Heis Dionysos! — One Dionysos? A Polytheistic Perspective.” In Renate Schlesier (ed.) A Different God? Dionysos and Ancient PolytheismBoston: De Gruyter2346.

  • VlassopoulosKostas. 2015. “Religion in Communities.” In Esther Eidinow and Julia Kindt (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek ReligionOxford: Oxford University Press257271.

  • WallaceRobert W. 2007. “Plato’s Sophists, Intellectual History after 450, and Sokrates”. In Loren J. Samons II (ed.) Cambridge Companion to the Age of PericlesCambridge: Cambridge University Press215237.

  • WeilHenri. 1895. “Un péan delphique à Dionysos.” Bulletin de correspondance hellénique 19(1): 393418.

  • WildbergChristian. 2011. “Dionysos in the Mirror of Philosophy: Heraclitus, Plato, and Plotinus.” In Renate Schlesier (ed.) A Different God? Dionysos and Ancient PolytheismBoston: De Gruyter205232.

  • WinklerJohn J. 1990. The Constraints of Desire: The Anthropology of Sex and Gender in Ancient GreeceNew York: Routledge.

  • YunisHarvey. 1988. A New Creed: Fundamental Religious Beliefs in the Athenian Polis and Euripidean Drama (Hypomnemata: Untersuchungen zur Antike und zu ihrem Nachleben 91). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

  • ZeitlinFroma I. 1982. “Cultic Models of the Female: Rites of Dionysos and Demeter.” Arethusa 15(1): 129157.

  • ZeitlinFroma I. 1990. “Thebes: Theater of Self and Society in Athenian Drama.” In John J. Winkler and Froma I. Zeitlin (eds.) Nothing to Do with Dionysos? Athenian Drama in Its Social ContextPrinceton, NJ: Princeton University Press130167.

  • ZengerErich. 2003. “Was ist der Preis des Monotheismus?” In Jan AssmannDie Mosaische Unterscheidung: Oder der Preis des MonotheismusMunich: Hanser209220.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1226 1226 218
Full Text Views 2092 2092 11
PDF Downloads 38 38 6
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0