Metrics of Justice

A Sundial’s Nomological Figuration

in Nuncius
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This paper examines a polyhedral dial from the British Museum made by the instrument maker Ulrich Schniep, and discusses the status of multifunctional scientific instruments. It discerns a multifaceted iconic meaning considering different dimensions such as scientific functionality (astronomy), the complex allegorical figure of Justice (iconography), and the representation of the sovereign (politics), the court and the Kunstkammer of Albrecht V of Bavaria. As a numen mixtum the figure of “Justicia” touches different fields that go far beyond pure astronomical measurement and represents the power of the ruler as well as the rules of economic justice.

Metrics of Justice

A Sundial’s Nomological Figuration

in Nuncius

Sections

References

5

BairdThing Knowledge p. 68 (cit. note 1).

8

David SummersReal Spaces: World Art History and the Rise of Western Modernism (London: Phaidon Press2003) p. 65.

9

See for example Carolin Behrmann“The Authority of Juridical Objects,” in The Challenge of the ObjectCIHA congress proceedings edited by Ulrich Grossmann and Petra Krutisch Vol. 1 (Nürnberg: Anzeiger des Germanischen Nationalmuseums 2013) pp. 37–41.

10

See for example Avner Ben-ZakenCross-Cultural Scientific Exchanges in the Eastern Mediterranean 1560–1660 (Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press2010) pp. 8–46.

11

Gustavo PereiraElements of a Critical Theory of Justice (New York: Palgrave Macmillan2013) p. 84.

13

Anthony John TurnerOf Time and Measurement. Studies in the History of Horology and Fine Technology (Aldershot: Ashgate1993) pp. 314–315.

20

On Schniep see Alfred RohdeDie Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Instrumente vom Beginn der Renaissance bis zum Ausgang des 18. Jahrhunderts (Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann1923) pp. 14–17; Otto Hartig “Die Globen der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek und ihre Münchner Meister” Kultur des Handwerks. Amtliche Zeitschrift der Ausstellung München 1927 “Das Bayerische Handwerk” 1927 8:242–248; Ernst Zinner Deutsche und Niederländische astronomische Instrumente des 11. bis 18. Jahrhunderts (2nd ed. Munich: C.H. Beck 1967) pp. 522–527 and p. 686.

42

Jost AmmanKunstbüchlin. Darinnen neben Fürbildung vieler Geistlicher unnd Weltlicher Hohes und Niderstands Personen (…) begriffen (Frankfurt: Johann Feyerabend1599). Fourth edition first edited by Sigmund Feyerabend in 1578.

44

William S. Heckscher“Melencholia (1541). An Essay in the Rhetoric of Description by Joachim Camerarius,” Joachim Camerarius (1500–1574)edited by Frank Baron (Munich: Fink Verlag 1978) pp. 31–120.

45

Ibid. p. 88.

49

Ibid. p. 88.

52

Aby M. Warburg“Sandro Botticelli’s Birth of Venus and Spring,” in Aby Warburg. The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity (Los Angeles: Getty Publications 1999) p. 117.

54

See Liana de Girolami Cheney“Giorgio Vasari’s Astraea: A symbol of Justice,” Visual Resources2003 19:283–305.

58

Frances A. Yates“Astraea. The Imperial Theme in the Sixteenth Century (1975),” in Selected Works of Frances YatesVol. V (London: Routledge 1999) pp. 52ff.

62

Vosters counts 40 editions before 1593. See Simon A. Vosters Antonio de Guevara y Europa (Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad Salamanca 2008) p. 21.

64

Charles Dempsey“The Classical Perception of Nature in Poussin’s Earlier Works,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes1966 29:219–249 here p. 235.

65

Erwin PanofskyA Mythological Painting by Poussin in the Nationalmuseum Stockholm (Stockholm: Nationalmusei skriftserie1960) pp. 36–38. According to the concept of numen mixtum the spiritual essence of both gods closely resemble each other and are sometimes indistinguishable. See also the article by Claudia Blümle “Der allgegenwärtige Blick des Richters: juridische Evidenz bei Albrecht Dürer und Lucas Cranach d. Ä.” in Movens Bild. Zwischen Evidenz und Affekt edited by Gottfried Boehm Birgit Mersmann Christian Spies (München: Fink 2008) pp. 409–430.

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Figure 1

    Ulrich Schniep, Polyhedral Dial, 1567, Munich, gilt brass; 2.5×2.5×10.5cm, British Museum, London, Inv.: MLA 1890, 12–16.1

  • View in gallery
    Figure 2

    Ulrich Schniep, Polyhedral Dial, face showing Justicia, 1567, Munich, gilt brass; 2.5×2.5×10.5cm, British Museum, London, Inv.: MLA 1890, 12–16.1

  • View in gallery
    Figure 3

    Hans Mielich, Duke Albrecht V and Duchess Anna of Bavaria playing chess. From Kleinodienbuch der Herzogin Anna von Bayern (Munich: 1552–1555), 1v, ca. 25.3 4×27.36cm, BSB München, Cod.icon. 429.

  • View in gallery
    Figure 4

    Hans Mielich, Duchess Anna of Bavaria (1528–1590), oil on panel, 1556, 212×115.5cm, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Inv.: GG_3847

  • View in gallery
    Figure 5

    Hans Mielich, Duke Albrecht V, in Cipriano de Rore, Motetten (Munich: 1559), BSB München, Mus.ms. B I, p. 3

  • View in gallery
    Figure 6

    Hans Mielich, Duchess Anna, in Cipriano de Rore, Motetten (Munich: 1559), BSB München, Mus.ms. B I, p. 4

  • View in gallery
    Figure 7

    Sebastian Loscher, Allegory of Profane and Divine Justice, boxwood, 19.1×14.2cm, 1536, Augsburg, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Skulpturensammlung, Inv.: M 83

  • View in gallery
    Figure 8

    Martin Schaffner, Allegory of Justice/Geometry, painted tabletop for Erasmus Stedelin, 111533, limewood, 109×118cm, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Kassel, Gemäldegalerie, Inv. Nr. GK 27

  • View in gallery
    Figure 9

    Albrecht Dürer, Melancolia I, 1514, engraving, 24.1cm × 19.2cm, London, British Museum, Prints and Drawings, Inv.: PD 1912-12-20-2 (B.74)

  • View in gallery
    Figure 10

    Petrus Apianus, frontispice, Instrument Buch durch Petrum Apianum erst von new beschriben (…) (Ingolstadt: 1533), UB Graz, SOSA, Rara 1, II 8501

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    Figure 11

    Petrus Apianus, Instrument Buch durch Petrum Apianum erst von new beschriben (…) (Ingolstadt: 1533), UB Graz, SOSA, Rara 1, II 8501

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    Figure 12

    Virgil Solis, Justicia, from a series of eight personifications of virtues in a landscape, engraving, 67×85cm, SMPK, Berlin

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    Figure 13

    Sebastian Brenner, Das Gross Planeten Buch samt der Geomanci Physiognomi und Chiromancy (…) (Strassbourg: 1554), UB Graz, SOSA, Rara 1, I 18636

  • View in gallery
    Figure 14

    Jost Amman, Allegory of Commerce, 1585, woodcut on six blocks, 87.8×60.3cm, printed by Johann Schultes in Augsburg, published by Wilhelm Peter Zimmermann, GNM, Nürnberg

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