The views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the United Nations. 1. Manganese ore, mineral sands, raw sugar, scrap, soya beans, pig iron, gypsum, coke, salt, timber, sulfur, cement, iron pyrites, steel, nonferrous ores, fertilizers.
2. See United Nations, Conference on Trade and Development, Secretariat, FreightMarketsandtheLevelandStructureof FreightRates (E.69.1I.D.13), 1969, pp. 71-76. 3. Ibid., TheEffectivenessofShipperOrganizations (TD/B/C.4/ 154), November 1976.
4. For a full discussion of the factors involved in switching from liner to bulk shipping, see ibid., TheProtectionofShipperInterests:BulkingofCargoes (TB/B/C.4/127, suppl. 4).