1. The summary presented in this section is based on the first full draft of the Manual, which may require revision in the light of any comments and suggestions made by United Nations organizations and outside experts to whom the draft was circulated. 2. Several thematic papers dealing with coastal management were submitted to the United Nations Water Conference, e.g., "The coastal zone: a challenge to environmental engineering" (Canada) (E/CONF.70/TP 154); "Coastal zone management" (United States of America) (E/CONF.70/TP. 190); and "Environmental study of the Tejo Estuary" (Portugal) (E/CONF.70/TP.211). The Institute of Biology of the Federal University of Bahia (Salvador, Brazil) held an International Symposium on Coastal problems: Planning, Pollution and Productivi- ty, in December 1976. The International Federation of Landscape Architects, at its fifteenth Congress, held at Istanbul from 6 to 9 September 1976, discussed the role of the landscape architect in coastal development. The Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP) has recently established a working group on the pollution implications of sea-bed exploitation and coastal development. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature is launching a marine programme which deals with coast conservation.
3. Social factors, levels of technology and political organization are, of course, important determinants of the level and type of coastal development. A number of continuing programmes within the United Nations system-unified approach to social and economic planning, rural development and ecodevelopment (UNEP) are treating these issues. 4. The International Working Group on Project 5 of the UNESCO Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB), meeting in Paris from 13 to 17 May 1974, in its final report recognized the need for a "compilation and review of the existing socio-economic literature on coastal zones," which it felt to be "essential for the formulation of guidelines." (See UNESCO, MAB Report Series No. 21, 1974, p. 77.)
5. Also referred to as "regional science" or "regional economics." 6. The process of monitoring, protecting and conserving environmental values (e.g., air and water quality and aesthetics) by suitable political, legal and economic mechanisms.
7. "Wetland" is a commonly used expression, although it is not a standard scientific term. It applies to all intertidal coastal lands subject to periodic (diurnal to annual) marine inundation and largely overgrown by halophytic vegetation. 8. E. Robes Piquer, "The threat of fast development on the coastal areas in developing countries" (paper presented to the fifteenth Congress of the International Federation of Landscape Architects, held at Istanbul in September 1976).
9. See UNESCO, MAP Report Series No. 21, p. 77. 10. UNEP exploratory mission to study marine pollution problems of the West African coastal countries of the Gulf of Guinea (25 April-2 July 1976).
12. Sometimes known as the lands department, cadastral survey or geographical institute. 13. In some countries, this service may be divided into botany and zoology; it may also be called an ecological service.
14. Mexico's Comision de Estudios del Territorio Nacional (National Land Survey Commission) is building up a system of this type.
15. The subject of legislation for coastal management, although mentioned in the Manual, will be treated at length in a separate volume that is under preparation. The first part, which will contain a survey of existing national legislation pertaining to coastal activities, will seek to determine the coverage of national laws and to identify common characteristics and gaps in legislation. The second part of the volume will provide basic rules and guidelines for carrying out a number of specific activities. 16. E/CONF.70/10, p. 42. 17.TheOECDObseruer, no. 83 (September/October 1976).
19. United Nations publication, Sales No. E.77.ILA.2.
20. Adopted by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization at its Second General Conference, held at Lima from 12 to 26 March 1974 (A/10112, chap. IV). 21. The General Assembly, on 15 December 1975, adopted resolution 3507 (XXX) in which it reaffirmed "the importance of wider dissemination of scientific and technological information, ... and the need to enable developing countries to select technologies which meet their requirements." The Secretary-General was requested to "establish an interagency task force ... with a view to the preparation of a plan for the establishment of a network for the exchange of technological information." Similarly, in para. 1 of resolution 1902 (LVII) the Economic and Social Council requested the Secretary-General "to undertake ... a feasibility study on the progressive establishment of an international information exchange system for the transfer and assessment of technology."
22. Some of the competencies in marine and coastal technology are fairly clearly established and in this regard mention might be made, interalia, of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat in non-living resources; FAO in fisheries, other living resources and fish processing; UNCTAD in shipping and port and harbour development, including dredging; UNESCO in marine science; UNIDO in industries located in coastal areas and industrial pollution; UNEP in marine and coastal pollution; IMCO in shipping safety and navigation; WMO in marine meteorology; WHO in sanitary engineering, environmental health and water quality; IAEA in the disposal of radio-active wastes; and ITU in marine and coastal telecom- munications.