1. See Sarwar O. H. Hobohm, "Economy [Indonesia]," in TheFarEastandAus-tralasia1993, 24th edition (London: Europa Publications, 1993), pp. 342-50. 2. See, for example, Gerald M. Meier, LeadingIssuesinEconomicDevelopment, 5th ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).
3. Gerald M. Geier, Emerging fromPoverty:TheEconomicsThatReallyMatters (Ox- ford: Oxford University Press, 1984), p. 213. 4. Amartya Sen, PovertyandFamines:AnEssayonEntitlementandDeprivation (Ox- ford: Clarendon Press, 1981), p. 4. An individual's exchange entitlement mapping is the various exchange relationships in which an individual may participate. Exchange relationships vary depending on the entitlements possessed by individuals. Trade- based, production-based, own-labor, and inheritance and transer entitlements are four common entitlement relations presented by Sen.
5. See Iman Sardjono, "Trawlers Banned in Indonesia," Naga:TheICLARMQuarterly 3 (October 1980): 3. 6. There was an attempt to reduce trawler fishing by way of licensing, but it was unsuccessful. Illegal trawlers continued to fish in Indonesian waters (ibid.). 7. It is interesting to note that the Economist reports, "The relatively slow fulfil- ment of the sea fishery industry's potential reflects in part the government's prohibition of trawlers in order to protect fishermen and also to conserve fishery resources" (Economist Intelligence Unit, Indonesia:CountryReport1992-1993 [London: Econo- mist Intelligence Unit, 1993], p. 12). The ban does not maximize economic output in
a strict financial sense, but development planning must not exist in a vacuum. It is imperative that social costs be factored into development programs. The Economist fails to consider the social benefits gained from the ban in its analysis. 8. This statement does not seek to underestimate the importance of the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) III for Indonesia. The combi- nation of being declared an archipelagic state and the creation of the 200-nm EEZ has been vital for enabling Indonesia and the Philippines to maintain the tropical tuna fisheries of the western Pacific and the adjacent Southeast Asian waters. See A. D. Lewis and J. Hampton, "Tuna Research and Monitoring in the South Pacific," Naga:TheICLARMQ arterly 15 (January 1992): 4-7. 9. Shao-Wen Ling, AquacultureinSoutheastAsia:AHistoricalOverview (Seattle: Washington Sea Grant Publications, 1977), p. 44. 10. Barry A. Costa-Pierce and Otto Soemarwoto, "Proliferation of Asian Reser- voirs: The Need for Integrated Management," Naga:TheICLARMQuarterly 10 (Janu- ary 1987): 12.
11. In 1988 mariculture represented less than 10% of Indonesia's cultured fish produce. See Taufik Ahmad and Prama Sunyro, "Status and Prospect of Marine Aquaculture in Indonesia," IndonesiaAgricultureResearchandDevelopmentjournal 12, no. 3 (1990): 47. . 12. Barry A. Costa-Pierce, "Small Water Bodies for Sustainable Fisheries Produc- tion," Naga:TheICLARMQuarterly 14 (January 1991): 3. 13. Ibid.
14. Otto Soemarwoto, introduction to ReservoirFisheriesandAquacultureDevelop-mentforResettlementinIndonesia, ed. Barry A. Costa-Pierce and Otto Soemarwoto (Manila: ICLARM, 1990), p. 3. 15. Otto Soemarwoto, Cecep M. Roem, Titin Herawati, and Barry A. Costa- Pierce, "Water Quality Suitability of Saguling and Cirata Reservoirs for Development of Floating Net Cage Aquaculture," in ReseruoirFisheriesandAquacultureDevelopmentforResettlementinIndonesia, ed. Barry A. Costa-Pierce and Otto Soemarwoto (Manila: ICLARM, 1990), p. 19. 16. Sutandar Zainal, Barry A. Costa-Pierce, Iskandar Rusydi, and Herri Hadiku- sumah, "Aquaculture Resettlement Option in the Saguling Reservoir, Indonesia: Its Contribution to an Environmentally Oriented Hydropower Project," in TheSecondAsianFisheriesForum, proceedings of the Second Asian Fisheries Forum, Tokyo, Japan, 17-22 April 1989, ed. Reojiro Hirano and Isao Hanyu (Manila: Asian Fisheries Soci- ety, 1990), p. 253.
17. Soemarwoto et al. (n. 15 above), p. 28. 18. See Maskana S. Astuty, B. Sudiarto, and Otto Soemarwoto, "Integrated Sys- tem for Environmental Management in the Saguling Cirata Reservoir Region," in ReservoirFisheriesandAquacultureDevelopmentforResettlementinIndonesia, ed. Barry A. Costa-Pierce and Otto Soemarwoto (Manila: ICLARM, 1990), pp. 370-78. 19. Hobohm (n. 1 above), pp. 344-45. 20. Ling pointed out the natural occurrence of fish in Asian rice fields. He also pointed out that catfish farming proved extremely successful in the southern United States (Ling [n. 9 above], p. 38).
21. Clive Lightfoot, Pierre A. Roger, Arsenia G. Cagaunan, and Catalino R. Dela Cruz, "A Fish Crop May Improve Rice Yields and Ricefields," Naga:ICLARMQuarterly 13 (October 1990): 12-13. 22. Wolfgang Hannig, "Innovation and Tenant Survival: Brackishwater Pond Culture in Indonesia," Naga:TheICLARMQuarterly 11 (April 1988): 5-6. 23. See Michael C. Cremer and Bryan Duncan, BrackishwaterAquacultureDevelop-mentinNorthernSumatrcc,Indonesia (Auburn, Alabama: International Center for Aqua- culture, 1979), p. 3. See also Ling (n. 9 above), pp. 90-93.
24. Cremer and Duncan (n. 23 above). 25. Hannig (n. 22 above), p. 5. 26. Ibid., p. 6. 27. Jahara Yahaya, "An Economic Analysis of Brackishwater Shrimp Pond Cul- ture, Johore, Peninsular Malaysia," in TheSecondAsianFisheriesForum, ed. Reojiro Hirano and Isao Hanyu (Manila: Asian Fisheries Society, 1990), pp. 233-36.
28. Roger S. V. Pullin, "Third-World Aquaculture and the Environment," Naga:The ICLARM Quarterly 12 (January 1989): 11. 29. See Ahmad and Sunyro (n. 11 above), p. 47. 30. K. Meecham, "Extension Services Support to Small-Scale Fisheries, Indone- sia," ICLARMNewsletter (April 1983): 5.
31. World Bank, AStudyofInternationalFisheriesResearch (Washington, D.C.: World Bank Publications, 1992), p. 26. 32. See Sena S. De Silva, "Recommendations," in ReservoirFisheriesofAsia, pro- ceedings of the Second Asian Fisheries Workshop, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China, 15-19 October 1990, ed. Sena S. De Silva (Ottawa: International Development Research Centre of Canada, 1992), p. xv. 33. Ling (n. 9 above), p. 4. 34. Costa-Pierce, "Small Water Bodies" (n. 12 above), p. 5. 35. See ReservoirFisheryManagementandDevelopmentinAsia, proceedings of a
workshop in Kathmandu, Nepal, 23-28 November 1987, ed. Sena S. De Silva (Ottawa: International Development Research Centre of Canada, 1988). 36. De Silva (n. 32 above), p. xvi. 37. See "The Asian Fisheries Society," ICLARMNewsletter 7 ( July 1984): 14-15. 38. Brian A. Lockwood, "The ICLARM Fisheries Social Science Research Net- work," ICLARMNewsletter 6 (April 1983): 3-4.