Issues and Prospects

New Trends in Marine Regionalism

in Ocean Yearbook Online
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Issues and Prospects

New Trends in Marine Regionalism

in Ocean Yearbook Online

References

1. Lewis Alexander, "Regionalism at Sea: Concept and Reality," in Regionalization of the Law of the Sea, proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference of the Law of the Sea Institute, ed. Douglas M. Johnston (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing, 1978), p. 5. 2. Ibid., p. 4. 3. Edward Miles, Stephen Gibbs, David Fluharty, Christine Dawson, and David Teeter, The Management of Marine Regions: The North Pacific (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982), p. 3.

4. Probably the earliest of the modern marine regional efforts was the 1902 formation of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), which has the responsibility of monitoring the abundance of fish stocks in the Baltic Sea and the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. 5. Aldo E. Chircop, "Participation in Marine Regionalism: An Appraisal in a Mediterranean Context," Ocean Yearbook 8, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese, Norton Gins- burg, and Joseph R. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), pp. 402-16. 6. S. M. Garcia, "Ocean Fisheries Management: The FAO Programme," in Ocean Management in Global Change, ed. Paolo Fabbri (London: Elsevier Applied Science, 1992), pp. 381-419. 7. Henk Postuma, "Marine Scientific Research Projects Undertaken by or under the Auspices of International Organizations," in Implementation of the Law of the Sea Convention through International Institution, proceedings of the 23d Annual Conference of the Law of the Sea Institute, ed. A. H. A. Soons (Honolulu: Law of the Sea Institute, 1989), pp. 509-17.

8. For a discussion of semienclosed seas, see Lewis Alexander, "Semi-enclosed Seas of the World," study prepared for the Office of the Geographer, INR/GE, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., 1973. 9. R. Tucker Scully, "Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Living Ma- rine Resources," in Large Marine Ecosystems: Stress, Mitigation, and Sustainability, ed. Kenneth Sherman, Lewis Alexander, and Barry Gold (Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1993), pp. 242-52. 10. A legal archipelago (an "archipelagic state") is described in Part IV of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UN document A/Conf. 62/ 122 [1982]) as "a State constituted wholly by one or more archipelagos" with an archipelago, in turn, described as a "group of islands, including parts of islands, interconnecting waters and other natural features which are ... closely interrelated." The specific geographic conditions for designating an archipelagic state are listed in Article 47 of the convention. 11. For a map of the area covered by the SPFFA agreement, see David Doulman and Peter Terawasi, "The South Pacific Regional Register of Foreign Fishing Vessels," " Marine Policy 14 (July 1990): 324-33.

12. Barbara Kwiatkowska, "The Role of Regional Organizations in Development Cooperation in Marine Affairs," in Implementation of the Law of the Sea Convention through International Institutions, proceedings of the 23d Annual Conference of the Law of the Sea Institute, ed. A. H. A. Soons (Honolulu: Law of the Sea Institute, 1989), pp. 38-139. 13. C. O. Okidi, "Protection of the Marine Environment through Regional Ar- rangements," in Implementation of the Law of the Sea Convention through International Institutions, proceedings of the 23d Annual Conference of the Law of the Sea Institute, ed. A. H. A. Soons (Honolulu: Law of the Sea Institute, 1989), pp. 474-93. 14. Robin R. Churchill, "EEC Fisheries Regime," in Implementation of the Law of the Sea Convention through International Institutions, proceedings of the 23d Annual Conference of the Law of the Sea Institute, ed. A. H. A. Soons (Honolulu: Law of the Sea Institute, 1989), pp. 344-63. See also Robin R. Churchill, "Fisheries in the European Community: Sustainable Development or Sustained Mismanagement?" in The Marine Environmenl and Sustainable Development: Lazu, Policy, and Science, proceed- ings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Law of the Sea Institute, ed. Alastair Couper and Edgar Gold (Honolulu: Law of the Sea Institute, 1993), pp. 140-78. 15. Scully (n. 9 above). 16. Judith Swan, "Highly Migratory Species: The South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency," in Implementation of the Law of the Sea Convention through International Institu- tions, proceedings of the 23d Annual Conference of the Law of the Sea Institute, ed. A. H. A. Soons (Honolulu: Law of the Sea Institute, 1989), pp. 318-34. 17. Kwiatkowska (n. 12 above).

18. Colin Keating, "The Nuclear Free Zone in the South Pacific," in The Law of the Sea: What Lies Ahead? proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Law of the Sea Institute, ed. Thomas A. Clingan, Jr. (Honolulu: Law of the Sea Institute, 1988), pp. 150-57. 19. Churchill, "'EEC Fisheries Regime" (n. 14 above). 20. Chircop (n. 5 above). See also Adalberto Vallega, "A Human Geographical Approach to Semienclosed Seas: The Mediterranean Case," Ocean Yearbook 7, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese, Norton Ginsburg, and Joseph R. Morgan (Chicago, Univer- sity of Chicago Press, 1988), pp. 372-93. 21. Douglas M. Johnston, "Vulnerable Coastal and Marine Areas: A Framework for the Planning of Environmental Security Zones in the Ocean," Ocean Development and International Law 14 (March 1993): 63-81. See also Jon Wonham, "Special Areas and Particularly Sensitive Areas," in Ocean Management in Global Change, ed. Paolo Fabbri (London: Elsevier Applied Science, 1992), pp. 361-81.

22. Judith Johnson, "The Bonn Convention and the Law of the Sea: Conserva- tion of Marine Mammals," in Implementation of the Law of the Sea Convention through International Institutions, proceedings of the 23d Annual Conference of the Law of the Sea Institute, ed. A. H. A. Soons (Honolulu: Law of the Sea Institute, 1989), pp. 363-82. 23. Okidi (n. 13 above). 24. Kwiatkowska (n. 12 above). 25. Ibid., p. 82.

26. Edward Miles, "Concepts, Approaches, and Applications in Sea Use Planning and Management," Ocean Development and International Law 20, no. 5 (1989): 219. 27. Jean-Pierre Levy, "Towards an Integrated Marine Policy in Developing Countries," Marine Policy 12 (October 1988): 330. 28. Gerard Peet, "Ocean Management in Practice," in Ocean Management in Global Change, ed. Paolo Fabbri (London: Elsevier Applied Science, 1992), p. 40. 29. Kenneth Sherman, "Biomass Yields of Large Marine Ecosystems," Ocean Yearbook 8, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese, Norton Ginsburg, and Joseph R. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), pp. 117-37. 30. For a discussion of current marine regional arrangements in these and other

areas, see Kwiatkowska (n. 12 above); Okidi (n. 13 above); Steinar Andresen, "The Environmental North Sea Regime: A Successful Regional Approach?" Ocean Yearbook 8, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese, Norton Ginsburg, and Joseph R. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), pp. 378-401; Peter M. Haas, "Save the Seas: UNEP's Regional Seas Programme and the Coordination of Regional Pollution Con- trol Efforts," Ocean Yearbook 9, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese, Norton Ginsburg, and Joseph R. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), pp. 188-212; Joseph S. Warioba and Elizabeth M. Mrema, "Regional Cooperation: The Needs of the South," Ocean Yearbook 10, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese, Norton Ginsburg, and Joseph R. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), pp. 90-102; Peet (n. 28 above), pp. 39-57. 31. See, for example, Daniel J. Dzurek, "An Analytical Model of Regional Seas Management: The Sea of Japan," Ocean Yearbook 10, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese, Norton Ginsburg, and Joseph R. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), pp. 248-76.

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