2. Garrett Hardin, "The Tragedy of the Commons," Science 62 (1968): 1243-48. 3. For two salient interpretations of the views of Hardin and the development of ideas of his followers and critics, see Elinor Ostrum, GoverningtheCommons (New
York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), chap. 1; and David Feeny, Fikret Berkes, Bonnie J. McCay, and James M. Acheson, "The Tragedy of the Commons: Twenty- two Years Later," HumanEcology 18, no. 1 (1990): 1-19. 4. Susan S. Hanna, "The Eighteenth-Century Commons as a Model for Ocean Management," OceanandShorelineManagement 14 (1990): 155-72; Carlisle Ford Runge, "Common Property and Collective Action in Economic Development," WorldDevelopment 14, no. 5 (1986): 623-35. 5. David Pearce, Edward Barbier, and Anil Markandyaet, SustainableDevelop-ment:EconomicsandEnvironmentintheThirdWorld (Hants, England: Edward Algar Publishing, 1990), chap. 3. 6. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and World Bank, WorldDevelopmentReport1992:DevelopmentandEnvironment (Oxford: Oxford Univer- sity Press, 1992), pp. 93, 141; David W. Bromley and Michael M. Cernea, "The Man- agement of Common Property Resources: Some Conceptual and Operational Fallac- ies," World Bank Discussion Papers no. 57 (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1989).
7. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, "Participatory De- velopment and the World Bank, Potential Directions for Change," World Bank Discus- sion Papers no. 183, ed. Bhuvan Bhatnagar and Aubrey C. Williams (Washington, D.C.: IBRD and World Bank, 1992), p. 177. This document provides an in-depth discussion of the World Bank's projects and policies regarding participatory devel- opment. 8. Fikret Berkes and M. Taghi Farvar, "Introduction and Overview," in CommonPropertyResources:EcologyandCommunity-BasedSustainableDevelopment, ed. Fikret Berkes (London: Belhaven Press, 1989), p. 7. After some debate, I have chosen to use the term "common pool resource" instead of "common property" or "common property resource." This is primarily because it is difficult to use the world property without confusion since it carries with it many connotations ranging from biophysical things to systems of social relationships.
9. David W. Bromley, EnvironmentandEcono�ny:PropertyRightsandPublicPolicy (Oxford: Blackwell, 1991). 10. Berkes and Farvar (n. 8 above), p. 9. 11. Bromley (n. 9 above), p. 15. 12. Larry L. Kiser and Elinor Ostrum, "The Three Worlds of Action: A Meta- theoretical Synthesis of Institutional Approaches," in StrategiesofPublicInquiry, ed. Elinor Ostrum (Beverly Hills, California: Sage, 1982), pp. 179-222. 13. The main body of theory is adopted from the following sources: Edella Schlager and Elinor Ostrum, "Property-Rights Regimes and Natural Resources: A Conceptual Analysis," LandEconomics 68 (August 1992): 249-62; Elinor Ostrum, "The Rudiments of a Revised Theory of the Origins, Survival, and Performance of Institu- tions for Collective Action," paper prepared for Panel on Common Property Resource Management, Board of Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID), National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, 1985; Berkes and Farvar (n. 8 above), chap. 1.
14. More specifically, there are operational-level rights and collective-choice rights, where the latter give power to participate in the definition of future rights. These rights to alter the rules are said to result from constitutional-choice actions (Schlager and Ostrum [n. 13 above], p. 250).
15. John C. Cordell, "The Development Ecology of an Estuarine Canoe Fishing System in Northeastern Brazil," Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1972. 16. "State" means modern Southeast Asian political organizations at all levels who attempt to exert power and influence society through the use of law enforcement and governmental agencies.
17. Patrick J. S. Boaden and Raymond Seed, AnIntroduciiontoCoastalEcology (New York: Blackie, 1985), pp. 104, 126; Charles Birkeland, "Ecological Interactions between Tropical Coastal Ecosystems," UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies no. 73 (1985). 18. Lawrence S. Hamilton and Samuel C. Snedaker, Handbook forMangroveAreaManagement (Honolulu: East-West Center and IUCN, 1984), chap. 4; R. A. Kenching- ton, "Coral-Reef Ecosystems: A Sustainable Resource," NaturalResources 21, no. 2 (1985): 18-27. 19. Alan T. White, CoralReefs:ValuableResourcesofSoutheastAsia (Manila: Inter- national Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, 1987); Kenneth Brower, "State of the Reef," Audubon 91 (March 1989): 57-80. 20. Rodney V. Salm, "Integrating Marine Conservation and Tourism," Interna-tionalJournalofEnvironmentalStudies 25 (1985): 229-38; Alan T. White and R. J. Dobias, "Community Marine Tourism in the Philippines and Thailand: A Boon or Bane to Conservation?" in Proceedingsof the1990CongressonCoastalandMarineTour-ism, ed. M. L. Miller and J. Auyng (Newport, Oregon: National Coastal Resources Research and Development Institute, 1990), pp. 452-59. 21. Lawrence S. Hamilton, John A. Dixon, and Glenys Owen Miller, "Mangrove Forests: An Undervalued Resource of the Land and of the Sea," OceanYearbook8, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese, Norton Ginsburg, and Joseph R. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), pp. 254-88; Hamilton and Snedekar (n. 18 above), sec. 4, pp. 109-17. 22. Hamilton, Dixon, and Miller (n. 21 above); Hamilton and Snedaker (n. 18 above), chap. 5. 23. By "traditional" I do not necessarily mean indigenous, that is, having origi- nated within a community, if one can distinguish between the two in some cases.
24. United Nations Environment Programme and World Conservation Union (UNEP/IUCN), CoralReefsof theWorld, vol. 2, IndianOcean,RedSea,andGulf (Gland, Switzerland: World Conservation Union, 1988), Philippines and Indonesia chapters. 25. Hamilton and Snedaker (n. 18 above), chaps. 6-13; Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), "Management and Utilization of Mangroves in Asia and the Pacific," FAO Environment Paper no. 3 (1982). 26. Nicholas V. C. Polunin, "Traditional Marine Practices in Indonesia and Their Bearing on Conservation," in CultureandConservation:TheHumanDimensioninEnvironmentalPlanning, ed. J. A. McNeely and David Pitt (London: Croom Helm, 1985), chap. 11. 27. Nicholas V. C. Polunin, "Do Traditional Marine 'Reserves' Conserve? A View of the Indonesian and New Guinean Evidence," in TraditionalMarineResourceManage-mentinthePacificBasin:AnAnthology, ed. Kenneth Ruddle and R. E. Johannes (Jakarta: Unesco/ROSTSEA, 1989); Kenneth Ruddle and R. E. Johannes, eds., TheTraditionalKnowledgeandManagementofCoastalSystemsinAsiaandthePacific (Jakarta: Unesco, 1983), Oceania section. 28. Hamilton and Snedaker (n. 18 above), p. 5; Hamilton, Dixon, and Miller (n. 21 above), p. 254; Susan M. Wells, "Coral Reef Conservation and Management: Prog- ress in the South and Southeast Asian Regions," CoastalManagementinTropicalAsia1 (1993): 8-13; John W. McManus, "Coral Reefs of the ASEAN Region: Status and Management," Ambio 17, no. 3 (1988): 189-93; Miguel D. Fortes, "Mangroves and Seagrass Beds of East Asia: Habitats under Stress," Ambio 17, no. 3 (1988): 207-13.
29. Wells (n. 28 above), p. 9; Fortes (n. 28 above), pp. 210-11. 30. Schlager and Ostrum (n. 13 above). 31. UNEP/IUCN (n. 24 above), p. 229. 32. K. E. Carpenter, "Philippine Coral Reef Fisheries Resources," Phili�ineJour-nalofFisheries 15 (1977): 95-125; E. Murdy and C. Ferraris, "The Contribution of Coral Reef Fisheries to Philippine Fisheries Production," ICLARMNewsletter 3, no. 1 (1980): 21-22; UNEP/IUCN (n. 24 above), p. 231. 33. University of the Philippines, Marine Sciences Center, Investigationof theCoralResourcesofthePhilippines:FinalReport,Phase3, submitted to Ministry of Natural Resources and Fisheries Industry Development Council (Quezon City: University of the Philippines, Marine Sciences Center, 1982). 34. Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Re- search and Development (PCARRD), "The Philippines Recommends for Mangrove Production and Harvesting," PCARRD Philippines Recommends Series no. 74 (Los
Banos: Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development, Department of Science and Technology and Diliman Quezon City, Metro Manila, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 1991), p. 5. 35. Ibid., p. 6. 36. Joseph R. Morgan and Mark J. Valencia, AtlasforPolicyinSoutheastAsianSeas (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983); Alan T. White, "Management of Philippine Marine Parks," ICLARMNewsletter 4, no. 3 (1981): 17-18. 37. P. G. Castaneda and Ramon I. Miclat, "The Municipal Reef Park in the Philippines," in Proceedingsof theFourthInterrcationalCoralReefSymposium,Manila (Que- zon City, Philippines: Marine Science Center, University of the Philippines, 1981), ), pp. 283-85; Alan T. White and D. Law, eds., "Evaluation of the Marine Conservation and Development Program of Silliman University, Philippines, 1984-1986," MarineConservationandDevelopmeniProgramNewsletter (Silliman University) 6 (1986): 1-15; Jeffrey S. Walters, SurveyofUserActivitiesatTubbatahaReefsNationalMarinePark (Manila: Tubbataha Foundation, 1989). 38. Department of Agriculture, "Fisheries Sector Program" (Quezon City: De- partment of Agriculture, Fisheries Sector Project, Project Management Office, 1991); Jessica Munoz, "Community-Based Resources Management as an Approach for Im- plementing Coastal Resources Management Component of the Fishery Sector Pro- gram," paper presented at Experts' Workshop on Community-Based Resource Man- agement: Perspectives, Experiences and Policy Issues, Los Banos, Philippines, September 1991.
39. Department of Agriculture (n. 38 above); Munoz (n. 38 above), p. 4. 40. Department of Environment and Natural Resources Administrative Order no. 15, series of 1990, p. 1.; PCARRD (n. 34 above), p. 91. 41. Presidential Proclamation (PP) 2152 (1981), all of Palawan and other areas, 74,268 ha; PP 2151, 4,327 ha. 42. PCARRD (n. 34 above), p. 7. 43. Jefferson R. Plantilla, "Community Forest Management: Toward Strength- ening the Certificate of Community Forest Stewardship," in LegalFrameworksforForestManagementinAsia:CaseStudiesofCommunity/StateRelations, ed. Jefferson Fox, Occa- sional Papers of Program on Environment, no. 16 (Honolulu: East-West Center, 1993), pp. 115-30.
44. Patrick Christie, Alan T. White, and Delma Buhat, "San Salvador Island Marine Reserve: Some Lessons for Community-Based Resource Management," Tropi-calCoastalAreaManagement 5, nos. 1-2 (1990): 7-11; Delma Buhat, "A Community- Based Marine Conservation Project for San Salvador," in ProceedingsoftheSeventhInternationalCoralReefSymposium,Guam,1992 (Agana, Guam: International Associa- tion of Biological Oceanography, 1992), p. 14; Alan T. White, "Marine Reserves: How Effective as Management Strategies for Philippine, Indonesian, and Malaysian Coral Reef Environments," OceanManagement 10 (1986): 137-59. 45. White, "Marine Reserves" (n. 44 above); Alan T. White, "Two Community- Based Marine Reserves: Lessons for Coastal Management," in CoastalAreaManagementinSoutheastAsia:Policies,ManagementStrategies,andCaseStudies, ed. Chua Thia-Eng and Daniel Pauly (Manila: International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Manage- ment, 1989), pp. 85-96.
46. Alan T. White, "The Effect of Community-Managed Marine Reserves on Their Associated Coral Reef Fish Populations," AsianFisheriesScience 2 (1988): 27-41; Marine Conservation and Development Program, FinalReportandEvaluationfortheMarineConseruationandDevelopmentsProgramofSillimanUniversity (Manila: Asia Foun- dation and Private Voluntary Organizations-U.S. Agency for International Develop- ment, 1986); White, "Two Community-Based Marine Reserves" (n. 45 above). 47. Apo Island is the site of much of the training for the International Training Program on Special Area Management for Coastal Environments, Special Emphasis on Coral Reefs, organized by the Coastal Resources Center of the University of Rhode Island and Silliman University.
48. For example, at the request of municipal leaders, armed guards from local military units have been stationed on the island to protect the sanctuary. Also, social workers from Silliman have helped establish cooperatives and craft groups providing alternate sources of livelihood for island residents. 49. White, "Two Community-Based Marine Reserves" (n. 45 above).
50. Angel C. Alcala, "Effects of Marine Reserves on Coral Fish Abundances and Yields of Philippine Coral Fishes," Ambio 8, no. 3 (1988): 194-99; Angel C. Alcala and E. D. Gomez, "Fish Yield of Coral Reefs in Central Philippines," in ProceedingsoftheFifthInternationalCoralReefCongress,Tahiti (Moorea, Polynesia: Antenne Museum, L'Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes, 1985). 51. White, "Two Community-Based Marine Reserves" (n. 45 above). 52. Ibid., p. 89.
53. Jeffrey S. Walters, "Marine Survey Report, Palanan Biodiversity Survey" (Washington, D.C.: Conservation International, 1991); Conservation International, InitialGlimpses:ThePalananWilderness (Washington, D.C.: Conservation International, 1991). ). 54. A. W. Taufik, "Coral Reefs in Indonesia," in CoralReefManagementinSouth-eastAsia, Biotrop Special Publication no. 29 (Bogor, Indonesia: SEAMEO-BIOTROP, Southeast Asian Regional Center for Tropical Biology, 1987). 55. Nicholas V. C. Polunin, "The Marine Resources of Indonesia," OceanographyandMarineBiologyAnnualReview 21 (1983): 505. As a gross estimate, using the coast- line-to-reef-area ratio of the Philippines as a guide, Indonesia would have some 52,000 km2. 56. Elvin T. Choong, R. Sambas Wirakusumah, and Suminar S. Achmadi, "Man- grove Forest Resources in Indonesia," ForestEcologyandManagement 33-34 (1990): 45-57; estimates vary primarily due to methods and classification employed.
57. Alan T. White, "Conservation of the Marine Environment," in MarinePolicyinSoutheastAsia, ed. George Kent and Mark J. Valencia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), p. 330. 58. Choong, Wirakusumah, and Achmadi (n. 56 above), p. 55. 59. Conner Bailey and Charles Zerner, "Local Management of Fisheries Re- sources in Indonesia: Opportunities and Constraints," in ContributionstoFisheryDevel-opmentPolicyinIndonesia, ed. Richard B. Pollnac, Conner Bailey, and Alie Poernomo (Jakarta: Central Research Institute for Fisheries, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture, 1992). 60. Polunin, "Traditional Marine Practices" (n. 26 above) gives a good literature review. 61. In this analysis a distinction between de facto and de jure traditional regimes will not be made, but perhaps its existence should be explored theoretically at some point. 62. See references in Bailey and Zerner (n. 59 above), p. 44.
63. See references in Polunin, "Traditional Marine Practices" (n. 26 above), p. 160. 64. Ibid., p. 161. 65. Bailey and Zerner (n. 59 above), p. 44. 66. Ibid. 67. Polunin, "Traditional Marine Practices" (n. 26 above); Bailey and Zerner (n. 59 above).
68. UNEP/IUCN (n. 24 above), p. 100; Sandra Moniaga, "Towards Community- Based Forestry and Recognition of Adat Property Rights in the Outer Islands of Indonesia: A Legal and Policy Analysis," in Fox (n. 43 above), pp. 131-50. On Jawa, the State Forestry Corporation has been given proprietorship rights and responsibili- ties to mangrove resources. 69. Choong, Wirakusumah, and Achmadi (n. 56 above). 70. UNEP/IUCN (n. 24 above), p. 100. 71. Bailey and Zerner (n. 59 above), pp. 41, 51. 72. Ibid., p. 51. 73. Rili H. Djohani, "Community Participation in Coral Reef Management in
Indonesia: Two Case-Studies: Pulau Seribu and Bunaken," in Proceedingsof lheSeventhlnternationalCoralReefSymposium,Guam,1992 (Agana, Guam: International Associa- tion of Biological Oceanography, 1992), p. 24. 74. Sopari Wangsadidjaja and Agus Djoko Ismanto, "The Legal Case for Social Forestry in the Production Forests of Indonesia," in Fox (n. 43 above), pp. 73-88. 75. Moniaga (n. 68 above).
76. Moniaga (n. 68 above), Munoz (n. 38 above), Department of Agriculture (n. 38above), PCARRD (n. 34 above), Wangsadidjaja and Ismanto (n. 74 above), Plantilla (n. 43 above).