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UN Agenda on Cooperation in Marine Fisheries in Africa: Toward Alleviation of the African Crisis

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UN Agenda on Cooperation in Marine Fisheries in Africa: Toward Alleviation of the African Crisis

in Ocean Yearbook Online

References

1. See Joint Communique on Issues of Concern to Africa and World Commu- nity, UN Press Release SG/SM/1393 (1993); cf. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, "L'OAU du- rant un quart de siecle," in Humanite et Droit International, Milanges Rene-Jean Dupuy (Paris, 1991), pp. 53-63. 2. The New Agenda was adopted in UN General Assembly Resolution 45/151 of 18 December 1991 on Final Review and Appraisal of the PAAERD. See also the 1992 Resolution of the OAU Council of Ministers 1415(LVI) on the NADAF.

3. For composition of the panel and text of Boutros-Ghali's statement of 28 December 1992, see UN Press Releases SG/SM/1388-EC/156 and EC/157 (1992). 4. See Cooperation in Fisheries in Africa: Report of the Secretary-General, UN docu- ment A/47/279-E/1992/79 (1992). 5. Cf. Barbara Kwiatkowska, "Marine Affairs Institutional Cooperation in Af- rica: Prospects for Change," Journal of the African Society of International and Comparative Law 3 (1991): 445, 449-53, 470-71; Barbara Kwiatkowska, "Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea in Africa: Towards the 21st Century," Marine Policy 17 (1993): 11, 12-14, 42-43. 6. For an overview see Gerald Moore, Coastal State Requirements for Foreign Fishing, FAO Legislative Study No. 21/Rev.3 (Rome, 1988); Michael Savini, Summary Informa- tion on the Role of International Fishery Bodies, FAO Fisheries Circular FIP/C835/Rev.l I (Rome, 1991). For analysis of African state practice in general, see S. K. B. Mfodwo, B. M. Tsamenyi, and S. K. N. Blay, "The Exclusive Economic Zone: State Practice in the African Atlantic Region," Ocean Development and International Law 20 (1989): 445- 99; Rowena Lawson and Michael Robinson, "Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa," Ma- rine Policy 7 (1983): 279-90; Peter Underwood, "Expanded Maritime Jurisdiction: New Prospects for the West African Fisheries," Oceans Institute of Canada Report 10 (Halifax, 1983); FAO Regional Compendium of Fisheries Legislation: West Africa (CECAF Region) (Rome, 1983); "Fisheries in ACP States," ACP-EC Courier, no. 85 (1984): 68-69. For analysis of individual state practice, see Reports of the Meetings of the Group of Experts on the Law of the Sea of the States Members of the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic, the UN Office for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (UNOALOS): First Meeting: Brazzaville, Congo, 12-15 June 1990, and Second Meeting: Montevideo, Uruguay, 3-6 April 1991 (New York: United Nations); Sayeman Bula-Bula, Le nouveau droit de la mer dans le contexte economique du Zaire (Kinshasa: Editions NORAF, 1992);

May-Kristin Ensrud, "Foreign Fishing in the South-Western Indian Ocean: Case Stud- ies of Mozambique and the Seychelles," International Challenges 10, no. 4 (1990): 54-62; Paul Goodison, "Namibia: Agriculture and Fisheries," ACP-EC Courier, no. 127 ( 1991 ): 42-46; W. Kaczynski, "Development Strategy of the Guinean Industrial Fisheries Sector," Ministry of Rural Development, Secretariat of State for Fisheries, Republic of Guinea (July 1987); J. M. Vakily and D. E. B. Chaytor, "Assessing and Managing the Marine Fish Resources of Sierra Leone," EC Fisheries Cooperation Bulletin 5, no. 2 (1992): 22-24. See also D. J. Devine, "New Fisheries Policies in South Africa," Marine Policy 1 (1989): reports 63-67. 7. Total catch of Africa increased from 2,521,700 mt in 1982 to 3,508,100 mt in 1988, while that of South America increased from 9,145,100 to 14,044,700 mt and that of Asia increased from 27,871,900 to 34,413,600 mt. In 1988 the total catches in regions bordered wholly or partly by African states were eastern Central Atlantic: 3,560,800 mt; Mediterranean and Black Sea: 2,012,300; Southeast Atlantic: 2,457,600; and western Indian Ocean: 2,880,500. The total world catch increased from 68,233,200 mt in 1982 to 84,560,700 mt in 1988 and is expected to reach 120 Mmt by the year 2000. See FAO Yearbook of Fishery Statistics 66 (1988). 8. See Cooperation in Fisheries in Africa (n. 4 above), pp. 7-14.

9.DevelopmentofMarineScienceandTechnologyinAfrica,WorkingGroupofExpertsSponsored byECAandUNESCO,AddisAbaba,5-9May1980, UNESCO Reports in Marine Science, no. 10 (1980). 10. Report of the 21 st Session of the IOC Executive Council, Paris, 7-I March 1988, UN document IOC/EC-XXI/3 (1988), p. 51. 11. Working paper for Subcommittee on the Law of the Sea, document AALCC/ XXIX/Beijing/90/4A, in International Organizations and the Law of the Sea-NILOS Docu- mentary Yearbook, vol. 5-1989 (1991), pp. 537-51.

12. OAU Abuja Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community, Interna- tional Legal Materials 30 (1991): 1241-82; Draft Protocol on Relations between the AEC and the Regional Economic Communities (1992). See also the 1992 Windhoek Treaty of the Southern African Development Community (Art. 21) in International Legal Materials 32 (1993): 116-30. 13. A. F. Hoque, "Economic Commission for Africa," in Second Meeting: Montevi- deo (n. 6 above), Annex 4, pp. 86, 89-90. 14. These are "Report on Maritime Cooperation in Africa: Measures for Optimi- zation of Management and Exploitation of Marine Living Resources," document JEFAD/FMRS/91/40/2.3(iii); "Report to the Follow-up Committee of the Niamey Mul- tinational Programming and Operational Centre (MULPOC) on the Evaluation of Living Resources in the Sea," document JEFAD/FS/91/42/2.3(iv); and "Master Plan for Cooperation in the Exploitation of Coastal and Marine Resources in Central Afri- can States," document JEFAD/FS/91/56/2.2(i)a. See UN Economic Commission for Africa Annual Report: 14 May 1991-23 April 1992, ECOSOC Official Records, 1992, Supplement No. 13, UN document E/1992/33-E/ECA/CM.18/24, p. 12. 15. Environmental Policy and Law 21 (1991): 253-58.

16. African Common Position on Environment and Development, Abidjan, Cote d7voire, 11-14 November 1991, UN document A/Conf.151/PC/120 (1992). 17. Report of the ESCWA on the Arab Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development, Cairo, 10-12 September 1991, UN document A/Conf.l51/PC/99 (1992), Annex 2, p. 32. 18. Report of the UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 Jnne 1992. UN document A/ Conf.151/26, vol. 2 (1992). 19. See, for example, ECOSOC Resolution 1992/44 on Second Industrial Devel- opment Decades for Africa, Par. 6.

20. Final Declaration of the 27th Session of the UN ECA and 18th Meeting of the Conference of Ministers Responsible for Economic Development and Planning, Addis Ababa, 20-23 April 1992, in UN Economic Commission (n. 14 above), pp. 59-61. See also ECOSOC Resolution 1992/51 on Strengthening the ECA to Face Africa's Development Challenges in the 1990s, and Resolution 1992/52 on Restructuring and Revitalization of the UN in the Economic and Social Fields: Strengthening the Role and Functions of the EFCA, UN document E/1992/INF/7, 27 August 1992. 21. Cooperation in Fisheries in Africa (n. 4 above), Par. 42.

22. Cf. n. 8 above; Victor Prescott, "The Political Division of LMEs in the Atlantic Ocean and Some Associated Seas," in Biomass Yields and Geography of Large Marine Ecosystems, ed. Kenneth Sherman and Lewis Alexander (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1989), pp. 395-442; Underwood (n. 6 above), pp. 8-11. Note that out of a total 3,560,800 mt caught in the eastern Central Atlantic in 1988, the highest catches of African states were those of Morocco (521,244 mt), Ghana (302,935), Senegal (240,000), Nigeria (157,039), Mauritania (91,500), Cameroon (62,529), and Ivory Coast (60,764); the highest catches of nonregional states were those of the Soviet Union (1,395,028), Spain (234,144), and Romania (124,993).

23. African members of the CECAF are Benin, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Libe- ria, Mauritania, Morocco, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Zaire, and Zimbabwe. 24. Report of the 9th Session of the CECAF Working Party on Resource Evaluation, Lagos, Nigeria, 19-23 November 1990, FAO Fisheries Report FIPL/R454 (1992); Report of the 8th Session of the CECAF Subcommittee on Management of Resources within the Limits of National jurisdiction, Abidjan, Côte divoire, 7-I 1 October 1991, FAO Fisheries Report FIPL/R465 (1992). 25. UN document FAO CECAF/XI/88/6; Report of the 11 th Session of the Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic, Douala, Cameroon, 7-9 December 1988, FAO Fisheries Report FIPL/R420 (1989), p. 10; Report of the Government Consultation to Review the Structure, Functions, and Responsibilities of the Subsidiary Bodies of the CECAF, Rome, Italy, 17-18 April 1989, FAO Fisheries Circular FIPL/C823 (1989). 26. Report of the l2th Session of the CECAF, Accra, Ghana, 27 April-1 May 1992, FAO Fisheries Report FIPL/R469 (1992), p. 11. 27. 1984 Libreville Convention on the Regional Development of Fisheries in the Gulf of Guinea (in French), in Revue Ginirale de Droit International Public 91 (1987): 1115.

28. Cf. Activities of International Organizations Concerned with Fisheries, UN docu- ment FAO COFI/87/INF.7 (1987), pp. 4-5; Law of the Sea: Report of the Secretary- General, UN document A/44/650 (1989), p. 32. 29. Members of ECOWAS are Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, and Upper Volta. 30. 1983 Libreville Treaty for the Establishment of the ECOCAS, Art. 43(2)(d) and Annex IX, Art. 7 in International Legal Materials 23 (1984): 945. 31. Angola, Benin, Cape Verde, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, and South Africa.

32. Angola and South Africa. 33. Agreements include, for example, Ivory Coast/Senegal Agreement in the Field of Marine Fisheries of 26 January 1977; Equatorial Guinea/Nigeria Fisheries Agreement of 27 November 1981; Guinea/Cape Verde Fisheries Agreement of 26 April 1989; Guinea/Guinea-Bissau Fisheries Agreement of 25 January 1980, as amended on 26 September 1985; Guinea/Liberia Agreement on Fisheries Coopera- tion of 20 December 1976; and Guinea/Nigeria Fisheries Agreement of 28 August 1981. 34. For example, Angola/Poland Agreement on Fishery Economy of 28 April 1977; Gambia/USSR Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Fisheries of 18 March 1975; Guinea/USSR Fisheries Agreement of 25 May 1981; Guinea-Bissau/China Fish- eries Agreement of 1985; Guinea-Bissau/USSR Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Fisheries of 11 April 1975; Senegal/China Fisheries Agreement of 1985; Sierra Leone/China Fisheries Agreement of 1985. 35. For example, Sierra Leone/Japan and Senegal/Japan Fisheries Agreements of 2 November 1990 and 14 October 1991, respectively. 36. Case coucerning the Arbitral Award of 31 July 1989 (Guinea Bissau v. Senegal), Request for the Indication of Provisional Measures, Order of 2 March 1990, International Court of Justice Reports (1990): 64, 67-68. 37. UN Law of the Sea Bulletin 19 (1991): 33-40. See also "Final Report and Final Act of the Ministerial Conference on Fisheries Cooperation among African States

Bordering the Atlantic Ocean, Dakar, Senegal, 1-5 July 1991," UN document Conf.2/ 91/RAP (1991). Cf. Barbara Kwiatkowska, "The 1991 Dakar Convention on Fisheries Cooperation among African States Bordering the Atlantic Ocean" (and Appendixes 1-4), International Journal of Estuarine and Coastal Law 7 (1992): 147-64.

38. Cf. Law of the Sea: Report of the Secretary-General, UN Doc. A/47/623 (1992), p. 37.

39. Report of the 12th Session (n. 26 above), pp. 8-9. 40. Cf. Law of the Sea: Report of the Secretary-General, UN doc. A/48/527 (1993), p. 33. 41. Report of the 12th Session (n. 26 above), p. 3.

42. See Law of the Sea (n. 40 above), p. 33. 43. Final Document of the First Meeting of States of the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic, Rio de Janeiro, 25-29 July 1988, UN document A/43/512 (1988), Annex, Pars. 23, 25. 44. Final Document of the Second Meeting of States of the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic, A6uja, 25-29 June 1990, UN document A/45/474 (1990), Annex, Par. 28. See also Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic: Report of the Secretary- General, UN document A/45/653 (1990); First Meeting: Brazzaville (n. 6 above).

45. Second Meeting: Montevideo (n. 6 above). Cf. Zone of Peace and ,Cooperation of the South Atlantic,: Report of the Secretary-General, UN documents A/46/410 and Add.l: Reply of Nigeria (1991). 46. Cf. Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic: Report of the Secretary- General, UN documents A/47/424 and Adds. 1/3 (1992).

47. A recent example is the Seychelles/South Korea Fisheries Agreement of 1992. 48. African members of IOFC are Comoros, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagas- car, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia, and Tanzania. 49. Members of CDMFSWIO are Comoros, France, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauri- tius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia, and Tanzania. 50. Note that, out of a total 2,880,500 mt caught in the western Indian Ocean in 1988, the highest catches of African states were those of Tanzania (47,370 mt), Mozambique (33,300), Madagascar (26,000), and Mauritius (17,099), while those of non-African regional states amounted to 1,204,994 for India, 348,897 for Pakistan, 166,077 for Oman, and 159,524 for Sri Lanka. The highest catches of nonregional states were those of France (101,567), Spain (101,277), and the Soviet Union (39,587), For fisheries profiles of Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles, and Somalia, see Report of the Joint Session of the Indian Ocean Fishery Commission and Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission, Bali, l l-18 November 1982, FAO Fisheries Report FIP/ R281/Rev.l (1985); Report of the 6th Session of the Committee for the Development and Management of Fisheries in the Southwest Indian Ocean, Madagascar, 12-16 November 1990. 51. African members of this committee are all members of IOFC (see n. 48 above) except Egypt. 52. Report of the Conference for the Adoption of a Draft Agreemenl for the Establishment of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Rome, Italy, 22-26 June 1992 (including text of the draft IOTC agreement in Appendix E), FAO Fisheries Report FIPL/R482 (1992).

53. Record of the 7th Meeting of IOMAC Standing Committee, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 15-19 July 1991, document IOMAC-II/SC-7/12/Rev.l (1991). African members of IOMAC are Burundi, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia, Sudan, Tan- zania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. 54. Record of the 8th Meeting of IOMAC Standing Committee, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 26-30 October 1992, document IOMAC-II/SC-8/14/Rev.l (1992). 55. 1984 Victoria General Cooperation Agreement between Member States of the IOIC (in French), in Revue Generale de Droit International Public 91 (1987): 1490-91; 1989 Additional Protocol (in French), in Revnue Ginirale de Droit International Public 94 (1990): 569-74. See also Directory of InstitutionslOrganisations and Individuals in the South West Indian Ocean Islands, Documentation, Research, and Training Centre on Indian Ocean Issues, Mauritius (1988). 56. Resolution of 1 March 1991, document ACP-EEC 333/91/Fin., Par. 5. Phase 2 of the tuna resources project involves 5 million ECU provided by the EC and 550,000 ECU contributed by the IOIC members. See EC Fisheries Cooperation Bulletin 5 (1992/4): 18-19.

57.FinalDocumentof theIOMACMinisterialLevelMeeting:SecondConference,Aru-sha,Tanzania,3-7September1990, document IOMAC-II/A/10, Annex 9 (1990), in NILOS Documentary Yearbook, vol. 6-1990 (1992), pp. 596, 607. Cf. Barbara Kwiatkow- ska, "The 1990 Agreement on the Organization for IOMAC," I nternational Journal of Marine and Coastal Lam 6 (1991): 133-44. 58. Record of the 7th Meeting (n. 53 above), Annex G. 59. Record of the 8th Meeting (n. 54 above). 60. African members of GFCM are Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. 61. Note that out of a total 2,012,300 mt caught in the Mediterranean and Black Sea in 1988, the catches of African states amounted to Algeria, 106,434 mt; Tunisia,

102,674; Morocco, 28,852; Egypt, 25,000; and Libya, 8,000; the highest catches of regional non-African states were those of Turkey (bordering both the Mediterranean and Black Sea; 582,940), Italy (435,698), Spain (135,638), and Greece (105,899). The highest catches of nonregional states were those of the Soviet Union (fishing mainly in the Mediterranean) at 347,301 tons. 62. Cf. Barbara Kwiatkowska, "GFCM: Prospects for the Fifth Decade," in The Law of the Sea: New Worlds, New Discoveries, ed. Edward L. Miles and Tullio Treves (Honolulu: Law of the Sea Institute, 1993), pp. 160-82. Cf. Law of the Sea (n. 40 above), p. 34. 63. See Official Journal of the European Communities L 331/ 1 ( 1991 See also the EC Commission Proposal COM(92)533 for a Council Regulation Harmonizing Various Technical Measures in the Mediterranean Fisheries, in Official Journal of the European Communities C5 (1993). 64. Official Journal of the European Communities L 42 (1992).

65. See T. Scovazzi, "The Declaration of a Sanctuary for the Protection of Marine Mammals in the Mediterranean," International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 8 (1993): 510-14. 66. See Part 2, Title 3 (Arts. 58-68) of the Lome IV Convention, in ACP-EC Courier, no. 120 (1990): yellow pages. Cf. Albert W. Koers, "Fisheries Management: The Case of the EEC," in International Law of the Sea: Proceedings of a Seminar at Jakarta, 22-27 August 1983, ed. Ellen Hey and Albert W. Koers (Rijswijk, The Netherlands, 1984), pp. 123-25; Fisheries in the Developing Countries: The European Community's Policy (European Economic Community, 1990). 67. Official Journal of the European Communities C 186/29 (1989).

68. Resolution of the ACP-EC Council of Ministers on Fisheries Evaluation of 29 March 1990, EC Fisheries Cooperation Bulletin 4 (199 1): blue supp. 69 Official Journal of the European Communities C 218/30, Par. 7 (1990). See also Law of the Sea (n. 40 above). 70. See Resolution of 1 March 1991 (n. 56 above), Pars. 13-16. 71. Cf. Annex LXV, "Joint Declaration Relating to Protocol 1 on the Origin of Fishery Products" and Annex LXVII, "ACP Declaration Relating to Protocol 1 on the Origin of Fishery Products" to the 1989 Lome Final Act.

72. See written Question 2261/91 on Recurrence of Illegal Fishing in Namibian Waters, with answer, in Official Journal of the European Communities C 55/52 (1992). Cf. Goodison (n. 6 above). 73. See written Question 2260/91, with answer, in Official Journal of the European Communities C 89/27 (1992). Note that Namibia's Sea Fisheries Act of 29 June 1992 prohibited the use of driftnets longer than 2.5 km. 74. Document ACP-EEC 853/93/Fin.

75. Artisanal fisherfolk, both subsistence and commercial, are responsible for the greater part of fish catch, including almost all inland fisheries and up to 80% of marine catch of ACP countries (par. 6).

76. Cf. Communique of the 24th South Pacific Forum, Nauru, 10-11 August 1993, UN document A/48/359 (1993), Par. 18.

77. The 15 landlocked African states include Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, Swazi- land, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe (13 italicized states are those that are the least developed). Cf. Barbara Kwiatkowska, The 200 Mile Exclusive Econorreic Zone in the New Law of the Sea (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989), pp. 72-74. 78. See Resolution of 1 March 1991 (n. 56 above), Par. 15.

79. Examples of bilateral maritime transport and transit agreements are those between Tanzania and Burundi, 15 February 1980, and between Guinea and Mali, 11 November 1987. 80. Draft Charter on African Maritime Transport, Section 12: Relations between Land-Locked and Transit Countries, in Study on Maritime Transport Situation in Africa with a View to Preparing a Draft African Charter on Maritime Transport, document WK/ GP/MAR/4 (II) (OAU, October 1989), p. 110. 81. See, for example, Final Documents of the 9th Conference of Heads of State or Government of the Movement of Non-aligned Countries, Belgrade, 4-7 September 1989, UN document A/44/551-S/20870 (1989), p. 117, urging transit states to alleviate the trans- port and transit difficulties of the landlocked developing states. . 82. See, for example, Resolution of the ACP-EC Joint Assembly on Transport in the Context of ACP-EC Cooperation of 28 February 1991, Pars. 71-76: Island and Land-Locked Countries, ACP-EEC 2169/91.

83.CooperationinFisheriesinAfrica (n. 4 above), p. 17. 84. Cf. Barbara Kwiatkowska, "Institutional Marine Affairs Cooperation in De- veloping State Regions," Marine Policy 14 (1990): 385, 386. 85. Cooperation in Fisheries in Africa (n. 4 above), p. 18.

86. UN Press Release SG/SM/1427 (1993). Cf. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, "Global Development Cooperation," Emory International Law Review 7 (1993): 1 - 11. 87. UN Press Release SG/SM/1388-EC/156 (n. 3 above).

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