Preserving Freedom of Navigation: U.S. Lessons for the International Community

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Preserving Freedom of Navigation: U.S. Lessons for the International Community

in Ocean Yearbook Online

References

1.1982UnitedNationsConaentionontheLawoftheSea, UN Publication 1261 (1982), reproduced from UN document A/Conf.62/122 (7 October 1982). The text also incorporates the two English corrections contained in UN documents A/Conf.62/ 122/CORR.3 (23 November 1982), and A/Conf.62/122/CORR.8 (26 November 1982). The final convention was the most comprehensive codification of maritime law ever put together by the international community. The articles constitute a guide for behav- ior by states in the world's oceans, defining maritime zones; laying down rules for drawing sea boundaries; assigning legal rights, duties, and responsibilities to states; and providing machinery for the settlement of disputes. See also Robert Friedheim, Negotiating the New Ocean Regirree (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1993), pp. 1-418.

2.MessagefromthePresidentoftheUnitedStatesTransmittingtheUnitedNationsConventionontheLawof theSea,withAnnexes,DoneatMontegoBay,December10,1982(the"Convention")andtheAgreementrelatingtotheImplementationofPartXIoftheUnitedNationsConventionontheLawof theSeaof 10December1982,withAnnex,AdoptedatNewYork,July28,1994(the"Agreement' ),andSignedbytheUnitedStates,SubjecttoRatification,on July 29, 1994,CongressionalRecord, 103d Cong. 2d sess., 1994, S. Treaty Doc. 103-39, p. iii. The full text of the president's letter is in appendix B of this volume.

3. Maureen O'C. Walker, "Entry into Force of the 1982 United Nations Conven- tion on the Law of the Sea," paper prepared for presentation at the October 1995 MTS/IEEE Symposium, San Diego, California (on file with author). Walker is chief of the Division of Marine Law and Policy of the U.S. Department of State and is one of the State Department's principal spokespersons regarding the law of the sea. 4. See, for example, Limits in the Seas: United States Responses to Excessive Maritime Claims, State Department Publication 112 (Washington, D.C.: Department of State, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, 1992); Maritime Claims Reference Manual, rev. ed. (Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense, Office of the Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, 1994). These two publications contain an extraordinarily comprehensive listing of maritime claims that the United States considers unlawful.

5. J. A. Roach and R. W. Smith, International Law Studies: 1994 Excessive Maritime Claims (Newport, Rhode Island: Naval War College Press, 1994), p. 263. The authors are noted law-of-the-sea experts who produced this book while working at the State Department. 6. "Statement on United States Oceans Policy," 10 March 1983, Public Papers of President Reagan, 1983, reprinted in J. A. Roach and R. W. Smith, International Law Studies: 1994 Excessive Maritime Claims (Newport, Rhode Island: Naval War College Press, 1994). 7. See, for example, Limits in the Seas and Maritime Claims Reference Manual (n. 4 above). 8. William Aceves, "Diplomacy at Sea: U.S. Diplomacy at Sea: U.S. Freedom of Navigation Operations in the Black Sea," Naval War College Review 46 (spring 1993): 59.

9. R. R. Churchill and A. V. Lowe, The Law of the Sea (Manchester, United Kingdom: Manchester University Press, 1983), p. 7. 10. See, for example, Limits in the Seas (n. 4 above) and Roach and Smith (n. 5 above). 11. Panel on the Law of Ocean Uses, "U.S. Interests and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea," Ocean Developmenl and International Law (1990): 373.

12. William Schachte, "The Black Sea Challenge," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 114 (June 1988): 62. 13. Aceves (n. 8 above), pp. 59-79; Roach and Smith (n. 5 above), p. 4.

14. National Security and the Convention on the Law of the Sea, Department of De- fense White Paper (Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense, July 1994), p. 20. 15. Roach and Smith, (n. 5 above), p. 6. 16. These three publications are extremely comprehensive and exhaustively ref- erenced. 17. Roach and Smith (n. 5 above), p. 9.

18. George Galdorisi, "Who Needs the Law of the Sea?" U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 119 (July 1993): 71; George Galdorisi, "A Narrow Window of Opportu- nity," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 120 (July 1994): 61. 19. See "U.S. Interests and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea," Ocean Development and International Law 21 ( 1990): 371-92; Sam Bateman, "Build a WESTPAC Naval Alliance," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 119 (January, 1993): 32-36; Limits in the Seas (n. 4 above).

20. Council on Ocean Law, Ocean Policy News 9, no. 5 (1992): 1-6. 21. Roach and Smith (n. 5 above).

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