Urbanization of the Global Coastal Zone: Implications for Human Health and Living and Nonliving Resources

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1. L. R. Brown and J. L. Jacobson, "The Future of Urbanization: Facing the Ecological and Economic Constraints," Worldwatch Paper 77 (1987): 5. 2. E. Linden, "Megacities," Time (11 January 1993): 30-40. 3. T. A. Sancton, "Hands across the Sea," Time (2 January 1989): 52-53. 4. During the period 1990-2020, the human population of Kenya (annual growth rate of 4%) is expected to increase from 23 million to 79 million; Nigeria's population (growth rate of 3%) will go from 112 million to 274 million (A. Toufexis, "Too Many Mouths," Time [2 January 1989]: 46-48).

5. A. Barcena, "Some Reflections on a New Approach to Ocean and Coastal Management," in The Marine Environment and Sustainabk Development: Law, Policy, and Science: Proceedings of the Law of the Sea Institute, 25th Annual Conference, Malmo, Sweden, ed. Alastair Couper and Edgar Gold (Honolulu: Law of the Sea Institute, University of Hawaii, 1993), p. 24. 6. E. Linden, "The Exploding Cities of the Developing World," Foreign Affairs 75, no. 1 (1979): 52-65; United Nations Department of International and Social Affairs, Estimates and Projections of Urban, Rural, and City Population, 1950-2025: The 1982 Assessment (New York: United Nations, 1985), p. 147. 7. United Nations Department of International and Social Affairs. 8. For a review of environmental impact and implications for ports and har- bors, see J. H. Vandermeulen, "Environmental Trends of Ports and Harbours: Impli- cations for Planning and Management," Maritime Policy and Management 23, no. 1 (1996): 55-66. 9. V. K. Tippie, H. Knight-Sopher, and F. P. Kineon, "Coastal Crisis Calls for New Directions in Environmental Policy," Sea Technology 32, no. 8 (1991): 10-20.

10. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Wastes in Marine Environ- ments, OTA-0-334 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, April 1987). 11. T. P. O'Connor, "Coastal Environmental Quality in the United States, 1990: Chemical Contamination in Sediment and Tissues," in A Special NOAA 20th Anniversary Report (Rockville, Maryland: U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, 1990) . The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-National Sci- ence and Technology) program analyzes for over 70 pollutants from over 240 sites around the United States; in 1995, contemporary pesticides and dioxins were added. The Sediment Coring Project has studied sediment contamination in a number of U.S. estuaries since 1989. 12. G. Feyte, "Coastal Ocean Space Utilization in France: Trends and Re- search, Conflicts and Arbitration," in Coastal Ocean Space Utilization: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Coastal Ocean Space Utilization (COSU'89), May 8- 10, 1989, ed. S. D. Halsey and R. B. Abel (New York: Elsevier, 1990), pp. 21-28. 13. Barcena, p. 24. 14. World Resources Institute and the International Institute for Environment and Development, World Resources: A Report by the World Resources Institute and the International In,rtitute forEnvironment and Development (New York: Basic, 1986), p. 145; World Resources Institute, World Resources: A Report by the World Resources Institute and the International Institute for Environment and Development (New York: Basic, 1987), p. 140, World Resources: A Report by the World Resources Institute and the International Institute for Environment and Development (New York: Basic, 1988-89), pp. 193-94;

World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), pp. 272-74. 15. V. E. Hall, "2020 Plan of San Pedro Bay Ports," in Halsey and Abel, eds., pp. 169-73. 16. Competition for coastal space also includes such activities as water-borne commuting. A real factor in Bangkok, Hong Kong, and other Asian regions, water- borne commuter transportation, is rapidly being seen as a solution to overburdened coastal roads. In Boston, for example, commuter water transportation is thought to reach 21,000 one-way trips per day by 1996. Extensive shoreside facilities will be needed and will compete with other urban activities for space (R. E. Bowen, "The Role of Emerging Coastal Management Practices in Port and Harbor Management," in Pacem in Maribus 18, Rotterdam 1990, ed. E. M. Borgese [Malta: Valetta: Interna- tional Ocean Institute, 1990]).

17. Bowen. 18. J. C. Sorenson, S. T. McCreary, and J. M. Hersham, Institutional Arrange- ments for Management of Coastal Resources (Columbia, South Carolina: Research Plan- ning Institute, 1984), pp. 5-7.

19. Ibid. 20. B. H. Ketchum, ed., The Water's Edge: Critical Problems of the Coastal Zone (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1972), p. 4. 21. D. C. Gordon,Jr., "Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ): An International Science Program with Relevance to the Gulf of Maine," in Crulf of Maine Nezus, Winter 1996 (Hanover, New Hampshire: Regional Association for Re- search on the Gulf of Maine and International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, 1993); see also P. M. Holligan and H. De Boois, eds., Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone: Science Plan, International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) Re- port 25 (Stockholm: International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, 1993).

22. A. C. Alcala, S. G. Vergara, and V. P. Palaganas, "The Coastal Environment Program: The Philippine Situation," in Coastal Zone Canada '94: Cooperation in the Coastal Zone, Conference Proceedings of the Coastal Zone Canada Association, 4 vols., ed. P. G. Wells and P. J. Ricketts (Dartmouth, Nova Scotia: Bedford Institute of Oceanography, 1994), 1:101. 23. Quoted in L. Z. Haie and E. Kumin, Impkmenting a Coastal Resources Manage- ment Policy: The Case of Prohibiting Coral Mining in Sri Lanka (Providence: Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island, 1992), p. 7.

24. Alcala, Vergara, and Palaganas, p. 100. 25. WCED (n. 14 above).

26. J. O.Jackson, "The Sea: Tears for Neptune," Time (30 October 1995): 64- 65.

27. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (n. 10 above), p. 7, n. 4. The number of Americans living within 80 km of a seashore, between 1940 and 1980, increased from 42 million to 89 million (Time [1 August 1988]: 40). 28. S. F. Edwards, "Estimates of Future Demographic Changes in the Coastal Zone," Coastal Management 17, no. 3 (1989): 229. 29. Alcala, Vergara, and Palaganas, p. 101. 30. P. Verlaan, "The Role of Public Health in Coastal Zone Management," in Ocean Yearbook 11, ed. E. M. Borgese, N. Ginsburg, andj. R. Morgan (Chicago: Uni- versity of Chicago Press, 1994), p. 287. 31. Won-Oh Song, "Present Status and Future of Coastal Zone Development in Korea," in Halsey and Abel, eds. (n. 12 above), pp. 83-87. 32. World Resources Institute, "Oceans and Coasts," in World Resources: A Re- port by the World Resources Institute and the International Institute for Environment and Developments (New York: Basic, 1992-93), pp. 336-37. 33. S. Z. Qasim, "A Technological Forecast of Ocean Research and Develop- ment in India," in "Managing the Ocean: Resources, Research, Law, ed. J. G. Richardson (Mt. Airy, Maryland: Lomond, 1985), p. 143.

34. M. R. Auer, "Regional Cooperation to Protect the Coastal Zone of the Baltic Sea," in Wells and Ricketts, eds. (n. 22 above), 1:114. 35. Before modern transport and the international grain trade "international- ized" this urbanization, city size was determined by availability of local produce. Today, Mexico City and Caracas substitute oil for food; New Delhi grew by political dominance and its being central to India's rail network, and Calcutta has its central position because of water transport (N. Keyfitz, "The Growing Human Population," Scientific American [September 1989]: 119-26). 36. Today, London has a population of ca. 6,930,000 people per 1580 km2, i.e., a density of 4386 residents per km�. 2.

37. E. Linden, "Exploding Cities" (n. 6 above) , p. 53. Most of these population changes will be urban, as UN estimates suggest that rural numbers will probably not change appreciably.

38. United Nations Department of International and Social Affairs (n. 6 above). 39. Low Kwai Sim and G. Balamurugan, "Urbanization and Urban Water Prob- lems in Southeast Asia: A Case of Unsustainable Development," Journal of Environ- mental Management 32 (1991): 195-209. 40. In the United States, coastal urban sprawl gave rise to "standard consoli- dated statistical areas." In these, a central city became surrounded with "bedroom communities," giving rise to increased population numbers. For example, the popu- lation is ( 1980 figures) 16,120,000 for New York/Newark/Jersey City; 11,496,000 for Los Angeles / Long Beach / Anaheim; 4,882,000 in San Francisco / Oakland / San Jose; 3,448,000 in Boston / Lawrence / Lowell; and 3,101,000 in Houston / Galveston (World Resources Institute, World Resources: AReport [ 1992-93] ) . See alsoJ. Stackhouse, "Bom- bay Tries Again to End Slum Crisis," Globe and Mail, (Toronto) , 4June 1996; P. Knox, "Success Strangling Brazil's Biggest City," Globe and Mail, (Toronto), 3 June 1996.

41. E. Linden, "Expoding Cities," p. 55. 42. World Resources Institute, World Resources 1996-97: A Guide to the Global Environment,: The Urban Environment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 9. 43. Haie and Kumin (n. 23 above), p. 2.

44. Keyfitz, p. 119. 45. United Nations Department of International and Social Affairs.

46. E. Linden, "Exploding Cities," p. 60. 47. R. N. Damasceno and L. H. A. Azevedo, "The Brazilian Approach to Moni- tor and to Manage the Coastal Zone: An Underdeveloping Country Facing Problems of a Developed Country," in Oceans '86 Conference Record: Science Engineering Adven- ture, Monitoring Strategies Symposium, Vol. 3 (Washinton, D.C.: Marine Technology Society; New York: IEEEE, 1986), pp. 774-78. 48. Many favelados are now joining into community-based societies to bring needed housing, water, and electricity into the favelas. The Singapore project in Sao Paulo aims to replace 92,000 slum dwellings with five-story apartment blocks (P. Knox, "Brazil Could Have Answer on Housing," Globe and Mail [Toronto], 6 June 1996, AI). 49. R. Herz, "Coastal Ocean Space Management in Brazil," in Halsey and Abel, eds. (n. 12 above), pp. 29-47.

50. A. Herrera and A. T. Charles, "Costa Rican Coastlines: Mangroves, Reefs, Fisheries and People," in Wells and Ricketts, eds. (n. 22 above), 2:617. 51. 1 ha = 2.471 acres = 10,000 m�. Some 35% of global land area suffers from slight to severe desertification and in 1984 supported some 850 million people. Of these, 230 million lived on severely desertified lands (WCED [n. 14 above], p. 127). 52. United Nations Environment Programme, Status ofDesertification and Imple- �rcentation of the United Nations Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (Nairobi: UNEP, 1991); WCED, p. 127. 53. C. Burns, "King Hassan's Bedrock Faithful Face Tough Times," Globe and Mail (Toronto), 24 February 1996, p. D4.

54. G. Kocasoy, "Effects of Tourist Population Pressure on Pollution of Coastal Seas," Environmental Management 19, no. 1 (1995): 75-79.

55. P. S. Falk, "Eyes on Cuba: U.S. Business and the Embargo," Foreign Affairs 75, no. 2 (1996): 17. 56. Private investment is being encouraged to the equivalent of US$200 mil- lion. Interestingly, no new oil exploration licenses were being issued for around Hurghada (TelegraphJournal, 22 February 1992, p. 22), in a deliberate attempt to minimize environmental problems. 57. S. H. Smith, "Cruise Ships: A Serious Threat to Coral Reefs and Associated Organisms," Ocean and Shoreline Management 11 (1988): 231-48; Tourism, Concern 2 (1990), cited in R. E. Prosser, "The Ethics of Tourism," in The Environment in Ques- tion: Ethics and Global Issues, ed. D. E. Cooper andj. A. Palmer (London: Routledge, 1992), pp. 37-50. 58. J. S. Gray, "Marine Biodiversity: Patterns, Threats and Development of a Strategy for Conservation," draft report, IMO/FAO/UNESCO-IOC/WMO/

WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP), revised 16 August 1995. 59. An equation linking coliform concentration in coastal waters to human concentration, population density and beach types has been developed by Kocasoy. 60. P. Weber, untitled manuscript, World Watch (March/April 1994): 29; Prosser.

61. G. Gardner, "Water Tables Falling," in Vital Signs 1995: The Trends that Are Shaping OurFuture, ed. L. R. Brown, N. Lenssen, and H. Kane (Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute, 1995), pp. 122-23. 62. Ibid. Excessive pumping of fresh water from Taiwanese aquifers by prawn farms has resulted in extensive settling of land. The Taiwanese government has re- portedly banned construction of new culture ponds ( J. H. Primavera, "Intensive Prawn Farming in the Philippines: Ecological, Social, and Economic Implications," AMBIO 20, no. 1 [1991]: 30). 63. Brown and Jacobson (n. 1 above), p. 37. 64. R. Allison, "Environment and Water Resources in the Arid Zone," in Cooper and Palmer. 65. Half of the handpumps in coastal Gujarat in 1986 reportedly yielded salt water.

66. S. Postel, "Water: Rethinking Management in an Age of Scarcity," in Worldwatch Paper 62 (Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute, 1984), p. 25. 67. Local depletion of oxygen by plankton blooms can lead to large dead zones in coastal waters. In 1994, one of the largest dead zones stretched over some 16,000 kmz from the Mississippi Delta, fueled by human wastes in the estuary (Jackson [n. 26 above]). In the Tropics, Manila Bay, coastal Jakarta, Strait of Molucca, and the Gulf of Thailand all show serious ongoing anoxic conditions. Some 300 tons of bio- logical oxygen demand, in the form of raw sewage, has been calculated to be dumped daily into the Gulf of Thailand (0. Linden, "Human Impact on Tropical Coastal Zones," Nature and Resources 26, no. 4 [1990]: 3-11).

68. J. R. Schubel, R. L. Swanson, and N. S. Fisher, "The World Ocean as Waste Space: The Case for Equal Opportunity," in Halsey and Abel, eds. (n. 12 above), pp. 261-68. Almost 99% of the industrial pipelines, which themselves represent two- thirds of all such pipelines and 89% of the municipal pipelines are located in estuar- ies (U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment [n. 10 above], pp. 60-61). 69. J. N. Leonard, "Ocean Outfalls for Wastewater Discharges: Meeting Clean Water Act 403C Requirements," in M7 S-94: Challenges and Opportunities in the Marine Environrnent, Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C.: Marine Technology Society, 1994): 115-20. 70. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, p. 71. 71. The total municipal sewage sludge dumped in 1985 totaled 6.6 million wet mt (ibid., p. 67). 72. In early 1970s, the amount dumped peaked at ca. 5 million mt annually. This has since declined to around 200,000 mt annually (ibid).

73. The "Singapore project" is aimed at demolishing the favelas and replacing them with five-story condominiums housing 92,000 families (ca. one-quarter of the favela population; World Resources Institute, World Resources: A Report [1992-93; n. 32 above]; Paul Knox, "Success Strangling Brazil's Biggest City," Globe and Mail [Toronto], 3 June 1996, AI). 74. World Resources Institute, World Resources 1996-97 (n. 42 above), p. 72.

75. Verlaan (n. 30 above), p. 297; "Summit to Save the Earth: Who's Poisoning the Oceans?" Time (1 June 1992): 24-25. 76. Contaminant is the term reserved for a substance present in an insufficient quantity or concentration to cause measurable or detectable impact. Pollutant is the term reserved for a substance in a concentration sufficiently high to cause impact. 77. Harbor silt from Rotterdam is divided into four categories: slightly polluted silt carried into the harbor from offshore, moderately polluted mixture of harbor and sea silt, seriously polluted silt from the eastern harbor, and badly polluted silt formed from locally discharged wastes. Moderately and seriously polluted silts will be stored in the Slufter storage pits; that in the badly contaminated category will be stored in a separately constructed facility. With a total capacity of 150 million

m\ the facility is thought sufficient for the period 1987-2002 (C. A. H. M. Hubers, "River: Sludge Storage and Rhine Project," in Pacem in Maribus 20, Rotterdam [Malta: International Ocean Institute, 1990], panel 8, paper 8.10; R. E. Waterman, "Integrated Coastal Policy via Building with Nature: Flexible Integration of Land in Sea and of Water in Land, Using Forces and Materials Present in Nature," in Halsey and Abel, eds., pp. 215-32); G. Easterbrook, "A House of Cards," Newsweek (1 June 1992): 24-33. 78. The United States imports 60% of its seafood from 140 countries, all with their own seafood processing and preservation technologies and regulatory pro- cesses. Internationally, one finds two orders of magnitude variation for seafood con- taminants (R. Bowen, personal communication).

79. T. P. O'Connor and B. Beliaeff, "Recent Trends in Coastal Environmental Quality: Results from the Mussel Watch Project," in National Status and Trends Pro- gram, Marine Environmental Quality (Silver Springs, Maryland: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1995). 80. E. D. Goldberg, M. Koide, V. Hodge, A. R. Flegal, and J. Martin, "U.S. Mussei Watch: 1977-1978 Results on Trace Metals and Radionuclides," Estuarene, Coastal and Shelf Science 16 (1983): 69-93.

81. Selenium poisoning has been reported among fish-eating birds in the Kes- tersen National Wildlife Refuge, presumably from selenium-rich drainage from nearby agricultural soils (T. S. Presser, W. C. Swain, R. R. Tidball, and R. C. Severson,

"Geological Sources, Mobilization, and Transport of Selenium from the California Coast Ranges to the Western San Joaquin Valley: A Reconnaissance Study," U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 90-4070 [Menlo Park, Cal- ifornia, 1990]). 82. E. D. Goldberg, E. Gamble, J. J. Griffin, and M. Koide, "Pollution History of Narragansett Bay as Recorded in Its Sediments," Estuarine and Coastal Marine Sedimentology 5 (1977): 549-61; R. J. Wenning, N. L. Bonnevie, and S. L. Huntley, "Accumulation of Metals, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hy- drocarbons in Sediments from the Lower Passaic River, New Jersey," Archives ofEnvi- ronmental Contamination and Toxicology 27 (1994): 64-81. 83. For extensive review, see Verlaan. 84. Ibid., pp. 290-91; see also Y. Von Schirnding, R. Kfir, and L. Franklin, "A Prospective Epidemiological Study of Morbidity among Bathers Exposed to Waste- water Discharged to Sea," Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (1991).

85. D. L. Elder, "International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources," in Couper and Gold, eds. (n. 5 above), p. 58. 86. World Health Organization and United Nations Environment Programme, Public Health Problems in the Coastal Zone of the East African Regeon, UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies, no. 9 (Nairobi: UNEP, 1982). 87. O. Linden (n. 67 above), pp. 3-11. 88. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (n. 10 above), p. 137.

89. World Resources Institute and International Institute for Environment and Development (n. 14 above), p. 309. 90. World Resources Insitute, World Resources 1996-97 (n. 42 above), p. 253; R. G. Johnson, "Managing the Sierra Leone Coast," in Wells and Ricketts, eds. (n. 22 above), 2:330-344.

91. A. Soegiarto and N. Polumin, The Marine Environment of Indonesia, Report for the Government of the Republic of Indonesia, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, and the World Wildlife Fund (Bogor, Indonesia: IUCN/ / WWF, 1981). 92. J. R. Clark, Coastal Zone Management Handbook (Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Lewis, 1995), pp. 63-65. 93. O. Linden, p. 5. 94. Because of the rapid loss of mangrove lands from the coastal ecosystem, the remaining mangrove areas were placed under public trust through the Fisheries Code, and pond construction was slowed down. Renewed interest in prawn culture reversed this trend, however, and in the 1980s more than 30,000 ha of new ponds were constructed (Primavera [n. 62 above], p. 29). 95. World Resources Institute and the International Institute for Environment and Development, p. 151. 96. A. C. Alcala, S. G. Vergara, and V. P. Palaganas [n. 22 above].

97. Clark, p. 144. 98. Barcena [n. 5 above], p. 24. 99. United Nations Environment Programme, Ecological Interactions between Tropical and Coastal Ecosystems, Regional Seas Reports and Studies, no. 73 (Geneva: UNEP, 1985), p. 71; O. Linden, p. 5. 100. Clark, p. 344.

101. Food and Agriculture Organization, The State of Food and Agriculture 1984, Agriculture Series, no. 18 (Rome: FAO, 1985), p. 185. 102. A. Sasson, "Aquaculture: Realities, Difficulties and Outlook," in Richard- son, ed. (n. 33 above), pp. 61-72.

103. L. P. Zann, "The Status of Coral Reefs in South Western Pacific Islands," Marine Pollution Bulletin 29, nos. 1-3 (1994): 52-61. 104. Jackson (n. 26 above), pp. 64-65. 105. T. R. McClanahan and D. Obura, "Status of Kenyan Coral Reefs," Coastal Management 23 (1995): 57-76. 106. World Resources Institute, United Nations Environment Programme and United Nations Development Programme, World Resources 1992-93: A Guide to the Global Environment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), pp. 340-41; World Resources Institute (n. 42 above), pp. 310-11; A. E. Platt, "Aquaculture Boosts Fish Catch," in Vital Signs 1995, ed. L. Starke (New York: Norton, 1995), pp. 32-33.

107. In contrast to traditional pond culture, with stocking rates of 10,000 per ha and the use of tidal flushing and natural feed, semi-intensive and intensive sys- tems have stocking rates up to 300,000 per ha and use formulated feeds. As well, natural seawater is mixed with fresh water drawn from aquifers to attain optimum salinities. River waters are avoided because of contamination from domestic, agricul- tural, and industrial sources (Primavera [n. 62 above], p. 28).

108. Several million tons of often heavily medicated feed are used annually in fish mariculture, much of which is lost directly to the environment or is passed to the fish, leading to problems of disposal of medicated fish offal. A major environ- mental cost is the effluent and waste from intensive prawn farms, containing excess lime, organic wastes, pesticides, chemicals, and disease microorganisms, that is flushed indirectly or directly into estuarine and coastal waters (Primavera, p. 29). 109. M. Flaherty and Choomjet Karnjanakesorn, "Marine Shrimp Aquaculture and Natural Resource Degradation in Thailand," Environmental Management 19, no. 1 (1995): 27-37.

110. N. Mahmood, S. R. Chowdhury, and S. Q. Saikat, "Indiscriminate Expan- sion of Coastal Aquaculture in Bangladesh, Genesis of Conflicts: Some Suggestions," in Wells and Ricketts, eds. (n. 22 above), 4:1697. 111. Flaherty and Karnjanakesorn, p. 29. See also fig. 5. 112. The Ecuadorean government has formed six coastal management zones, with management committees composed of local and government members. Shrimp farmers receive special training on protecting the environment while operating the shrimp pond operations (Weber [n. 60 above], p. 29). 113. K. Merschrod, "In Search of a Strategy for Coastal Zone Management in the Third World: Notes from Ecuador," Coastal Management 17 (1989): 63-74. In 1984-86, a shrimp industry "crisis" arose in Ecuador, headed by a shortage of larvae for stocking ponds. Closed seasons were established to increase the natural availabil- ity of shrimp larvae.

114. H. Rosenthal, D. Weston, R. Gowen, and E. Black, "Environmental Im- pact of Mariculture," report of the ad hoc study group International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, statutory meeting CM 1987/F:2, Marine Environmental Quality Committee, 1987. 115. J. A. Dixon, "Valuation of Mangroves," Tropical Coastal Area Management 4 (1989): 1-6. 116. An estimated 70% of laborers of a region involved in agriculture gradually lose their employment on the introduction of shrimp farming. On the marginaliza- tion of indigineous people, see Flaherty and Kaarnjanakesorn, p. 27. 117. O. Linden (n. 67 above), pp. 3-11.

118. Hall (n. 15 above), pp. 169-73. 119. D. W. Fischer, "An Evaluation of Sandy Beach Access Policy in an Urbaniz- ing State: Florida's Save Our Coast Program," Ocean Shoreline Management 11 (1988): 101-12. 120. F. G. Parrish, "The Management of UK Marine Aggregate Dredging," in Advances in the Science and Technology of Ocean Management, ed. H. D. Smith, Ocean Policy Series (New York: Routledge, 1991), p. 94. 121. Blast-fishing is practiced widely but has been especially destructive in west- ern New Guinea and off Zambales in the Philippines, where huge chunks of reef have been blown apart to kill or stun the sought-after fish (Jackson [n. 26 above]).

122. The practice is now being controlled through a centrally operated coastal management system (Clark [n. 92 above], p. 581). 123. Nearshore reefs in Sri Lanka are not extensive because of high turbidity in the vicinity of river mouths. Furthermore, a major increase in human coastal population has increased demand for fish, which has led to more efficient fish- catching methods-blasting, use of nonselective fishing gear, and set nets (A. Raja- suriya and A. T. White, "Coral Reefs of Sri Lanka: Review of Their Extent, Condition, and Management Status," Coastal Management 23 [1995]: 77-90).

124. For a review of land reclamation and coastal zone management in Singa- pore, see Chia Lin Sien, "Managing Urban Coastal Zones: The Singapore Experi- ence," in Ocean Yearbook 9, ed. E. Mann Borgese, N. Ginsburg, and J. R. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), pp. 231-46. 125. For a review of land reclamation in Japan, see H. A. Shapiro, "The Land- filled Coast of Japan's Inland Sea," in Ocean Yearbook 7, ed. E. Mann Borgese, N. Ginsburg, andj. R. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), pp. 295- 316; Hajime Eguchi, "Highlights of Marine Civil Engineering in Japan," Marine Technolology Society Journal 29, no. 3 (1995): 79-90; Takeo Kondo, "Technological Advances in Japan's Coastal Development: Land Reclamation and Artificial Islands," Marine Technology Society Journal 29, no. 3 (1995): 42-49. 126. Tamotsu Okae and Hiroyuki Nakahara, "Concept of the Tokyo Bay Resto- ration for the 21st Century," in Halsey and Abel, eds. (n. 12 above), pp. 291-308. 127. Teruaki Furudoi and Yasuki Fujimori, "Present State and Future Outlook of Utilization of Coastal Ocean Space in Japan," in Halsey and Abel, eds., pp. 59- 82. 128. Susumu Maeda, "Construction of an Artificial Island to Accommodate the Kansai International Airport," in Halsey and Abel, eds., pp. 155-68.

129. Shouki Ohama and Yoshishige Itoh, "Promotion of Artificial Island Con- struction in Japan," in Halsey and Abel, eds., pp. 239-50. 130. Hitoshi Narita, "Coastal Marine Transportation and Floating Structures," Marine Technology Society Journal 29, no. 3 (1995): 50-57. 131. The Hong Kong conurbation actually includes several adjacent cities on the Kowloon peninsula and on Hong Kong island (World Resources Institute, World Resources 1996-97 [n. 42 above], p. 75); at the same time, more than 25,000 vehicles cross the three border points with mainland China daily, and 50 million people pass through five main passenger checkpoints annually (V. Paddy, "New Order, Same Barbed Wire," Globe and Mail [Toronto], 8 June 1996, D5). 132. World Resources Institute, World Resources 1996-97, p. 76.

133. Waterman (n. 77 above), pp. 215-32. 134. Of an estimated 80,940 ha of coastal wetlands that edged on San Francisco Bay, 80% has been lost to development; 4,000 ha of lagoons and swamps in Calcutta, India, were filled in to create housing, resulting in a loss of 25,000 mt of fish annually (World Resources Institute, World Resources 1996-97, p. 62); 25%-50% of wetland area in the developed world was lost during 1950-80 (Organization for Economic Development, Environmental Data-Compendium 1987 [Paris: OECD, 1987]). 135. IMO/FAO/UNESCO-IOC/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEPJointGroup of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP), Land-Sea Bound- ary Flux of Contaminants: Contributions from Rivers, Reports and Studies, no. 32 (Lon- don: International Maritime Organization, 1987), pp. 1-172; GESAMP, Anthropo- genic Influences on Sediment Discharge to the Coastal Zone and Environmental Consequences, Reports and Studies, no. 52 (London: International Maritime Organization, 1994), pp. 1-67.

136. Gray (n. 58 above). 137. J. G. Titus, "Greenhouse Effect and Coastal Wetland Policy: How America Could Abandon an Area the Size of Massachusetts at Minimum Cost," Environmental Management 15 (1991): 39-58; R. K. Turner, S. Subak, and W. N. Adger, "Pressures, Trends, and Impacts in Coastal Zones: Interactions between Socioeconomic and Natural Systems," Environmental Management 20, no. 2 (1996): 159-73. 138. Ph. Elmer-Dewitt, "Preparing for the Worst," Time 2 January 1989, pp. 62-63. 139. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Report on Coastal Zone Management: Integrated Policies and Draj"t Recommendation of the Council on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, OECD draft report (1991), ENV/EC(91)24.

140. J. MacNeill, P. Winsemius, and T. Yakushiji, Beyond Interdeßendence (Ox- ford: Oxford University Press, 1991); D. Pugh, "Sea-Level: Change and Challenge," Nature and Resources 26, no. 4 (1990): 36-46. 141. The Australian government has already offered the residents of several threatened South Pacific island states the opportunity to resettle in Australia (Mac- Neill, Winsemius, and Yakushiji, p. 16). 142. S. P. Leatherman and M. D. Games, "Sea Level Rise Impacts," 1990AAAS Annual Meeting Abstracts, p. 67.

143. D. Bryant, E. Rodenburg, T. Cox, and D. Nielsen, "Coastlines at Risk: An Index of Potential Development-Related Threats to Coastal Ecosystems," WRI Indicator Brief (Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1996). Bryant and coworkers link different human pressures (population density, cities, major ports, road networks, and pipelines) to direct (habitat loss, pollution, overfishing, and species introductions) and indirect stressors (coastal development, untreated sew- age, etc.). After ground truthing against 26 known test sites, the results suggest that just over half of the world's coastal ecosystems are presently at high or medium risk from development-related activities. While there are many limitations to the method, this approach does give an outline of the extent to which the coastal human component does not interact sustainably with existing coastal resources.

144. R. W. Knecht and B. Cicin-Sain, "Ocean Management and the Large Ma- rine Ecosystem Concept: Taking the Next Step," in Large Marine Ecosystems: Stress, Mitigation, and Sustainability (Washington, D.C.: AAAS, 1993), pp. 237-41. 145. D. K. Shreffler and R. M. Thom, "Landscape-Based Planning Procedure for Restoration of Estuarine Habitats," in 2nd Annual Marine and Estuarine Shallow Water Science and Management Conference (Philadelphia: EPA, 1995), p. 46. 146. The World Bank report on the Mediterranean points to lack of public awareness of environmental linkages as a fundamental problem ("The Environmen- tal Program for the Mediterranean: Preserving a Shared Heritage and Managing a Common Resource" [Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1990]). 147. Merschrod (n. 113 above), pp. 67-68. 148. Gordon (n. 21 above).

149. Brown and Jacobson (n. 1 above). 150. Sim and Balamurugan (n. 39 above).


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