1. A version of this paper was published in the Proceedings of the International Ocean Institute's PaceminMaribusXXVI Conference, held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, November 29-December 3, 1998.
2. Quoted in Joseph H. Hulse, "Progress in Development from Pearson to Brandt to Brundtland to Brazil," SustainableManagementofCoastalEcosystems, ed. M.S. Swaminathan and R. Ramesh (Madras: M.S. Swaminathan Research Founda- tion, 1993), p. 9. 3. Ibid. 4. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), OurCom-monFuture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 8.
5. Brundtland quoted in Christine Blackmore, TakingResponsibility:ScienceandTechnology (London: Pluto Press, 1989) p. 1.
6. It must be noted that the two paradigms are not geographical: the Northern paradigm being confined to the developed countries and the Southern to the devel- oping countries. There are followers of the Northern paradigm in the developing world and of the Southern one in the developed world. 7. I. Sachs, "Transition Strategies for the 21st Century" NatureandResources, 28, no. 1 (1992): 4-17. 8. "Spiritual dimensions" deal with nonmaterialistic issues like ethics, univer- sal values like human rights and ultimate meanings of life as are universally recog- nized by all religions in a spirit of fellow-feeling and a nonexclusive spirit.
9. Quoted in D. Goulet, "Ethics in Development Theory and Practice," PeaceandDevelopment:AnInterdisciplinaryPerspectives, ed. D. S. Sanders and J. K. Matsuoka (Honolulu: University of Hawaii, School of Social Work, 1989), p. 91. 10. R. Kothari, "Environment, Technology and Ethics" EthicsofEnvironmentandDevelopment (London: Belhoven Press, 1990), p. 27.
11. V. F. Tsarev, "Peaceful Uses of the Sea: Principles and Complexities" Ma-rinePolicy 12, no. 2 (1988): 153-9. 1996), 12. p. S. x. Chaturvedi, The Polar Regions: APoliticalGeography, (Chichester: Wiley, 13. R. O. Rasmussen, "Implementation of Sustainable Development" in Sus-tainabilityintheArctic, ed. T. Grieffenberg (Aalborg University Press, 1994), p. 25.
14. Ritchie-Calder, "Perspectives on the Sciences of the Sea," OceanYearbook 1, ed. Borgese and Ginsberg (University of Chicago Press, 1978), pp. 271-92.
15. E. M. Borgese, TheFutureoftheOceans (Montreal: Harvest House, 1986), p. 6. 16. See, for example, N. Myers, "Environmental Unknowns," Science 269 (1995): 358-60.
17. I. Prigogine and I. Stengers, OrderOutofChaos, 4th ed. (New York: Bantam, 1984).
18. J. E. Lovelock, Gaia: ANewLookatLifeonEarth (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1979), p. 1.
19. Ibid., p. 88.
20. ThusSpakeZarathustra, compiled by B. S. Surti (Madras: Ramakrishna Math, 1993), pp. 20-1. 21. AtharuaUeda, translated by W. D. Whitney, verse 12.1.35 (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas, 1996).
22. M. Weber and J. Gradwohl, TheWealthofOceans (New York: Norton, 1995), p. 96.
23. World Bank, MonitoringEnvironmentProgress (Washington: World Bank, 1995). 24. Weber and Gradwohl, (n. 22 above), p. 98.
25. O. Giarini, DialogweonWealthandWelfare (Oxford: Pergamon, 1980), pp. 121-26.
26. I. Prigogine and G. Nicolis, Self-OrganisationinNon-EquilibriumSystems:FromDissipativeStructurestoOrderthroughFluctuations (New York: Wiley Interscience, 1977). The new emerging order or organisation is called a dissipative structure be- cause it requires more energy for its maintenance than the earlier order or organisa- tion which it replaces. 27. P. W. Anderson, R. J. Arrow and D. Pines ed., TheEconomyasanEvolvingComplexSystem (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1988).
28. Classical economic systems conceptualise diminishing returns at the mar- gin thus leading to negative feedback which results in the system returning to the earlier equilibrium. Positive feedback or increasing returns at the margin leads to a new equilibrium. 29. K.J. Arrow, "Workshop on the Economy as an Evolving Complex System: Summary," in TheEconomyasanEvolvingComplexSystem, n. 26, pp. 275-9.
30. J. H. Holland, "The Global Economy as an Adaptive Process," in TheEcon-omyasanEvolvingComplexSystem, n. 26, pp. 117-20.