Knowledge and Sustainability of the Oceanic Ecosystem: Differing North-South Perspectives 1

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References

1. A version of this paper was published in the Proceedings of the International Ocean Institute's Pacem in Maribus XXVI Conference, held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, November 29-December 3, 1998.

2. Quoted in Joseph H. Hulse, "Progress in Development from Pearson to Brandt to Brundtland to Brazil," Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems, ed. M.S. Swaminathan and R. Ramesh (Madras: M.S. Swaminathan Research Founda- tion, 1993), p. 9. 3. Ibid. 4. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Our Com- mon Future (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 8.

5. Brundtland quoted in Christine Blackmore, Taking Responsibility: Science and Technology (London: Pluto Press, 1989) p. 1.

6. It must be noted that the two paradigms are not geographical: the Northern paradigm being confined to the developed countries and the Southern to the devel- oping countries. There are followers of the Northern paradigm in the developing world and of the Southern one in the developed world. 7. I. Sachs, "Transition Strategies for the 21st Century" Nature and Resources, 28, no. 1 (1992): 4-17. 8. "Spiritual dimensions" deal with nonmaterialistic issues like ethics, univer- sal values like human rights and ultimate meanings of life as are universally recog- nized by all religions in a spirit of fellow-feeling and a nonexclusive spirit.

9. Quoted in D. Goulet, "Ethics in Development Theory and Practice," Peace and Development: An Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ed. D. S. Sanders and J. K. Matsuoka (Honolulu: University of Hawaii, School of Social Work, 1989), p. 91. 10. R. Kothari, "Environment, Technology and Ethics" Ethics of Environment and Development (London: Belhoven Press, 1990), p. 27.

11. V. F. Tsarev, "Peaceful Uses of the Sea: Principles and Complexities" Ma- rine Policy 12, no. 2 (1988): 153-9. 1996), 12. p. S. x. Chaturvedi, The Polar Regions: A Political Geography, (Chichester: Wiley, 13. R. O. Rasmussen, "Implementation of Sustainable Development" in Sus- tainability in the Arctic, ed. T. Grieffenberg (Aalborg University Press, 1994), p. 25.

14. Ritchie-Calder, "Perspectives on the Sciences of the Sea," Ocean Yearbook 1, ed. Borgese and Ginsberg (University of Chicago Press, 1978), pp. 271-92.

15. E. M. Borgese, TheFuture of the Oceans (Montreal: Harvest House, 1986), p. 6. 16. See, for example, N. Myers, "Environmental Unknowns," Science 269 (1995): 358-60.

17. I. Prigogine and I. Stengers, Order Out of Chaos, 4th ed. (New York: Bantam, 1984).

18. J. E. Lovelock, Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1979), p. 1.

19. Ibid., p. 88.

20. Thus Spake Zarathustra, compiled by B. S. Surti (Madras: Ramakrishna Math, 1993), pp. 20-1. 21. Atharua Ueda, translated by W. D. Whitney, verse 12.1.35 (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas, 1996).

22. M. Weber and J. Gradwohl, The Wealth of Oceans (New York: Norton, 1995), p. 96.

23. World Bank, Monitoring Environment Progress (Washington: World Bank, 1995). 24. Weber and Gradwohl, (n. 22 above), p. 98.

25. O. Giarini, Dialogwe on Wealth and Welfare (Oxford: Pergamon, 1980), pp. 121-26.

26. I. Prigogine and G. Nicolis, Self-Organisation in Non-Equilibrium Systems: From Dissipative Structures to Order through Fluctuations (New York: Wiley Interscience, 1977). The new emerging order or organisation is called a dissipative structure be- cause it requires more energy for its maintenance than the earlier order or organisa- tion which it replaces. 27. P. W. Anderson, R. J. Arrow and D. Pines ed., The Economy as an Evolving Complex System (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1988).

28. Classical economic systems conceptualise diminishing returns at the mar- gin thus leading to negative feedback which results in the system returning to the earlier equilibrium. Positive feedback or increasing returns at the margin leads to a new equilibrium. 29. K.J. Arrow, "Workshop on the Economy as an Evolving Complex System: Summary," in The Economy as an Evolving Complex System, n. 26, pp. 275-9.

30. J. H. Holland, "The Global Economy as an Adaptive Process," in TheEcon- omy as an Evolving Complex System, n. 26, pp. 117-20.

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