Shipping and International Organizations: The Globalization of an Industry

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Shipping and International Organizations: The Globalization of an Industry

in Ocean Yearbook Online

References

2. For a detailed listing of international maritime conventions see, Institute of Maritime Law, The Ratification of Maritime Conventions, 4 Vols., updated annually (London: Lloyd's Press, 2001).

3. 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, (UN Doc. A/ CONF.62.122) in various articles. It is unfortunate that despite the fact that the Convention has been accepted by over 140 states, the United States, and Canada are not yet parties to the Convention.

C 4. For a more complete listing see E. Gold and C. Petrie, Ch. 3, E. Gold and d Petrie, Ch. 4 and J. Gratwick, Ch. 5, in Maritime Affairs: A World Handbook, 2nd ed., ed. E. Gold (London: Longmans, 1991).

5. At that stage there were 122 members and one associate member. By Sep- tember 2001, the IMO had 159 members and two associate members. 6. 300 permanent staff and an annual budget of US$56.3 million (1998-99). The budget is quite unique in the UN system as costs are shared between member states primarily in proportion to the size of each state's merchant fleet. 7. The actual status of IMO Conventions can be obtained from the IMO's web- site, online: (http://www.imo.org/).

8. The present IMO Secretary General is William O'Neil, C.M., of Canada.

9. See "Chapter 17," in United Nations, Agenda 21: Programme of Action for Sus- tainable Development, (New York: UN, 1993). 10. See E. Gold, "Chapter 3," in Gard Handbook on Marine Pollution, 2nd ed. (Arendal: Gard, 1998).75 11. As of 31 August 2001, Annex I/II had been accepted by 117 states (95 percent of world tonnage); Annex III has been accepted by 98 states (81 percent of world tonnage); Annex IV is not yet in force although it has been accepted by 81 states but comprising only 44 percent of world tonnage; Annex V has been ac- cepted by 102 states (82 percent of world tonnage); Annex VI was only developed in 1997, has been accepted by 3 states (9 percent of world tonnage), and is not yet in force.

P 12. OILPOL'54 has been superseded by the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973/1978 (MARPOL '73/'78). However, it is still applicable for some states.

13. See Vol. 1.6 in The Ratification of (Maritime Conventions (n. 2 above). 14. UNCTAD's annual operational budget is approximately US$55 million drawn from the regular UN budget. Technical cooperation activities undertaken by UNCTAD, and funded by extra-budgetary sources, amount to about US$22 million annually. 15. 1964 (Geneva); 1968 (New Delhi); 1972 (Santiago, Chile); 1976 (Nairobi); '979 (Manila); 1983 (Belgrade); 1987 (Geneva); 1992 (Cartagena, Colombia); 1996 (Midrand, South Africa).

16. M. J. Shah, "The Implementation of the UN Convention on a Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences," Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce, Vol. 9 ( 1974) p. 79. 17. The convention is not yet in force.

18. The United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea, 1978, concluded in Hamburg, Germany in March 1978, in force since November 1992.

19. International Tribunal of the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) Case Nos. 1 and 2, St. Vincent & the Grenadines v. Guinea (The MV Saiga) of 4 December 1997 and 1 July 1999; and ITLOS Cases No. 3 & 4, Southern Bluefin Tuna Cases (New Zealand v. Japan) and (Australia v. Japan), Orders on Provisional Matters.

20. See E. Gold (n. 10 above), at Appendix IV.

21. Including Hong Kong as an Associate Member.

22. The most recent (XXXVIIth) Conference was held in Singapore in 2001.

23. (1927), P.C.IJ. (Ser. A) No. 10. 24. Three recent IMO Conventions have been drafted by the CMI: CLC'69 (CMI Conference, Tokyo 1969); LLMC '76 (CMI Conference, Hamburg 1974); Sal-

,,age 1989 (CMI Conference, Montreal 1981). See CMI Yearbooks 1970, 1975 and 1981.

25. BIMCO has a membership of some 1,000 shipowners with more than 460 million tons, i.e., over 60 percent of the world fleet, as well as 1,500 shipbrokers and agents, in addition to most classification societies and P&I clubs. '

I 26. Editor's Note.-See p. 875 of this volume for the Directory of Ocean-re- lated Organizations.

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