Marine Biosecurity Issues in the World Oceans: Global Activities and Australian Directions

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Marine Biosecurity Issues in the World Oceans: Global Activities and Australian Directions

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References

1. J. A. Drake, H. A. Mooney, F. diCastri, R. H. Groves, F. J. Kruger, M. Rejma- nek and M. Williamson, eds., Biological Invasions: a global perspective. Scientific Com- mittee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE). Report no. 37. Chichester: John Wiley, 1989; J. Lubchenco, A. M. Olson, L. B. Brubaker, S. R. Carpenter, M. M. Holland, S. P. Hubbell, S. A. Levin, J. A. MacMahon, P. A. Matson, J. M. Melillo, H. A. Mooney, C. H. Peterson, H. R. Pulliam, L. A. Real, P. J. Regal and P. G. Risser, "The sustainable biosphere initiative: an ecological research agenda," Ecology 72 (1991): 371-412; D. Lodge, "Species Invasions and Deletions: Community Effects and Responses to Climate and Habitat Change," in Biotic Interactions and Global Change, eds. P. M. Kareiva, J. G. Kingsolver, R. B. Huey (Sunderland: Sinauer Associ- ates, 1993), pp. 367-87; D. M. Lodge, "Biological invasions: lessons for ecology," Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8 (1993): 133-37. 2. J. T. Carlton, "Introduced Invertebrates of San Francisco Bay," in San Fran- cisco Bay: an urbanized estuary, ed. T. J. Conomos (San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, 1979), pp. 427-42; J. T. Carlton, "Man's role in changing the face of the ocean: biological invasions and implications for conservation of nearshore envi- ronments," Conseruation Biology 3 (1989): 265- 73; T. J. Case and D. T. Bolger, "The role of introduced species in shaping the distribution and abundance of island rep- tiles," Evolutionary Ecology 5 (1991): 272-90; S. L. Pimm, The Balance of Nature? (Chi- cago: University of Chicago Press, 1991 ) ; J. T. Carlton, "Pattern, process, and predic- tion in marine invasion ecology," Biological Conseruation 78 (1996): 97-106; J. T. Carlton, "Global Change and Biological Invasions in the Oceans," in Invasive Species in a Changing World, eds. H. A. Mooney and R. J. Hobbs (Washington, D.C: Island Press, 2000), pp. 31-53.

3. Lodge (n. 1 above); Pimm (n. 2 above). 4. G. M. Ruiz, P. Fofonoff and A. H. Hines, "Non-indigenous species as stres- sors in estuarine and marine communities: assessing invasion impacts and inter- actions," Limnology and Oceanography 44 (1999): 950-72; G. M. Ruiz, J. T. Carlton, E. D. Grosholz and A. H. Hines, "Global invasions of marine and estuarine habitats by non-indigenous species: mechanisms, extent and consequences," American Zoolo- gist 37 (1997): 621-32; G. M. Ruiz, P. W. Fofonoff, J. T. Carlton, M. J. Wonham and A. H. Hines, "Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases," Annual Reuiezu of Ecology and Systematics 31 (2000): 481-531. 5. A. W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism: the biological expansion of Europe, 900- . 1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 368. 6. D. Lodge, Biotic Interactions and Global Change, (n. 1 above); M. Ribera and C. F. Boudouresque, "Introduced marine plants, with special reference to macro- algae: mechanisms and impact," Progress in Phycological Research 11 (1995): 187-68; P. M. Vitousek, C. M. D'Antonio, L. L. Loope and R. Westbrooks, "Biological inva- sions as global environmental change," American Scientist 84 (1996): 468-77; Carl- ton, Biological Conservation, (n. 2 above); A. N. Cohen andj. T. Carlton, "Accelerat- ing invasion rate in a highly invaded estuary," Science 279 (1998): 55-58. 7. Drake et al., Biological Invasions: a global perspective (n. 1 above); R. H. Groves and J. J. Burdon, eds., Ecology of Biological Invasions: An Australian Perspective. (Lon- don: Cambridge University Press, 1986); R. L. Kitching, ed., The Ecology of Exotic Animals and Plants: Some Australian Case Histories, (Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons, 1986), pp. 262-70; I. A. W. MacDonald, F. J. Kruger and A. A. Ferrar, eds., The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in South Africa, (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1986); H. A. Mooney and J. A. Drake, eds., Ecological Studies, vol. 58, Ecology of Biological Invasions of North America and Hazuaii, (New York: Springer- Verlag, 1986); W. Joenje, "The SCOPE Programme on the Ecology of Biological Invasions: An Account of the Dutch Contribution," in The Ecology of Biological Inva- sions, eds. W. Joenje, K Bakker and L Vlijm, Proceedings of the Komnklijke Neder- landse Akadamie Wetenschappen C 90 (1987), pp. 3-13; F. R. S. Kornberg and M. H. Williamson, eds., Quantitative Aspects of the Ecology of Biological Invasions (Lon- don: The Royal Society, 1987); F. diCastri, A. J. Hansen and M. Debussche, eds., Invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin (Berlin: Kluwer Academic, 1990); T. F. Nalepa and D. W. Schloesser, eds., Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Controls

(Boca Raton: Lewis, 1993) ; A. Rosenfield and R. Mann eds., Dispersal of Living Organ- isms into Aquatic Ecosystems (College Park: University of Maryland, 1992). 8. A. N. Cohen andj. T. Carlton, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species in a United States Estuary: a case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta (Washing- ton, D.C.: United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995), p. 246; Cohen and Carlton, Science (n. 6 above); S. L. Coles, R. C. DeFelice, L. G. Eldredge and J. T. Carlton. "Biodiversity of Marine Communities in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii with Observations on Introduced Exotic Species." Bishop Museum Technical Report. Report no. 10. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum, 1997, p. 76; H. J. Cranfield, D. P. Gordon, R. C. Willan, B. A. Marshall, C. N. Battershill, M. P. Francis, W. A. Nelson, C. J. Glasby and G. B. Read. "Adventive Marine Species in New Zealand," NIWA Technical Report. National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research. Report no. 34. Wellington, New Zealand: NIWA, 1998, ; C. L. Hewitt, M. L. Campbell, R. E. Thresher and R. B. Martin, eds. "Marine Biological Invasions of Port Phillip Bay, Victoria," CRIMP Technical Report. Center for Research on Introduced Marine Pests. Report no. 2. Hobart: CSIRO Marine Research, 1999, p. 344; Ruiz et al., American Zoologist (n. 4 above); Ruiz et al., Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics (n. 4 above). 9. Cohen and Carlton (n. 8 above); Cohen and Carlton, Science (n. 6 above); Coles et al. (n. 8 above); Cranfield et al. (n. 8 above); K. R. Hayes, "Ecological risk assessment for ballast water introductions: a suggested approach," ICES Journal of Marine Science 55 (1998): 201-12; P. Hutchings, J. Van der Velde and S. Keable, "Baseline Study of the Benthic Macrofauna of Twofold Bay. N.S.W., with a Discus- sion of the Marine Species Introduced into the Bay," Proceedings of the Linnean Society of N.S.W. 110, 1989, p. 339-67; K.Jansson. Alien Species in lhe Marine Environ- ment. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Report 4357. Solna, Sweden: Swed- ish Environmental Protection Agency, 1994, p. 68. 10. J. T. Carlton, "Biological invasions and cryptogenic species," Ecology 77 ( 1996) : 1653-55. 11. Cohen and Carlton, Science, (n. 6 above); Note that Cohen and Carlton report 212 species from freshwater, estuarine and marine habitats in San Francisco Bay, however, a re-analysis of the data results in 164 estuarine and marine species in order to make the data comparable to other locations. 12. Coles et al. (n. 8 above).

13. Hewitt et al. (n. 8 above).

14. J. T. Carlton and J. B. Geller, "Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms," Science 261 (1993): 78-82 (n. 12 above). 15. Biosecurity, or biological security, is defined as the activities and strategies concerning protection of native biodiversity including the prevention (quarantine and barrier control efforts) and post-incursion response (eradication and/or con- trol) to invasive species. 16. H. A. Mooney and R. J. Hobbs, eds., Invasive Species in a Changing World (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2000), p. 457. 17. Cohen and Carlton, Science (n. 6 above). 18. B. J. Abrahamsson, "International Shipping: Developments, Prospects, and Policy Issues," Ocean Yearbook 8, ed. E. Mann Borgese and N. Ginsburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), pp. 158-75.

19. Coles et al. (n. 8 above); Hewitt et al. (n. 8 above). 20. Report by the National Task Force on the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions. Joint SCC/SCFA National Task Force on the Prevention and Manage- ment of Marine Pest Incursions. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2000, p. 183.

21. Australian State of the Environment Committee. Australia State of the Envi- ronment, 2001. Independent report to the Commonwealth Minister for the Environ- ment and Heritage. Canberra: CSIRO Publishing, p. 130. 22. D. Paterson and K. Colgan, Invasive Marine Species: An international problem requiring international solutions (Canberra: AQIS, 1998), p. 30. 23. K. R. Hayes and C. L. Hewitt. "A Risk Assessment Framework for Ballast Water Introductions," CRIMP Technical Report. Center for Research on Introduced Marine Pests. Report no. 14. Hobart: CSIRO, Division of Marine Research, 1998, p. 75; K- R. Hayes and C. L. Hewitt, "Quantitative Biological Risk Assessment of the Ballast Water Vector: An Australian Approach," in Marine Bioinvasions, Proceedings of theFirst National Conference, 24-27 January, ed. J. Pederson (Boston, Massachusetts: Massa- chusetts Institute of Technology, Sea Grant College Program, 2000), pp. 370-86. 24. C. L. Hewitt and R. B. Martin. "Port Surveys for Introduced Marine Species- Background considerations and sampling protocols, " CRIMP Technical Report. Center for Research on Introduced Marine Pests. Report no. 4. Hobart: CSIRO, Division of Fisheries, 1996, p. 40; C. L. Hewitt and R. B. Martin. `Revised Protocols for baseline port surveys for introduced marine species-desigrt considerations, sampling protocols and taxonomic sufficiency, " CRIMP Technical Resort. Center for Research on Introduced Marine Pests. Report no. 22. Hobart: CSIRO Marine Research, 2001, p. 46. . 25. Accessed 20 August 2002 on the World Wide Web: .

26. UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/6/'7.53. 27. S. Raaymakers, "Port Surveys Underway," Ballast Water News, no. 4 (janu- ary-March 2001), pp. 3-5. 28. M. L. Campbell, Global Port Survey Coordinator, CPM, pers. comm.; Raay- makers (n. 27 above). 29. C. O'Brien, NZ Ministry of Fisheries, pers comm.; B. Taylor (project leader). Nezu Zealand under siege: a review of the management of biosecurity risks to the environment. Office of the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment. Te Kaitiaki Taiao Te Whare Paremata. 2001, 30. Cohen and Carlton, Science (n. 6 above). 31. R. E. Thresher, C. L. Hewitt and M. L. Campbell. "Synthesis: exotic and cryptogenic species in Port Phillip Bay," The Introduced Species of Port Phillip Bay,

Victoria, Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests. Technical Report no. 20. ed. C. L. Hewitt et al. Hobart: CSIRO Marine Research, 1999, pp. 283-95. 32. Carlton, Biological Conservation (n. 2 above).

'New introductions for Australia. 1. S. Talman, S. S. Bite, S. J. Campbell, M. Holloway, M. McArthur, D.J. Ross and M. Storey, "Impacts of some introduced species found in Port Phillip Bay," in Marine Biologiral /nvasions o/�Po� Phillip Bay, Victoria, no. 20 of CRIMP Technical Report, ed., C. L. Hewitt et al. (Hobart: CSIRO Marine Research, 1999), p. 261-74 2. R. B. Martin, C. L. Hewitt, S. Rainer, M. L. Campbell, K. M. Moore and N. B. Murfet. "Introduced Species Survey of Devonport, Tasmania," A CRIMP Report for the Devonport Port Authority. Hobart, Tasmania: CSIRO Division of Fisheries, 1996. 3. S. J. Campbell and T. R. Burridge, "Occurrence of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia," Marine and Freshwater Research 49 (1998): 379-81. 4. C. L. Hewitt, P. Gibbs, M. L. Campbell, K. M. Moore and N. B. Murfet. "Introduced Species Survey of Twofold Bay . (Eden), New South Wales," A CRIMP Report for the New South Wales Office of Marine Affairs. Hobart, Australia: CSIRO Division of Fisheries, 1997. 5. N. Bax, "Eradicating a dreissenid from Australia," Dreissena! 10 (1999): 1-5. 6. R. C. Willan, B. C. Russell, N. B. Murfet, K. L. Moore, F. R. McEnnulty, S. K. Horner, C. L. Hewitt, G. M. Dally, M. L. Campbell and S. T. Bourke, "Outbreak of Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz, 1849) (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) in Australia," Molluscan Research 20 (2000): 25-30. 7. R. Ferguson, "The Effectiveness of Australia's Response to the Black Striped Mussel Incursion in Darwin, Australia," A Report to the Marine Pest Incursion Management. Worhshop, 27-28 August 1999, (Canberra: Department of Environ- ment and Heritage, 2000). 8. V. Neveraskus, S.A. Primary Industries and Resources, pers. comm. 9. B. Schaffelke N. Murphy and S. Uthicke, "Using genetic techniques to investigate the sources of the invasive alga Caulerpa taxijolia in three new locations in Australia," Marine Pollution Bulletin 44 (2002): 204-10. 10. J. Gilliland, S.A. Primary Industries and Resources, pers. comm. 11. L. Gray, "Taking on the intruders!," Southern Fisheries 8 (Autumn 2001): 6-8. 12. K. R. Hayes and C. Sliwa, "Identifying Australia's next marine pests-a deductive approach," MarinePollution Bulletin (in press). 13. P. Waterman, pers. comm. 14. J. Lewis, DSTO, pers. comm.

33. M. L. Campbell and C. L. Hewitt. "Vectors, shipping and trade," The Intro- duced Species of Port Phillip Bay, Victoria. Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests. Technical Report no. 20. ed. C. L. Hewitt et al. Hobart: CSIRO Marine Re- search, 1999, pp. 45-60. 34. International Convention on the Control of Harmful Antifouling Systems to be adopted at a conference in October 2001. 35. D. Simberloff and B. von Holle, "Positive interactions of nonindigenous species: invasional meltdown?," Biological Invasions 1 (1999): 21-32. 36. L. Glowka, "Accountability and Legislation," Symposium Proceedings of the Best Management Practices for Presenting and Controlling Invasive Alien Species (Cape Town: the South Africa-United States of America Bi-National Commission, 2000), Pp. 68-81.

37. Coles et al. (n. 8 above); Cranfield et al. (n. 8 above); Hewitt et al. (n. 8 above); R. E. Thresher, "Diversity, impacts and options for managing invasive ma- rine species in Australian waters," Australian Journal of Environmental Management 6 (September 1999): 137-48; R. E. Thresher, "Key threats from marine bioinvasions: a review of current and future issues," Marine Bioinvasions, Proceedings of the First National Conference, 24-27 January, ed. J. Pederson (Boston, Massachusetts: Massa- chussetts Institute of Technology, Sea Grant College Program, 2000), pp. 24-24. 38. Cohen and Carlton (n. 8 above); Cohen and Carlton (n. 6 above). 39. Coles et al. (n. 8 above). 40. Cranfield et al. (n. 8 above). 41. R. E. Thresher, C. L. Hewitt and M. L. Campbell. "Synthesis: exotic and cryptogenic species in Port Phillip Bay," The Introduced Species of Port Phillip Bay, Victoria. Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests. Technical Report no. 20. ed. C. L. Hewitt et al. Hobart: CSIRO Marine Research, 1999, pp. 283-95. 42. Annex to Resolution A.868(29), 20th IMO Assembly, 1997, which updates the 1993 IMO Guidelines for Preventing the Introduction of Unwanted Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens from Ships' Ballast Waters and Sediments Discharges (IMO Assembly Res. A.774 (18)). 43. G. Rigby. Ballast Water Treatment to Minimise the Risk of Introducing Nonindige- nous Marine Organisms into Australian Ports. Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry-Aus- tralia. Report no. 13. Canberra: AFFA, January, 2001.

44.Australia'sOceansPolicy. Canberra: Environment Australia, 1999, Ac- cessed 20 August 2002 on the World Wide Web: . 46. Accessed 20 August 2002 on the World Wide Web: . 47. Developed by CSIRO CRIMP, Hayes and Hewitt (n. 23 above). 48. Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, Work- ing Together to Reduce Impacts from Shipping Operations: ANZECC strategy to protect the marine environment, vols. 1-3, (Canberra: Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, 1996). 49. N. Bax, "Eradicating a dreissenid from Australia," Dreissena! 10 (1999): 1- 5; R. C. Willan, B. C. Russell, N. B. Murfet, K. L. Moore, F. R. McEnnulty, S. K. Horner, C. L. Hewitt, G. M. Dally, M. L. Campbell and S. T. Bourke, "Outbreak of Mytilopsis sallei ([Recluz, 1849] [Bivalvia: Dreissenidae] ) in Australia," Molluscan Research 20 (2000): 25-30. 50. Under the Ballast Water Research and Development Funding Act 1998 and the Ballast Water Research and Development Funding Levy Collection Act 1998. 51. Maximum of AU$2 million over 3 years.

52. N. J. Bax and F. McEnnulty. Rapid Response Options for Managing Marine Pest Incursions. Final Report for National Heritage Trust Coast & Clean Seas Project 21249. Hobart: CSIRO Marine Research, 2001. Accessed 20 August, 2002 on the World Wide Web: . 53. New Zealand Biosecurity Act of 1993, Annex 1. 54. Taylor (n. 29 above). 55. U. Ritte and U. N. Safriel, "The Theory of Island Biogeography as a Model for Colonization in More Complex Systems," Proceedings of the 8th Scientific Meet- ing of the Israel Ecological Society, 1977, pp. 288-94; U. N. Safriel and U. Ritte, Criteria for the identification of potential colonizers," Biologicaljoumal of the Lin- nean Society 13 (1980): 287-97; P. A. Parsons, The Evolutionary Biology of Colonizing Species, (London: Cambridge University Press, 1983); R. C. Willan, "The mussel Mus- culista senhousia in Australia: another aggressive alien highlights the need for quaran- tine at ports," Bulletin of Marine Science 41 (1987): 475-89; Carlton, Biological Conser-

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. 63. E. D. Grosholz and G. M. Ruiz, "Predicting the impact of introduced ma- rine species: lessons from the multiple invasions of the European Green Crab Carci- nus maenas," Biological Conservation 78 (1996): 59-66. 64. Carlton, Conservation Biology (n. 2 above). 65. D. Pimentel, L. Lach, R. Zuniga and D. Morrison, "Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States," BioSczence 50 (Janu- ary 2000): 53-64. . 66. C. S. Culver and A. M. Kuris, "The apparent eradication of a locally estab- lished introduced marine pest," Biological Invasions 2 (2000): 245-53. 67. Bax, Dreissena! (n. 49 above); Willan et al., Molluscan Research (n. 49 above). 68. Report by the National Taskforce on the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions, (n. 20, above).

69. M. Williamson, Biological Invasions (London: Chapman & Hall, 1996). 70. G. J. Vermeij, "An agenda for invasion biology," Biological Conseroation 78 (1996): 3-9. 71. H. A. Mooney, "Global Invasive Species Program (GISP), in Invasive Species and Biodiversity Management, eds. O. T. Sanderlund, P. J. Schei and A. Viken (Dor- drecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publisher, 1999), pp. 407-18. . 72. H. A. Mooney and R. J. Hobbs, "Global Change and Invasive Spe- cies: Where do we go from here?" in Invasive Species in a Changing World, eds. H. A. Mooney and R. J. Hobbs (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2000).

73. Glowka (n. 36 above). 74. Discussions in various working groups, for example, CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Ad- vice (SBSTTA), IMO MEPC Ballast Water Working Group, ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) Working Group on Introductions and Trans- fers of Marine Organisms, and IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature: now the World Conservation Union) /SCOPE, Global Invasive Species Program.

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