Non-European Sources of Law of the Seat†

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  • 'rEDITORS' NOTE.-An earlier version of this article was presented as a keynote address at the Pacem in Maribus XXVIII Conference-The European Challenge, Hamburg, Germany, December 3-6, 2000. 1. J. H. W. Verzijl, "Western European Influence on the Foundations of Inter- national Law," in International Law in Historical Perspective, ed. J. H. W. Verzijl. (Leyden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1968), pp. 435-36. 2. Ibid, p. 442. 3. See C. H. Alexandrowicz, An Introduction to the History of the Law of Nations in the East Indies (16th, 17th and 18th Centuries) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967).

  • 4. B. V. A. Roling, International Law in an Expanded World (Amsterdam: Djamba- ton, 1960), p. 10. 5. J. L. Kunz, "Pluralism of legal and value systems and International Law," in The Changing Law of Nations, ed. J. L. Kunz (Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State Univer- sity Press, 1968), p. 48. 6. See A. Nussbaum, A Concise History of the Law of Nations (New York: Macmil- lan, 1962), p. 191; See also several writers quoted in R. P. Anand, New States and International Law, (Delhi: Vikas Pub. House, 1972), p. 7. 7. Verzijl (n. 1 above), p. 445. 8. Nussbaum (n. 6 above), p. 10.

  • 9. Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas. Done at Geneva, 29 May 1958. Entered into force, 20 March 1966. 10. See T. W. Fulton, The Sovereignty of the Sea (London: W. Blackwood, 1911) (Reprinted Millwood, New York: Krauss Reprint Co., 1976) , p. 593-603; J. L. Brierly, The Law of Nations, (6th Ed. by Sir H. Waldock) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963), p. 205-206.

  • 11. See C. Meurer, The Program of the Freedom of the Sea (Tr. from German by L.J. Franchenberg) (Washington: Govt. Print. Off., 1919), p. 4-7. 12. Ibid, p. 7. 13. H. Grotius, The Freedom of the Seas or The Right which belongs to the Dutch to take part in the East Indies Trade (Tr. by R. Van Deman Magoffin and Edited with an Introduction by J. B. Scott) (New York: Oxford University Press, 1916). 14. W. S. M. Knight, "Seraphin de Freitas: Critic of Mare Liberum," Transactions of Grotius Society, Vol. 11 (1926), p. 1. 15. See W. S. M. Knight, The Life and Works of Hugo Grotius, (London: Sweet and Maxwell, 1925), p. 79. 16. G. F. Hudson, quoted by K. M. Panikkar, Asia and Western Dominance (Lon- don: Allen & Unwin, 1953), p. 25.

  • 17. See Panikkar (n. 16 above), p. 31-32. 18. Alexandrowicz (n. 3 above), p. 224. 19. Alexandrowicz, Ibid. 20. See The Travels of Marco Polo (W. Marsden ed. and tr. 1948); I. Batutta, Travels in Asia and Africa (1325-54) (H. A. R. Gibb tr.); Narrative and Journey of Abd-er-Razak, A Persian Traveler and Ambassador of Shah Rukh (1442), India in theFifteenth Century (R. H. Major tr. & ed.) 21. See H. G. Rawlinson, Intercourse Between India and the Western World from the Earliest Times to the Fall of Rome (1926), p. 9-12; See also E. H. Warmington, The Commerce between the Roman Empire and India (Delhi: Vikas Pub. House, 1974), p. 35 ff.

  • 22. For a translation of both codes, see J. M. Pardessus, Collection de Lois Mari- times (1895), p. 6; See also Sir S. Raffles, "The Maritime Code of the Malays," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Straits Branch), vol. 2 (Dec. 1879), p. 1-20. 23. Quoted in G. J. Resink, Indonesia: History between the Myths (The Hague: W. van Hoeve, 1968), p. 45. 24. See Fulton (n. 10 above), p. 3-5; P. B. Potter, Freedom of the Seas in History, Laru and Politics (New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1924), p. 36-38.

  • 25. See M. A. P. Meilink-Roelofsz, Asian Trade and European Influence (Grav- enhage: Nijhoff, 1962), p. 136-72. 26. Knight (n. 14 above), p. 80. 27. Alexandrowicz (n. 3 above), p. 229; See also Ibid, p. 44.

  • 28. Grotius (n. 13 above), p. 28 ff. 29. Grotius, Ibid. 30. See G. N. Clark, "Grotius' East India Mission to England," Transactions of the Grotius Society, Vol. 20 (1934), p. 79; also Knight (n. 14 above), p. 136-43. 31. In England, "Mare Clausum became in a sense a law book." Fulton (n. 10 above), p. 374. 32. See Potter (n. 24 above), p. 61.

  • 33. See Sir G. Butler and S. Maccoby, The Development of International Law (Lon- don: Longmans, Green and Co., 1928), p. 53. 34. See Fulton (n. 10 above), p. 593-603; J. L. Brierly, "The doctrine of the contiguous zone and the dicta in Croft vs. Dunphy," British Yearbook of International Lazu, vol. XIV (1933), p. 156.

  • 35. See C.J. Colombos, International Law of the Sea, 6th ed. (New York: D. Mckay Co., 1967), p. 62, 748-52; J. Stone, Legal Controls of International Conflict (New York: Rinehart, 1959), p. 484 ff., 500 ff. 36. There is no dearth of cases of trigger-happy western naval commanders using naval ordnance against "backward" peoples of Asia and Africa on the smallest excuse, or no excuse at all. It was the classic age of punitive or minatory bombard- ments. See for details of numerous cases R. R. Palmer and J. Colton, A History of the Modern World, 3rd ed. (New York: Knopf, 1965), p. 548 ff.; 615 ff.

  • 37. See for such defense by both the US and British Governments, M. Whiteman, Digest of International Law, Vol. 4 (Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of State, 1965), p. 585 ff. 600 ff. 38. See J. S. Reeves, " The codification of the law of territorial waters," Ameri- can Journal of International Law, Vol. 24 (1930): 493.

  • 39. See United Nations' Memorandum on the Regime of the High Seas (reputed to have been prepared by the French jurist Gidel) UN General Assembly Document No. A/CN.4/38, 14 July 1950, pp. 2-3.

  • 40. See Proclamation No. 2667, 10 Fed.Reg. (1945), p. 12, 303. 41. See UN Memorandum (n. 39 above), p. 2-3. 42. See Draft synoptical table prepared by the UN Secretariat in pursuance of the Resolution of First Committee (Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone) at its 14th meeting (March 13, 1958) UN Document A/Con£ 13/C.ll; March 20, 1958; Ibid, Rev 1, April 1, 3, 1958; Ibid, Rev. 1, Corr. 2, Apr. 22, 1958.

  • 43.7.C.y.Reports, 1951, p. 132. 44. UN Memorandum (n. 39 above), p. 112. 45. Convention on the Territorial Sea; Convention on the High Seas; Conven- tion on Fishing and Living Resources of the High Seas; and Convention on the Continental Shelf. 46. See R. P. Anand, "Winds of Change in the Law of the Sea," in R. P. Anand (ed.), Law of the Sea: Caracas and Beyond (New Delhi: Radiant Publishers, 1978), p. 41 ff.

  • 47. See A. H. Dean, "The Second Conference on the Law of the Sea: Fight for the Freedom of the Seas," American journal of International Law, Vol. 54 (1960), p. 752; R. L. Friedheim, "The Satisfied and Dissatisfied States negotiate Interna- tional Law," World Politics, Vol. 18 (1965), p. 20-41. 48. See U. Mya Sein (Burma), Shukairy (Saudi Arabia) and Hassan (UAR), Second UN Conference on the Law of the Sea: Official Records, Summary Records of Plenary Meetings and Meetings of the Committee of the Whole, UN Doc. A/CONF.1918 Geneva, March 17 to April 26, 1960, p. 58, 74, 102.

  • 49. A. Pardo, UN Document A/C.I/PV.1515, Nov. 1, 1967, p. 6. 50. G.A. Res. 2749 (XXV) 25 UN GAOR Supp. No. 28, 24, UN Doc. A/8028 (1970) 51. C. W. Pinto, "Problems of developing states and their effects on the law of the sea," in L. M. Alexander (ed.), Needs and Interests of the Developing Countries (Kingston, Rhode Island: The University Press, 1973), p. 4; See also Lusaka Declara- tion of Third Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-aligned Coun- tries, September 1970, UN DOC. A/AC 134/34, 30 April 1971, p. 5.

  • 52. W. Friedman, "Selden Redivivus: Towards a Partition of the Seas," Ameri- can Journal of International Law (1971), p. 763. 53. H. Lauterpacht, "Sovereignty over submarine areas," British Year Book of International Law, Vol. XXVII (1950), p. 198, 403-407. 54. See Vratusa (Yugoslavia), Third LIN Conference on the Law of the Sea, Official Records, Vol 1, p. 92, UN Sales No. E. 75, V.3 (1975). 55. Warioba (United Republic of Tanzania), Ibid, p. 92. 56. H. S. Amersinghe (Sri Lanka), Ibid, p. 218. 57. Raharijaona (Madagascar), Ibid, p. 106. 58. C. A. Peres, Ibid, p. 36. 59. T. B. Koh, President of the UNCLOS III quoted in R. P. Anand, "Odd Man Out: The United States and UN Convention on the Law of the Sea," in J. M. Van Dyke, Consensus and Confrontation: The United States and the Law of the Sea Conven- tion (Honolulu: Law of the Sea Institute, University of Hawaii, 1985), p. 73.

  • 60. See J. Stevenson and B. Oxman, "Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea: The 1975 Geneva Session," American Journal of International Law, 69 (1975): 774-81. 61. See B. Oxman, "Law of the Sea Forum: the 1994 Agreement on Implemen- tation of the Seabed Provisions of the Convention on the Law of the Sea," American Journal of International Lazu, 88 (1994), p. 687 ff; L. B. Sohn, "International Law Implications of the 1994 Agreement," American Journal of International Law, 88 (1994): 696.


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