Beyond Fiduciary Duty: Aboriginal Rights and Integrated Coastal Zone Management in New Zealand and Canada*

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References

*The author would like to thank Lucia Fanning for her direction with research for this article and Maria Heemskerk for her editing suggestions. 1. Resource Management Act, Statutes of New Zealand, 1991, No. 69.

2. B. Cicin-Sain and R. Knecht, Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management: Con- cepts and Practices (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998), p. 39. 3. L. Hildebrand and E. Norrena, "Approaches towards effective integrated coastal zone management," Marine Pollution Bulletin 25 (1992): 94-95. See also J. Sorenson, "The international proliferation of integrated coastal zone management efforts," Ocean and Coastal Management 21 (1993): 47-8.

4. Agenda 21: "Programme of Action for Sustainable Development" (Rio de Janeiro: UNCED, 1992). Accessed 14 April 2000 on the World Wide Web: http:// / www.unep.org. 5. Agenda 21, Chapter 17; also Cicin-Sain and Knecht (n. 2 above), p. 86. 6. World Bank, Noordwijk Guidelines for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (Noordwijk: World Coast Conference, 1993). 7. World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 8. 8. Ibid.; also see Cicin-Sain and Knecht (n. 2 above), p. 83. 9. See Hildebrand and Norrena (n. 3 above), pp. 94-5. 10. Cicin-Sain and Knecht (n. 2 above), p. 45.

11. Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 13 June 1992, U.N. Doc. A/CONF. 151/5/Rev.l at Principle 22. Accessed 14 April 2000 on the World Wide Web: http://www.unep.org. 12. U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1994/2/Add.l(1994). 13. Ibid., art. 27.

14. Ibid., arts. 3, 4. 15. Ibid., arts. 19, 21 and 22. 16. Ibid., art. 28. 17. S. Wiessner, "Rights and status of indigenous peoples: A global comparative and international legal analysis," Harvard Human Rightsjoumal 12 (1999): 109-10. 18. Statutes of New Zealand, 1986, No. 114.

19. P. McHugh, The Maori Magna Carta: New Zealand Law and the Treaty of Waitangi (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 13. 20. Ibid., p. 18-19 21. This document represents negotiations between the Crown and Maori peo- ple similar to the Mi'kmaq Treaties of 1760-61, recognized by the Supreme Court of Canada in R v. Marshall 177 D.L.R. (4th) 513. 22. See McHugh (n. 19 above), p. 3-9; F. M. Brookfield, "The New Zealand Constitution: The search for legitimacy," in I. H. Kawharu, Waitangi: Maori and Pa- keha Perspectives of the Treaty of Waitangi (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 1. 23. Treaty of Waitangi, Accessed 27 December 2001 on the World Wide Web: http: / /�,,govt.nz.aboutnz / treaty.php3. 24. Ibid. 25. B. Kahn, "The legal framework surrounding Maori claims to water re- sources in New Zealand: In contrast to the American Indian experience," Stanford Journal of International Law 35 (1999): 49 at 59.

26. McHugh (n. 19 above), p. 3-4. 27. McHugh (n. 19 above), p. 3. 28. Ibid. 29. Kawharu, 'Sovereignty vs. Rangatiratanga' (unpublished paper), cited in McHugh (n. 19 above), p. 4. 30. Kawharu, cited in McHugh (n. 19 above), p. 4. 31. [1941] ] NZLR 590. 32. [1941] NZLR 590, p. 596-7. 33. (1877) 3 Jur (N.S.) SC 72. 34. For Example, Re Ninety Mile Beach [1963] NZLR 461 where the court held that Maori rights under the treaty to the foreshores of Marlborough Sound had been extinguished; also N.Z. Maori Council v. A-G, [1992] 2 NZLR 576 where the traditional doctrine that the treaty is unenforceable was upheld. 35. [1986] NZLR 682. (hereinafter Te Weehi) 36. [1987] 1 NZLR 641. (hereinafter Maori Council)

37. Statutes of New Zealand, 1983 No. 014. 38. He considered Calder v. Attorney General (1973) 1 S.C.R. 313 and Guerin v. The Queen (1984) 2 S.C.R. 335. 39. Te Weehi (n. 35 above), p. 688. 40. Statutes of New Zealand, 1986, No 69. 41. Maori Council (n. 36 above), p. 667. 42. Maori Council (n. 36 above), p. 703; and see McHugh (n. 19 above), p. 4. 43. McHugh (n. 19 above), p. 5. 44. See M. Wharepouri, "The phenomenon of agreement: A Maori view," Auckland University Law Review (1995): 604, at p. 612.

45. Kahn (n. 25 above), p. 96. 46. Ngai Tahu Claims Settlement Act, 1998 (the Settlement Act), Statutes of New Zealand, 1988 for a discussion of Maori and Government positions in relation to the act, see Kahn (n. 25 above), p. 133-4. 47. Resource Management Act (n. 1 above). 48. Statutes of New Zealand, Stat. 66 (1974). 49. O. Furuseth and C. Cocklin, "An institutional framework for sustainable resource management: The New Zealand model," Natural Resources Journal 35 (1995): 243, at p. 256.

50. Ibid. 51. Ibid. 52. Cited in L. Burton and C. Cocklin, "Water resource management and envi- ronmental policy reform in New Zealand: Regionalism, allocation, and indigenous relations, Part I," Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy 7 (1996): 75, at p. 85. 53. Resource Management Act (n. 1 above), s. 5. 54. Resource Management Act (n. 1 above), s. 7.

55. Resource Management Act (n. 1 above), s. 8. 56. Ministry of the Environment, New Zealand, "Introduction to the Resource Management Act," Accessed 14 April 2000 on the World Wide Web: : http:// www.mfe.govt.nz/ management/ rma/ rmaintro.htm. 57. M. Haward, "Recent developments and announcements: Ocean and coastal zone management in New Zealand and Australia: Current initiatives," Ocean and Coastal Management 19, no. 3 (1993): 297. 58. S. Davidson, "Current legal developments: New Zealand: New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement," International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 10 (1995): 431.

59. Davidson (n. 58 above). 60. M. Haward, "Institutional design and policy making 'Down Under': Devel- opments in Australia and New Zealand coastal management" Ocean and Coastal Man- ag'ement 26, no. 1 (1995): 2-87. 61. Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) 302, 16 U.S.C. 1451.

62. Ibid., p. 108. 63. Ministry of the Environment, New Zealand, "The Resource Management Act: An overview." Accessed 14 April 2000: http://www.mfe.govt.nz/management/ rma/rmall.htm. 64. For example, the Regional Coastal Plan for Wellington Regional Area.

65. L. Burton and L. Cocklin, "Water resource management and environmen- tal policy reform in New Zealand: Regionalism, allocation, and indigenous relations, Part II," Colorado journal of International Environmental Law and Policy 7 (1996): 331, at p. 334. 66. Ibid., at p. 337. 67. Burton and Cocklin (n. 65 above), p. 338. 68. Ibid.

69. New Zealand, "Your Guide to the Resource Management Act (Draft)," (Wellington: Ministry of Conservation, 1999), at p. 19-30. 70. Ibid. 71. Burton and Cocklin (n. 65 above), p. 339. 72. Ibid., p. 339-40. 73. Ibid., p. 340. 74. Draft RMA (n. 69 above). 75. Burton and Cocklin (n. 65 above), p. 341. 76. Formerly, the Planning Tribunal, see Resource Management Amendment Act, Statutes of New Zealand, 1996 no. 160, s. 6. 77. Draft RMA (n. 69 above), p. 21.

78. Burton and Cocklin (n. 65 above), p. 343 79. Ibid. 80. List derived from Kahn (n. 25 above), p. 128. 81. Draft RMA (n. 69 above), p. 68. 82. Resource Management Act (n. 1 above), First Schedule s. (I) (3) (1) (d). 83. See Davidson (n. 58 above).

84. New Zealand, Case Law on the Tangata Whenua Consultation (Wellington: Ministry of Conservation, 1999) at 19-30 [hereinafter Draft RMA] at 12 [hereinafter Case Law]. 85. Mason-Riseborough v. Matamata-Piako District Council (1997) A143/97. 86. Banks v. Waikato Regional Council (1995) A12/95. 87. [1994] NZRMA 289. 88. See Summary Case Law (n. 84 above), pp. 12-16. 89. Mason-Risbourough v. Matamata-Piako District Council (n. 85 above).

90. Case Law (n. 84 above), pp. 11-12. 91. Statutes of New Zealand 1992, No. 121. . 92. S. Davidson "Current legal developments: New Zealand: Maori fishing rights" InternationalJourrcal of Marine and Coastal Law 9 (1994): 408. 93. Settlement Act (n. 91 above), s. 7.

94. Davidson (n. 92 above), pp. 410-11; Settlement Act, (n. 91 above), ss. 7, 9 and 11. 95. Kahn (n. 25 above), p. 131. 96. R. T. Price, "Assessing Modern Treaty Settlements: New Zealand's 1992 Treaty of Waitangi (Fisheries Claims) Settlement and Its Aftermath," cited in Kahn (n. 25 above), p. 131. 97. Davidson (n. 92 above), p. 408. 98. Davidson (n. 92 above), p. 411. 99. Davidson (n. 92 above), p. 411.

100. Constitution Act, 1982, R.S.C. 1985, App. II [hereinafter Constitution Act, 1982]. 101. Constitution Act, 1982 (n. 100 above), s. 35(1) 102. Constitution Act, 1982 (n. 100 above), s. 52(1). 103. [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1075, 70 D.L.R. (4th) 385. (hereinafter Sparrow-[cited to D.L.R]) 104. Guerin (n. 38 above).

105. Sparrow (n. 103 above), p. 408. 106. [1996] 2 S.C.R. 507. (hereinafter Van der Peet) 107. Ibid. at para. 2. 108. See The Queen v. Simon, [1985] 1 S.C.R. 387; R. v. Sioui, [1980] 1 S.C.R. 1025. Although the cases were decided outside of the 35(1) context they outline factors courts will consider when determining whether a document is a treaty. See R. v. Marshall 177 D.L.R. (4th) 513 for treaty interpretation in the 35(1) context. 109. Simon (n. 108 above), p. 402; Sioui (n. 108 above), p. 1035. 110. Van der Peet (n. 106 above), para. 46. 111. Ibid., para. 60-67. ,

112. Sparrow (n. 103 above), p. 401. 113. See McLachlin in dissent, Van der Peet (n. 106 above), paras. 297-300. 114. Sparrow (n. 103 above), at 412. 115. [1997] 3 S.C.R. 1010. (hereinafter Delgamuukw) 116. Delgamuukw (n. 115 above), para. 165. 117. Ibid., para. 169.

118. Ibid., para. 112-3. 119. Ibid., para. 117. 120. Ibid., para. 169. 121. In a situation where the development of a policy has not occurred, prob- lems are created for decision makers in relation to attempting to determine when an Aboriginal right or title is involved: see H. M. Braker and R. Freedman, "Consul- tation with First Nations Prior to Major Natural Resources Development and Other Projects," (Environmental Law and First Nations Conference, Pacific Business and Law Institute, Vancouver, 18 November 1999) (unpublished) at 3.12. (hereinafter Braker and Freedman)

122. Braker and Freedman (n. 121 above), at 3.1. 123. Sparrow (n. 103 above), at 416-17. 124. Delgamuukw (n. 115 above), para. 168.

125. For commentary on the implications of Delgamuukw, see N. Bankes, "Delgamuukw: Division of Powers and Resources" 32 UBCLR 312 (1998). 126. Delgamuukw (n. 115 above), at para 187. 127. S. Lawrence and P. Macklem, "From consultation to reconciliation: Ab- original rights and The Crown's duty to consult," Canadian Bar Review 252 (2000): 254.

128. Delgamuukw (n. 115 above), at para. 168. . 129. Braker and Freedman list 15 principles the courts rely upon when examin- ing the topic of whether or not the duty to consult has been met, (n. 120 above), at 3.2-3.4. 130. Cree School Board v. Canada (Attorney General) [1998] 3 C.N.L.R. 24 (QueSC). (hereinafter Cree School Board) 131. Braker and Freedman (n. 121 above), at 3.3. 132. For a full list of cases ignoring the possibility of consultation see Lawrence and Macklem (n. 127 above), at 263. 133. [1997] 4 C.N.L.R. 45 (B.C.S.C.). (hereinafter Halfway River S.C.) 134. As adapted by Lawrence and Macklem (n. 127 above), at p. 264. 135. Ibid.

136. Halfway River S.C. (n. 133 above). 137. [1999] B.C J. No. 1880 (QL) (C.A.), at para. 191. (hereinafter Halfway River CA) at para. 160. 138. [1998] B.CJ. No. 178(QL) (S.C.). 139. Ibid., at para. 58. 140. [1990] 4 C.N.L.R. 37 (B.C.Prov.Ct.) and see Lawrence and Macklem (n. 127 above), at 265. 141. Halfway River S.C. (n. 133 above), at para. 131-2.

142. See Cree School Board (n. 130 above) and Nunavut Tunngavik Inc. v. Canada (Minister of Fisheries and Oceans) [1998] F.CJ. No. 1026 (C.A.). 143. [1995] 4 C.N.L.R. 78 (Y.T.T.C.). 144. Ibid., at 94-5. 145. Halfway River S.C. (n. 133 above), at 140-5 affirmed Halfway River CA (n. 137 above). 146. R. v. Sampson, 131 D.L.R. (4th) 192 at 220.

147. Braker and Freedman (n. 121 above), at 3.5. 148. Gitanyow First Nation v. Canada [1998] B.C J. No. 2732, Vancouver Regis- try No. C981165 (November 24, 1998), (B.C.S.C.). 149. Ibid. 150. Kelly Lake Cree First Nation v. Canada (Ministry of Energy and Mines), (1998) B.CJ. No. 2471 (Oct. 23, 1998) (B.S.S.C.). 151. Ryan et al. v. Fort St. James Forest District (District Manager) [ 1994] B.C.J. No. 2642. 152. Ibid. at para. 21-24. 153. Delgamuukw (n. 115 above), at para. 195-6.

154. D. Huggett, "The role of federal government intervention in coastal zone planning and management," Ocean and Coastal Management 39 (1998): 46. . 155. J. Ellsworth et al., "Canada's Atlantic Coastal Action Program: A commu- nity-based approach to collective governance" Ocean and Coastal Management 36 (199'7): 1-3, p. 121. 156. Ibid. at p. 126. 157. Ibid. 158. Ibid. 159. Oceans Act, S.C. 1996, c. 31. 160. Ibid., at Preamble.

. 166. G. Chao, "The Emergence of Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management in Canada's Ocean Act" (August 1999) (thesis, archived at Sir James Dunn Library at Dalhousie Law School) at p. 64-65. 167. See A. Chircop, et al., "Legislating for integrated marine management: Canada's proposed Oceans Act of 1996," Canadian Yearbook of International Law 33 (1995): 305. 168. For example, the Inuit Circumpolar Conference, which set international guidelines and created opportunities for future cooperation of governments and peoples in the Arctic. For commentary, see C. Reimer, "Moving toward co-opera- tion: Inuit circumpolar policies and the Arctic environmental protection strategy." Accessed 27 December 2001 on the World Wide Web: http://www.carc.org/pubs/ v21n04/ moving.htm. 169. For a detailed analysis, see M. E. Turpel, "Aboriginal Peoples and Marine Resources: Understanding Rights, Directions for Management," in Canadian Ocean Law and Policy, ed. D. VanderZwaag (Toronto: Butterworths, 1992), 393-429, at pp. 412-20.

170. Nunavut Act, S.C., c. 28 (1993). 171. Ibid., s. 23. Also see "Land Claim Overview" Accessed 27 December 2001 on the World Wide Web: http://npc.nunavut.ca/eng/nunavut/ for a tertiary ex- planation of the agreement. 172. Preamble to the Western Arctic (Inuvialuit) Claims Settlement Act cited in Turpel (n. 169 above), at p. 413. 173. For a full explanation of the agreement, see Turpel (n. 169 above). 174. Nisga'a Treaty: Final Agreement Act, S.B.C. 1999, c. 2. See also Nisga'a Treaty: Final Agreement Act; S.C. 2000, c. 7 (2000). Accessed 27 December 2001: www.aa£gov.bc.ca/ aaf/ treaty/ nisgaa/ nisgaa. htm. 175. Ibid., Chapter 2 s. 9, 13, but also see s. 14.

176. Nisga'a Treaty (n. 174 above). 177. Nisga'a Treaty (n. 174 above), at Seed., Chapter 8.

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