Integrating Risk Assessment and Management and Disaster Mitigation in Tourism Development Planning in Jamaica*

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  • *This article draws upon a report prepared for the International Ocean Insti- tute. The research reflected in this article would not be possible without the assis- tance of those persons interviewed as part of this study. They agreed to meet with us to share their insights and experiences. We are grateful for their time, suggestions and frank opinions. Special thanks must also be given to Mr. Sean Henry and Mr. Agostino Pinnock for their research assistance during the original project. 1. R. Ahmad, ed., Natural Hazards in the Caribbean, Special Issue No. 12. The Journal of the Geological Society of Jamaica, (Mona, Jamaica: Geological Society of Jamaica, 1992). 108 pp. 2. Ibid.

  • 3. Planning Institute of Jamaica, Economics and Social Survey (Kingston, Jamaica: 2000).

  • 4. Jamaica Tourism Board, Annual Travel Statistics. (2000). 5. World Bank, Jamaica Public Expenditure Reuiew (Washington DC: The World Bank, 1996).

  • 6. Organization of American States, Economic Analysis of Tourism in Jamaica, Technical Report of the OAS National Programme of Technical Cooperation with the Jamaica Tourist Board and the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce. (Washington DC: Department of Regional Development and Environment Execu- tive Secretariat for Economic and Social Affairs, General Secretariat, Organization of American States, 1994). 7. L. Dunn, Tourism Attractions: A Critical Analysis of this Sub-Sector in Jamaica (Mona: Canoe Press, University of the West Indies, 1997). 8. Ibid.

  • 9. Disaster Risk Reduction as a Development Strategy by Jan C. Vermeiren (Or- ganization of American States [OAS] /Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Program); Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism Development-Planning Issues. Prepared for the Office of the Prime Minister, Tourism Division by Pauline McHardy; Insurance, Reinsurance and Catastrophe Protection in the Caribbean, prepared by the World

  • Bank and the OAS/Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Program; Master Plan For the Sustainable Tourism Development-Social and Economic Integration of Local Com- munities with the Tourism Industry. Prepared for the Office of the Prime Minister (Tourism Division) by Call Associates Consultancy Ltd.; The Role of Science and Technology in Poverty Eradication. Prepared by Bevon V. Morrison for the Office of the Prime Minister and the Organization of American States; Growth in Squatter and Informal Areas in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 1958 to 1978 by Alan Eyre; Report on Visitor Harassment and Attitudes to Tourism and Tourists in Negril by Dunn and Dunn (1994). Submitted to the Tourism Action Plan, Jamaica Tourist Board and the Negril Resort Board; Natural Hazards in the Caribbean (1992), The Journal of the Geological Society of Jamaica, edited by Rafi Ahmad. 10. Natural Resources Conservation Authority. The State of the Environment, 1997 Report. Kingston, Jamaica.

  • 11. United Nations Environment Programme, Assessment of the Economic Impact of Hurricane Gilbert on Coastal and Marine Resources in Jamaica. Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 110. (Kingston: UNEP, 1989). 12. Town Planning Department, National Atlas ofJamaica. (Kingston, 1989).

  • 13. D. Buisseret, Historic Jamaica From the Air (Kingston: Ian Randle Publish- ers, 1996). 14. The Hotels (Incentives) Act of 1968, Vol. X, Revised Laws of Jamaica. 15. Resort Cottages (Incentives) Act of 1971, Vol. XXIV, Revised Laws of Ja- maica.

  • 16. World Tourism Organisation, Changes in Leisure Time: The Impact on Tourism. (Madrid, 1998).

  • 17. Halcrow Ltd., South Coast Sustainable Development Study, Technical Report 8-Tourism and South Coast Sustainable Development Study, 1998. 18. G. Eisner, Jamaica, 1830-1930, A Study in Economic Growth (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1961).

  • 19. K. Post, Arise Ye Starlings- Thejamaican Labour Rebellion of 1938 and its After- math (London: Martinus Nijhoff, 1978). 20. Ibid. 8 21. In 1881, the total population in Jamaica was 580,000 and in 1920 it was 858,000. Eisner (n. 18 above).

  • 22. P. Sherlock and H. Bennett, The Story of theJamaican People (Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 1998); F. Ambursley and R. Cohen, Crisis in the Caribbean (Kings- ton: Heinemann, 1983). 23. Ambursley and Cohen (n. 22 above). 24. K. Levitt, The Origins and Consequences of Jamaica's Debt Crisis 1970-1990, (Kingston: Consortium Graduate School of the Social Sciences, 1991).

  • 25. R. Palmer, In Search of a Better Life (New York: Praeger, 1990). 26. World Bank (n. 5 above). 27. P. Anderson, Consequences of Structural Adjustment: A Review of the Jamaica Experience (Mona: The Consortium Graduate School of Social Sciences. Canoe Press, 1994). 28. World Bank (n. 5 above).

  • 29. Ibid. 30. Ibid. 31. Planning Institute of Jamaica, Economic and Social Surveys. (Kingston, Ja- maica, 1996). 32. Ibid.

  • 33. Planning Institute of Jamaica. Economic and Social Survey Jamaica 1997. (Kingston, Jamaica, 1997). 34. J. Tomblin, "Earthquakes, Volcanoes and Hurricanes: A Review of Natural Hazards and Vulnerability in the West Indies," Ambio 10, 6 (1981): 340-345. 35. Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), Disaster History: Significant Data on Major Disasters Worldwide, 1900-Present (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Agency for International Development, 1988).

  • 36. United Nations Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO), Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Vol. 7. (New York, N.Y.: United Nations, 1979). 37. R. Jovel, Economic and Social Consequences of Natural Disasters in Latin America and the Caribbean (Santiago, Chile: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN-ECLAC), 1989).

  • 38. National Research Council, Responding to Changes in Sea Lever. Engineering Implications (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1987).

  • 39. Town and Country Planning Act of 1957, Vol. XXVI, Revised Laws of Ja- maica. 40. Local Improvements Act of 1914, Vol. XVII, Revised Laws of Jamaica.

  • 41. P. McHardy, Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism Development in Jamaica. Plan- ning Issues. Prepared for the Office of the Prime Minister, Tourism Division, 1998.

  • 42. Ibid. 43. Parish Councils Building Act of 1908, Vol. XIX, Revised Laws of Jamaica. 44. Kingston and St. Andrew Building Act of 1883, Vol. XIV, Revised Laws of Jamaica.

  • 45. McHardy (n. 41 above).

  • 46. T. Goreau, Negril Environmental P°rotection Area Water Quality Monitoring Pro- gram-Draft Proposal. Produced for Negril Environmental Protection Trust/Negril Coral Reef Protection Society, 1995. 47. Organization of American States (OAS), Insurance, Reinsuranceand Catastro- pheProtection in the Caribbean (Washington DC: USAID/OAS Caribbean Disaster Miti- gation Project, 1996).

  • 48. Call Associates Consultancy Ltd., Master Plan for the Sustainable Tourism Development-Social and Economic Integration of Local Communities with the Tourism In- dustry, (Kingston: Prepared for Office of the Prime Minister, Tourism Division, 1998) . 49. Ibid. 50. N. Isaacs, "History of Site and Services and Squatter Upgrading in Ja- maica," Housing and Finance, (Kingston: Building Societies Association of Jamaica Ltd., 1989).

  • 51. Call Associates (n. 48 above). . 52. J. Weeks, Population: An Introduction to Concepts and Issues (Belmont, Califor- nia: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1996).

  • 53. Call Associates (n. 48 above). 54. Towns and Communities Act of 1843, Vol. XXVI, Revised Laws of Jamaica. 55. Tourist Board Act of 1955, Vol. XXVI, Revised Laws of Jamaica. 56. Call Associates (n. 48 above). 57. C. Stone, Report on Tourist Harassment (Kingston, Jamaica, 1989.) (Copy on file with the author.)

  • 58. L. Dunn and H. Dunn, Report on Visitor Harassment and Attitudes to Tourism and Tourists in Negril. Submitted to the Tourism Action Plan, the Jamaica Tourist Board and the Negril Resort Board, 1994. 59. A. Dixon, Informal Sub-sector Activity in the Tourism Industry in Montego Bay, Submitted to the Tourism Action Plan, January 1995. Kingston, 1995. 60. Call Associates (n. 48 above). 61. Stone (n. 57 above).

  • 62. Call Associates (n. 48 above).

  • 63. Tourism Product Development Co. Ltd., Solving the Harassment Problem, Pre- sented at a workshop by the Office of the Prime Minister-Tourism Division, Tour- ism Product Development Company Ltd. and the Jamaica Tourist Board. Renais- sance Jamaica Grande. (1997). Not published.

  • 64. Dunn and Dunn (n. 58 above). 65. Dixon (n. 59 above).

  • 66. I. Griffith, Drugs and Security in the Caribbean: Sovereignty Under Siege (Univer- sity Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997). 67. Provided by Senior Superintendent Carl Williams.

  • 68. M. Manley, Importance of Tourism toJamaica, in Caribbean Tourism Policies and Impacts (Kingston: Caribbean Tourism Research and Development Centre, 1977). 69. Based on discussions with Mr. Carl Miller-Director, Anti-Harassment Pro- gramme.

  • 70. Call Associates (n. 48 above). 71. Halcrow Ltd., (n. 17 above).

  • 72. Call Associates (n. 48 above). 73. Call Associates (n. 48 above).

  • 74. L. D. Dunn, Tourism Attractions-A Dynamic Sub-Sector. Jamaica. (1998). Not published.

  • 75. Dixon (n. 59 above).

  • 76. J. Wilson, Report on Community Consultations Meetings Organized as part of the Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism. Kingston, 1997. 77. Halcrow Ltd. (n. 17 above).

  • 78. J. Vermeiren, Natural Disasters: Linking Economics and the Environment with a Vengeance, Report prepared under the OAS/Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Pro- gram. Washington, DC, 1989.

  • 79. S. L. Jorgensen and J. Van Domelen, "Helping the Poor Manage Risk Bet- ter: The Role of Social Funds," in Shielding the Poor: Social Protection in the Developing World, ed. N. Lustig (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution and Inter-Ameri- can Development Bank, 2000), chap. 5.

  • 80. Call Associates (n. 48 above). 81. L. Turner andj. Ash, The Golden Hordes: International Tourism and the Pleasure Periphery (London: Constable, 1995). 82. E. De Kadt, "Social Planning for Tourism in the Development Countries," Annals of Tourism Research 6, 1 (1979): 36-48.

  • 83. P. Burns and A. Holden, Tourism: A New Perspective (London: Prentice Hall, 1995). F 84. G. Doxey, "A Causation Theory of Visitor-Resident Irritants: Methodology and Research Inferences, Proceedings of the Travel Research Association, 6th Annual Conference, San Diego, California, 1975. I 85. C. Ryan, Recreational Tourism: A Social Science Perspective (London: Rout- ledge, 1991).

  • 86. P. W. William and A. Gill, Carrying Capacity Management in Tourism. Setting A Tourism Growth Management Process (Vancouver, BC: Centre for Tourism Policy and Research, Simon Fraser University, 1991). 87. Dixon (n. 59 above). 88. Call Associates (n. 48 above).

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