*This article draws upon a report prepared for the International Ocean Insti- tute. The research reflected in this article would not be possible without the assis- tance of those persons interviewed as part of this study. They agreed to meet with us to share their insights and experiences. We are grateful for their time, suggestions and frank opinions. Special thanks must also be given to Mr. Sean Henry and Mr. Agostino Pinnock for their research assistance during the original project. 1. R. Ahmad, ed., NaturalHazardsintheCaribbean,SpecialIssueNo.12. The Journal of the Geological Society of Jamaica, (Mona, Jamaica: Geological Society of Jamaica, 1992). 108 pp. 2.Ibid.
3. Planning Institute of Jamaica, EconomicsandSocialSurvey (Kingston, Jamaica: 2000).
4. Jamaica Tourism Board, AnnualTravelStatistics. (2000). 5. World Bank, JamaicaPublicExpenditureReuiew (Washington DC: The World Bank, 1996).
6. Organization of American States, EconomicAnalysisofTourisminJamaica, Technical Report of the OAS National Programme of Technical Cooperation with the Jamaica Tourist Board and the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce. (Washington DC: Department of Regional Development and Environment Execu- tive Secretariat for Economic and Social Affairs, General Secretariat, Organization of American States, 1994). 7. L. Dunn, TourismAttractions:ACriticalAnalysisofthisSub-SectorinJamaica (Mona: Canoe Press, University of the West Indies, 1997). 8.Ibid.
9. Disaster Risk Reduction as a Development Strategy by Jan C. Vermeiren (Or- ganization of American States [OAS] /Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Program); Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism Development-Planning Issues. Prepared for the Office of the Prime Minister, Tourism Division by Pauline McHardy; Insurance, Reinsurance and Catastrophe Protection in the Caribbean, prepared by the World
Bank and the OAS/Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Program; Master Plan For the Sustainable Tourism Development-Social and Economic Integration of Local Com- munities with the Tourism Industry. Prepared for the Office of the Prime Minister (Tourism Division) by Call Associates Consultancy Ltd.; The Role of Science and Technology in Poverty Eradication. Prepared by Bevon V. Morrison for the Office of the Prime Minister and the Organization of American States; Growth in Squatter and Informal Areas in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 1958 to 1978 by Alan Eyre; Report on Visitor Harassment and Attitudes to Tourism and Tourists in Negril by Dunn and Dunn (1994). Submitted to the Tourism Action Plan, Jamaica Tourist Board and the Negril Resort Board; Natural Hazards in the Caribbean (1992), The Journal of the Geological Society of Jamaica, edited by Rafi Ahmad. 10. Natural Resources Conservation Authority. TheStateoftheEnvironment, 1997 Report. Kingston, Jamaica.
11. United Nations Environment Programme, Assessmentof theEconomicImpactofHurricaneGilbertonCoastalandMarineResourcesin Jamaica. Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 110. (Kingston: UNEP, 1989). 12. Town Planning Department, NationalAtlasofJamaica. (Kingston, 1989).
13. D. Buisseret, Historic Jamaica FromtheAir (Kingston: Ian Randle Publish- ers, 1996). 14. The Hotels (Incentives) Act of 1968, Vol. X, Revised Laws of Jamaica. 15. Resort Cottages (Incentives) Act of 1971, Vol. XXIV, Revised Laws of Ja- maica.
16. World Tourism Organisation, ChangesinLeisureTime:TheImpactonTourism. (Madrid, 1998).
17. Halcrow Ltd., SouthCoastSustainableDevelopmentStudy, Technical Report 8-Tourism and South Coast Sustainable Development Study, 1998. 18. G. Eisner, Jamaica,1830-1930,AStudyinEconomicGrowth (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1961).
19. K. Post, AriseYeStarlings- ThejamaicanLabourRebellionof1938anditsAfter-math (London: Martinus Nijhoff, 1978). 20.Ibid. 8 21. In 1881, the total population in Jamaica was 580,000 and in 1920 it was 858,000. Eisner (n. 18 above).
22. P. Sherlock and H. Bennett, TheStoryoftheJamaicanPeople (Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 1998); F. Ambursley and R. Cohen, CrisisintheCaribbean (Kings- ton: Heinemann, 1983). 23. Ambursley and Cohen (n. 22 above). 24. K. Levitt, TheOriginsandConsequencesof Jamaica'sDebtCrisis1970-1990, (Kingston: Consortium Graduate School of the Social Sciences, 1991).
25. R. Palmer, InSearchofaBetterLife (New York: Praeger, 1990). 26. World Bank (n. 5 above). 27. P. Anderson, ConsequencesofStructuralAdjustment:AReviewofthe JamaicaExperience (Mona: The Consortium Graduate School of Social Sciences. Canoe Press, 1994). 28. World Bank (n. 5 above).
29. Ibid.30.Ibid. 31. Planning Institute of Jamaica, EconomicandSocialSurveys. (Kingston, Ja- maica, 1996). 32.Ibid.
33. Planning Institute of Jamaica. EconomicandSocialSurveyJamaica1997. (Kingston, Jamaica, 1997). 34. J. Tomblin, "Earthquakes, Volcanoes and Hurricanes: A Review of Natural Hazards and Vulnerability in the West Indies," Ambio 10, 6 (1981): 340-345. 35. Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), DisasterHistory:SignificantDataonMajorDisastersWorldwide,1900-Present (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Agency for International Development, 1988).
36. United Nations Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO), Disaster PreventionandMitigation,Vol.7. (New York, N.Y.: United Nations, 1979). 37. R. Jovel, EconomicandSocialConsequencesof NaturalDisastersinLatinAmericaandtheCaribbean (Santiago, Chile: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN-ECLAC), 1989).
38. National Research Council, RespondingtoChangesinSeaLever.EngineeringImplications (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1987).
39. Town and Country Planning Act of 1957, Vol. XXVI, Revised Laws of Ja- maica. 40. Local Improvements Act of 1914, Vol. XVII, Revised Laws of Jamaica.
41. P. McHardy, MasterPlanforSustainableTourismDevelopmentin Jamaica.Plan-ningIssues. Prepared for the Office of the Prime Minister, Tourism Division, 1998.
42. Ibid. 43. Parish Councils Building Act of 1908, Vol. XIX, Revised Laws of Jamaica. 44. Kingston and St. Andrew Building Act of 1883, Vol. XIV, Revised Laws of Jamaica.
45. McHardy (n. 41 above).
46. T. Goreau, NegrilEnvironmentalP°rotectionAreaWaterQualityMonitoringPro- gram-Draft Proposal. Produced for Negril Environmental Protection Trust/Negril Coral Reef Protection Society, 1995. 47. Organization of American States (OAS), Insurance,ReinsuranceandCatastro-pheProtectionintheCaribbean (Washington DC: USAID/OAS Caribbean Disaster Miti- gation Project, 1996).
48. Call Associates Consultancy Ltd., MasterPlanfortheSustainableTourismDevelopment-SocialandEconomicIntegrationofLocalCommunitieswiththeTourismIn-dustry, (Kingston: Prepared for Office of the Prime Minister, Tourism Division, 1998) . 49.Ibid. 50. N. Isaacs, "History of Site and Services and Squatter Upgrading in Ja- maica," HousingandFinance, (Kingston: Building Societies Association of Jamaica Ltd., 1989).
51. Call Associates (n. 48 above). . 52. J. Weeks, Population:AnIntroductiontoConceptsandIssues (Belmont, Califor- nia: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1996).
53. Call Associates (n. 48 above). 54. Towns and Communities Act of 1843, Vol. XXVI, Revised Laws of Jamaica. 55. Tourist Board Act of 1955, Vol. XXVI, Revised Laws of Jamaica. 56. Call Associates (n. 48 above). 57. C. Stone, ReportonTouristHarassment (Kingston, Jamaica, 1989.) (Copy on file with the author.)
58. L. Dunn and H. Dunn, ReportonVisitorHarassmentandAttitudestoTourismandTouristsinNegril. Submitted to the Tourism Action Plan, the Jamaica Tourist Board and the Negril Resort Board, 1994. 59. A. Dixon, InformalSub-sectorActivityintheTourismIndustryinMontegoBay, Submitted to the Tourism Action Plan, January 1995. Kingston, 1995. 60. Call Associates (n. 48 above). 61. Stone (n. 57 above).
62. Call Associates (n. 48 above).
63. Tourism Product Development Co. Ltd., SolvingtheHarassmentProblem, Pre- sented at a workshop by the Office of the Prime Minister-Tourism Division, Tour- ism Product Development Company Ltd. and the Jamaica Tourist Board. Renais- sance Jamaica Grande. (1997). Notpublished.
64. Dunn and Dunn (n. 58 above). 65. Dixon (n. 59 above).
66. I. Griffith, DrugsandSecurityintheCaribbean:SovereigntyUnderSiege (Univer- sity Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997). 67. Provided by Senior Superintendent Carl Williams.
68. M. Manley, ImportanceofTourismtoJamaica,inCaribbeanTourismPoliciesandImpacts (Kingston: Caribbean Tourism Research and Development Centre, 1977). 69. Based on discussions with Mr. Carl Miller-Director, Anti-Harassment Pro- gramme.
70. Call Associates (n. 48 above). 71. Halcrow Ltd., (n. 17 above).
72. Call Associates (n. 48 above). 73. Call Associates (n. 48 above).
74. L. D. Dunn, TourismAttractions-ADynamicSub-Sector. Jamaica. (1998). Notpublished.
75. Dixon (n. 59 above).
76. J. Wilson, Report on Community Consultations Meetings Organized as part of the Master Plan for Sustainable Tourism. Kingston, 1997. 77. Halcrow Ltd. (n. 17 above).
78. J. Vermeiren, NaturalDisasters:LinkingEconomicsandtheEnvironmentwithaVengeance, Report prepared under the OAS/Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Pro- gram. Washington, DC, 1989.
79. S. L. Jorgensen and J. Van Domelen, "Helping the Poor Manage Risk Bet- ter: The Role of Social Funds," in ShieldingthePoor:SocialProtectionintheDevelopingWorld, ed. N. Lustig (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution and Inter-Ameri- can Development Bank, 2000), chap. 5.
80. Call Associates (n. 48 above). 81. L. Turner andj. Ash, TheGoldenHordes:InternationalTourismandthe PleasurePeriphery (London: Constable, 1995). 82. E. De Kadt, "Social Planning for Tourism in the Development Countries," AnnalsofTourismResearch6, 1 (1979): 36-48.
83. P. Burns and A. Holden, Tourism:ANewPerspective (London: Prentice Hall, 1995). F 84. G. Doxey, "A Causation Theory of Visitor-Resident Irritants: Methodology and Research Inferences, ProceedingsoftheTravelResearchAssociation, 6th Annual Conference, San Diego, California, 1975. I 85. C. Ryan, RecreationalTourism:ASocialSciencePerspective (London: Rout- ledge, 1991).
86. P. W. William and A. Gill, CarryingCapacityManagementinTourism.SettingATourismGrowthManagementProcess (Vancouver, BC: Centre for Tourism Policy and Research, Simon Fraser University, 1991). 87. Dixon (n. 59 above). 88. Call Associates (n. 48 above).