The Prince Edward Islands: Southern Ocean Oasis†

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References
  • TEDITORS' NoTE.-The authors wish to note that this synthesis is based on the long-term research efforts of many South African and international researchers, too numerous to name, who have worked and are working on and around the Prince Edward Islands and have made considerable contributions. The South African De- partment of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEA&T) and several South Afri- can universities provided logistic and financial support for research undertaken on the islands. The authors gratefully acknowledge many fruitful years of cooperation with the Directorate Antarctica and Islands of the DEA&T. The authors wish to especially thank William Froneman, who inspired the title of this synthesis.

  • 1. C. Hannel and S. Chown, An Introductory Guide to the Marion and PrinceEdward Island Special Nature Reserves 50 Years AfterAnnexation, (Pretoria, South Africa: Depart- ment of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Directorate Antarctica and Islands, 1998), pp. 1-80. M 2. I. McDougall, W. J. Verwoerd and L. Chevallier, "K-Ar geochronology of Marion Island, Southern Ocean," Geological Magazine 138 (1978): 1-17.

  • 3. Allochthonous input-input of productivity from other systems, which usu- ally increases resource availability in a local system. This is an opposite of an autoch- thonous input, which is a result of a local productivity enhancement. 4. E. M. van Zinderen Bakker Sr., "Origin and general ecology of the Marion Island ecosystem," South African Journal oJAntarctic Research 8 (1978): 13-21. 5. Ibid.

  • . 6. V. R. Smith, "A quantitative description of energy flow and nutrient cycling in the Marion Island terrestrial ecosystem," Polar Record 18 (1977): 361-70. . 7. J. R. E. Lutjeharms, "Location of frontal systems between Africa and Antarc- tica: some preliminary results," Deep-Sea Research 32 (1985): 1499-1509; I. J. Ansorge and J. R. E. Lutjeharms, "Twenty-five years of physical oceanographic research at the Prince Edward Islands," South African Journal of Science 96 (2000): 557-65. 8. van Zinderen Bakker Sr. (n. 4 above). 9. Ibid. 10. E. A. Pakhomov and P. W. Froneman, "The Prince Edward Islands pelagic ecosystem, south Indian Ocean: a review of achievements, 1976-1990," Journal of Marine Systems 18 (1999): 355-67; van Zinderen Bakker Sr. (n. 4 above). 11. P. G. H. Frost, J. R. Grindley and T. H. Wooldridge, "Report on South African participation in cruise MD08 of MS Marion Dufresne, March-April 1976," South African Journal of Antarctic Research 6 (1976): 28-29; J. R. Grindley, "Marine ecosystems of Marion Island," South African Journal of Antarctic Research 8 (1978): 38-42.

  • 12. SASCAR, "South African southern ocean research programme," South Afri- can National Scientific Programme Report 134 (1987): 1-58. 13. J. R. E. Lutjeharms, "A history of recent South African marine research in the Southern Ocean," South AfricanJournal of Antarctic Research 21 (1991): 159-64. 14. The "island mass effect" is enhancement of biological productivity and biomass around the island systems. This may include increases in chlorophyll and plankton concentrations in surrounding waters, retention of larval and juvenile stages of fish, recirculation and increases in larval abundance, eddies trapped and created on the lee side of the island systems. 15. R. Perissinotto, B. P. Boden and C. M. Duncombe Rae. Characterization of the Physical and Chemical Environment of the Prince Edward Island Seas. The Origins and Distribution of Potential Energy Production in the Prince Edward Island Seas. South African National Antarctic Research Programme (SANARP). Final Project Report, FRD- CSIR. Pretoria, South Africa, 1990, p. 30. 16. E. A. Pakhomov, P. W. Froneman and C. D. McQuaid. The Prince Edward Island's Life-Support System and the Variability of Living Resources in the Southern Ocean.

  • South African National Antarctic Research Programme (SANARP). Final Project Report. Pretoria, South Africa: 2001, pp. 1-53. 17. A. J. Williams, W. R. Siegfried, A. I. Burger and A. Berruti, "The Prince Edward Islands: a sanctuary for seabirds in the Southern Ocean," Biological Conserva- tion 15 (1979): 59-71; P. R. Condy, "Annual food consumption and seasonal fluctu- ations in biomass of seals at Marion Island," Mammalia 45 (1981): 21-30; C. Guinet, Y. Cherel, V. Ridoux and P. Jouventin, "Consumption of marine resources by sea- birds and seals in Crozet and Kerguelen waters: changes in relation to consumer biomass 1962-85," Antarctic Science 8 (1996): 23-30. 18. CCAMLR, Report of the Fifteenth Meeting of the Scientific Committee, (Tasmania, Australia: CCAMLR, 1996), p. 119. 19. van Zinderen Bakker Sr. (n. 4 above).

  • 20. E. J. D. Kable, A. J. Erlank and R. D. Cherry, "Geochemical Features of Lava," in Marion and Prince Edward Islands: Report on the South African Biological and GeologicalExpeditions 1965-1966, eds. E. M. van Zinderen Bakker, J. M. Winterbottom and R. A. Dyer (Balkema, Cape Town: 1971), pp. 78-88. 21. J. U. Grobbelaar, "The lentic and lotic freshwater types of Marion Island (sub-Antarctic): a limnological study," Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 19 (1975): 1442-49. 22. R. L. Croome, "Nitrogen fixation in the algal mats on Marion Island," South African journal of Antarctic Research 3 (1973): 64-7; H. J. Lindeboom, "Chemical and Microbiological Aspects of the Nitrogen Cycle on Marion Island (sub-Antarc- tic),"(Ph.D. Thesis, Gruningen University, 1979). 23. V. R. Smith, "Animal-plant-soil nutrient relationships on Marion Island (sub-Antarctic)," Oecologia 32 (1978): 239-58; V.R. Smith, "The environment and biota of Marion Island," South African Journal of Science 83 (1987): 211-30. 24. V. R. Smith and M. Steenkamp, "Soil macrofauna and nitrogen on a sub- Antarctic island," Oecologia 92 (1992): 201-06. 25. V. R. Smith and M. Steenkamp, "Classification of the terrestrial habitats on Marion Island based on vegetation and soil chemistry," Journal of Vegetation Science 12 (2001): 181-98.

  • 26. V. R. Smith and M. Steenkamp, "Climatic change and its ecological impli- cations at a subantarctic island," Oecologia 85 (1990): 14-24. 27. van Zinderen Bakker Sr. (n. 4 above). 28. J. U. Grobbelaar, "The limnology of Marion Island: southern Indian Ocean," South African journal of Antarctic Research 8 (1978): 113-18. 29. J. U. Grobbelaar, "Primary production in freshwater bodies of the sub- Antarctic island Marion," South African Journal of Antarctic Research 4 (1974): 40-45. 30. Grobbelaar (n. 28 above). 31. N. J. M. Gremmen, "The Vegetation of the Subantarctic Islands Marion and Prince Edward," (The Hague: Dr. W. Junk, 1981).

  • 37. Ibid. 38. Pakhomov and Froneman (n. 10 above). 39. R. Perissinotto and C. M. Duncombe Rae, "Occurrence of anticyclonic eddies on the Prince Edward Plateau (Southern Ocean): effects on phytoplankton biomass and production," Deep-Sea Research 37 (1990): 777-93. 40. B. R. Allanson, B. Boden, L. Parker and C. Duncombe Rae, "A contribution to the oceanology of the Prince Edward Islands," in Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs, eds. W. R. Siegfried, P. R. Condy and R. M. Laws (Berlin Heidelberg: Springer- Verlag, 1985), pp. 38-45; S. Z. El-Sayed, P. Benon, P. David, J. R. Grindley and ]•- F. Murail, "Some aspects of the biology of the water column studies during the "Marion-Dufresne" cruise 08," Comite National Francais des Recherches Antarctiques 44 (1979): 127-34.

  • 41. Pakhomov and Froneman (n. 10 above); B. P. Boden, "Observations of the island mass effect in the Prince Edward Archipelago," Polar Biology 9 (1988): 61-68. 42. R. Perissinotto, C. M. Duncombe Rae, B. P. Boden and B. P. Allanson, "Vertical stability as a controlling factor of the marine phytoplankton production at the Prince Edward Archipelago (Southern Ocean)," MarineEcology Progress Series 60 (1990): 205-9. 43. R. Perissinotto, J. R. E. Lutjeharms and R. C. van Ballegooyen, "Biological- physical interactions and pelagic productivity at the Prince Edward Islands, South- ern Ocean," Journal of Marine Systems 24 (2000): 327-41. 44. Perissinotto and Duncombe Rae (n. 39 above). 45. Allanson et al. (n. 40 above). 46. R. Perissinotto, "Mesozooplankton size-selectivity and grazing impact on the phytoplankton community of the Prince Edward Archipelago (Southern Ocean)," MarineEcology Progress Series 79 (1992): 243-58. 47. R. Perissinotto, B. R. Allanson and B. P. Boden, "Trophic relations within the island seas of the Prince Edward Archipelago, Southern Ocean," in Trophic Rela- tionships in the Marine Environment, eds. M. Barnes and R. N. Gibson (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1990), pp. 296-314. 48. L. D. Parker, "A Contribution to the Oceanology of the Prince Edward Islands," (MSc thesis, Rhodes University, 1984), p. 97; G. M. Branch, C. G. Attwood, D. Gianakouras and M. L. Branch, "Patterns in the benthic communities on the shelf of the subAntarctic Prince Edward Islands," Polar Biology 13 (1993): 23-34. 49. Perissinotto et al. (n. 47 above).

  • 50. R. Perissinotto and C. D. McQuaid, "Role of the sub-antarctic shrimp Nauti- caris marionis in coupling benthic and pelagic food-webs," Marine Ecology Progress Series 64 (1990): 81-87. 51. Ibid; W. O. Blankley, "Feeding ecology of three inshore fish species at Marion Island (Southern Ocean)," South African Journal of Zoology 17 (1982): 164- 70; E. A. Pakhomov, P. W. Froneman, P. J. Kuun and M. Balarin, "Feeding dynamics and respiration of the bottom-dwelling caridean shrimp Nauticaris marionis Bate, 1888 (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the vicinity of Marion Island (Southern Ocean)," Polar Biology 21 (1999): 112-21. 52. Perissinotto et al. (n. 43 above); B. P. V. Hunt, "Mesozooplankton commu- nity structure in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean) 37°50'E, 46°45'S" (MSc thesis, Rhodes University, 2000). 53. R. Perissinotto and C. D. McQuaid, "Land-based predator impact on verti- cally migrating zooplankton and micronekton advected to a Southern Ocean archi- pelago," MarineEcology Progress ,Series 80 (1992): 15-27. 54. R. Perissinotto, "The structure and diurnal variations of the zooplankton of the Prince Edward Islands: Implications for the biomass build-up of higher tro- phic levels," Polar Biology 9 (1989): 505-10.

  • 55. Perissinotto and McQuaid (n. 53 above). 56. N. J. Adams, "Foraging range of King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) during summer at Marion Island," Journal of Zoology, London 212 (1987): 475-82. 57. E. A. Pakhomov and P. W. Froneman, "Macroplankton/micronekton dy- namics in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean)," Marine Biol- ogy 134 (1999): 501-15. 58. A. J. Williams, "Geology and the distribution of macaroni penguin colonies at Marion Island," Antarctic Record 19 (1978): 279-87; N. J. Adams and M.-P. Wilson, "Foraging parameters of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua at Marion Island," Polar Biology'7 7 (1987): 51-56; B. P. Watkins, "Population sizes of king, rockhopper and macaroni penguins and wandering albatrosses at the Prince Edward Islands and Gough Island, 1951-1986," SouthAfricanJournalofAntarcticResearch 17 (1987): 155- 62. 59. H. Weimerskirch, "Unpublished Invited Contribution at the 7th SCAR Bio- logical Symposium Held in Christchurch, New Zealand, 1998." 60. D. G. M. Miller, "Results of a combined hydroacoustic and midwater trawl- ing survey of the Prince Edward Islands group," South African Journal of Antarctic Research 12 (1982): 3-10. 61. E. A. Pakhomov, I. J. Ansorge and P. W. Froneman, "Variability in the inter-island environment of the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean)," Polar Biology 23 (2000): 593-603.

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  • homov, I. J. Ansorge, P. G. Ryan and N. T. W. Klages, "Exploitation of mesoscale oceanographic features by grey-headed albatrosses Thalassarche chryosostoma in the southern Indian Ocean," Marine Ecology Progress Series 217 (2001): 15-26. 68. Nel et al. (n. 67 above). 69. C. G. Attwood and K. D. Hearshaw, "Lipid content and composition of sub-Antarctic euphausiids and copepods from the Prince Edward Islands," South African Journal of Antarctic Research 22 (1992): 3-13. 70. S. Kaehler, E. A. Pakhomov and C. D. McQuaid, "Trophic structure of the marine food web at the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean) as determined by 8'�C and 815N analysis," Marine Ecology Progress Series 208 (2000): 13-20. 71. Ibid 72. Ibid.

  • 73. Lutjeharms (n. 7 above); Ansorge and Lutjeharms (n. 7 above); Hunt (n. 52 above). 74. Pakhomov et al. (n. 61 above). 75. Perissinotto and Duncombe Rae (n. 39 above). 76. Perissinotto et al. (n. 43 above). " 77. E. A. Pakhomov, P. W. Froneman, I. J. Ansorge and J. R. E. Lutjeharms, "Temporal variability in the physico-biological environment of the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean)," Journal of Marine Systems 26 (2001): 75-95. 78. E. A. Pakhomov, B. P. V. Hunt and L. J. Gurney, "The fifth cruise of the Marion Island Oceanographic Survey (MIOS-V), April to May 2000," South African Journal of Science 96 (2000): 541-43. '

  • 79. Pakhomov et al. (n. 61 above). 80. Pakhomov et al. (n. 78 above). 81. Hunt (n. 52 above). 82. Ibid. 83. Ibid. 84. Smith and Steenkamp (n. 26 above). 85. Hunt (n. 52 above).

  • 86. V. R. Smith, "Climate change and its ecological consequences at Marion and Prince Edward Islands," South African Journal of Antarctic Research 21 (1991): 223-24; D. Bergstrom and S. L. Chown, "Life at the front: history, ecology and change on southern ocean islands," Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14 (1999): 472- '77.

  • 87. Smith (n. 86 above); Smith and Steenkamp (n. 26 above); S. L. Chown and V. R. Smith, "Climate change and the short-term impact of feral house mice at the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands," Oecologia 96 (1993): 508-16. . 88. R. J. M. Crawford, J. Hurford, M. Greyling and D. C. Nel, "Population size and trends of some seabirds at Marion Island," New Zealand Natural Sciences 23 Supplement (1998): 42. 89. Ibid. 90. G. J. G. Hofmeyr and M. N. Bester, "Changes in population sizes and distri- bution of fur seals at Marion Island," Polar Biology 17 (1997): 150-58. . 91. P. A. Pistorius, M. N. Bester and S. P. Kirkman, "Dynamic age-distributions in a declining population of southern elephant seals," Antarctic Science 11 (1999): 445-50. 92. P. Jouventin and H. Weimerskirch, "Changes in the Population Size and Demography of Southern Seabirds: Management Implications," in Bird Population Studies: Their Releuance to Conserr�ation and Management, eds. C. Perrins, J. D. Lebreton and G. Hirons (Oxford: Blackwell Science Publication, 1991), pp. 297-314; D. M. Cunningham and P. J. Moors, "The decline of rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome at Campbell Island, Southern Ocean and the influence of rising sea tem- peratures," Emu 94 (1994): 27-36; E. J. Woehler and J. P. Croxall, "The status and trends of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic seabirds," Marine Ornithology 25 (1997): 43- 66. 93. Smith (n. 86 above).

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  • 102. Smith and Steenkamp (n. 26 above); Chown and Smith (n. 87 above). 103. C. Hanel and S. L. Chown, "The impact of a small, alien macro-inverte- brate on a sub-Antarctic terrestrial ecosystem: Limnophyes minimus Meigen (Diptera, Chironomidae) at Marion Island," Polar Biology 20 (1998): 99-106. 104. Bergstrom and Chown (n. 86 above). 105. J. P. Bloomer and M. N. Bester, "Control of feral cats on sub-Antarctic Marion Island, Indian Ocean," Biological Conseruation 60 (1992): 211-19. 106. M. N. Bester, J. P. Bloomer, P. A. Bartlett, D. D. Muller, M. van Rooyen and H. Buchner, "Final eradication of feral cats from sub-Antarctic Marion Island, southern Indian Ocean," South African Journal of Wildlife Research 30 (2000): 53-57. 107. S. L. Chown, N. J. M. Gremmen and K. J. Gaston, "Ecological biogeogra- phy of southern ocean islands: Species-area relationships, human impacts, and con- servation," American Naturalist 152 (1998): 562-75. 108. A. G. A. Gabriel, S. L. Chown, J. Barendse, D. J. Marshall, R. D. Mercer, P. J. A. Pugh and V. R. Smith, "Biological invasions on Southern Ocean islands: the Collembola of Marion Island as a test of generalities," Ecography (2001), in press. 109. Chown and Gaston (n. 100 above). 110. Bergstrom and Chown (n. 86 above).

  • 111. Ibid. 112. N.J. M. Gremmen and V. R. Smith, "New records of alien vascular plants from Marion and Prince Edward Islands, Sub-Antarctic," Polar Biology 21 (1999): 401-09. 113. J. Barendse and S. L. Chown, "Abundance and seasonality of mid-altitude fellfield arthropods from Marion Island," Polar Biology 24 (2000): 73-82. 114. Chown and Smith (n. 87 above). 115. O. Huyser, P. G. Ryan andj. Cooper, "Changes in population size, habitat use and breeding biology of lesser sheatbills Chionis minor at Marion Island: impacts of cats, mice and climate change?," Biological Conservation 92 (2000): 299-310. 116. Prince Edward Islands Management Plan (n. 36 above). 117. Gremmen and Smith (n. 112 above).

  • 118. Prince Edward Islands Management Plan (n. 36 above). 119. C. de Villiers, "South Africa hosts talks to end seabird carnage," SANCOR Newsletter 166 (2001): 9-10. 120. Prince Edward Islands Management Plan (n. 36 above).

  • 121. Ibid.

  • 122. R. Heydenrych and S. Jackson. Environmental Impact Assessment of Tourism to Marion Island. South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Pretoria: Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, 2000. 123. Chown and Gaston (n. 100 above).

  • 124. Prince Edward Islands Management Plan (n. 36 above). 125. S. L. Chown, A. S. Rodrigues, N. J. M. Gremmen and K. J. Gaston, "World Heritage status and the conservation of Southern Ocean islands," Conservation Biol- ogy 15 (2001): 550-57.

  • 126. S. L. Chown, K. J. Gaston and N. J. M. Gremmen, "Including the Ant- arctic: Insights for ecologists everywhere," in Antarctic Ecosystems: Models for Wider Ecological Understanding, eds. W. Davison, C. Howard-Williams and P. A. Broady (Christchurch: New Zealand Natural Sciences, 2000), pp. 1-15. 127. S. L. Chown, W. Block, P. Vernon and P. Greenslade, "Priorities for terres- trial Antarctic research," Polar Record 33 (1997): 187-88.

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