* Research for this article was conducted in Indonesia with funding through a Fulbright Senior Scholarship to Jason M. Patlis.
1. Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) 302, 16 U.S.C. 1451.
2. A. Agrawel and J. C. Ribot, AccountabilityinDecentralization:AFramecuorkruithSouthAsianandWestAfricanCases (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2000), p. 23. 3. K. Lowry, "Decentralized Coastal Management" (unpublished report pre- pared for Coastal Resources Management Project, USAID, University of Hawaii, 2001). 4. A. Cheung, "The Paradox of Administrative Reform in Asia: Comments on the BICA Report 2001," in PublicSectorChallengesandGovernmentReformsinSouth EastAsia, pp. 15-25. (No editor listed. Conference Proceedings, Building Institutional Capacity in Asia (BICA), 12 March 2001, Jakarta). . 5. World Bank, 2001. "Decentralization and governance: does decentraliza- tion improve public service delivery?," PovertyReductionandEconomicManagement(PREM)Network, 55. Accessed Sept. 2001 on the World Wide Web: http:// / wwwl.worldbank.org/publicsector/legal/PREMnote55.pdf (Washington, DC); See generally O. Azfar, S. Kahkonen, A. Lanyi, P. Meagher and D. Rutherford, Decentral-ization,GovernanceandPublicServices,TheImpactofInstitutionalArrangements:AReviewof theLiterature (Rockville, Md.: IRIS Center, University of Maryland, 1999).
6. D. Rondinelli and S. Cheema, eds., DecentralizationandDevelopment:PolicyImplementationinDevelopingCountries (London: Sage Publications, 1983). 7. Agrawal and Ribot (n. 2 above).
8. H. I. Vista-Baylon, "Decentralization: What, When and How," in ToServeandToPreserve;ImprovingPublicAdministrationinaCompetitiveWorld, eds. S. Schiavo- Campo and P. S. A. Sundaram, (Manila, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, pp. 156-186. . 9. W. Dillinger and M. Fay, "From Centralized to Decentralized Governance," in FinanceandDevelopment, IMF, (1999) vol. 36, no. 4, p. 1.
10. Azfar et al. (n. 4 above). 11. United States Agency for International Development, DecentralizationandDemocraticLocalCovernanceProgrammingHandbook (Washington, DC: U.S. AID, 1999). 12. S. Schiavo-Campo and P. S. A. Sundaram, eds., ToServeandPreserve:Im�rrov-ingPublicAdministrationinaCompetitiveWorld (Manila, Philippines: Asian Develop- ment Bank, 2001), p. 10. 13. Ibid., p. 15.
14. L. Carino, "Governance in Local Communities: Towards Development and Democracy," in P. D. Tapales, J. C. Cuaresma, and W. L. Cabo, LocalGovernmentsinthePhilippines,:ABookofReadings,vol.1:LocalGovernmentAdministration, Center for Local and Regional Governance and National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of Philippines, (Manila, Philippines: Kadena Press, 1998), pp. 67-83. 15. B. Crawford, M. Balgos and C. Pagdilao. Community-BasedMarineSanctuariesinthePhilippines,:AReportonFocusGroupDiscussions. Coastal Management. Report no. 2224. PCAMRD Book Series no. 30. Los Banos, Philippines: Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island and Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development, 2000. 16. R. S. Pomeroy and M. B. Carlos, 1997. "Community-based coastal resource management in the Philippines: a review and evaluation of programs and projects, 1984-1994," MarinePolicy, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 445-64.
17. Azfar et al. (n. 5 above). 18. Ibid. 19. Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. s. 1294 (1977). 20. Marine Mammal Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. s. 1361 (1972). 21. Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. s. 1531 (1973). 22. Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 16 U.S.C. s. 1801 (1976). 23. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments, 43 U.S.C. s. 1331 (1953); Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act 1978 Amendments, 43 U.S.C. s. 1801 (1978), Public Law 95-372; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments, (Public Law 99-272). This Public Law enacted no currently effective sections.
41. Christie and Hildreth (n. 33 above), p. 68. 42. M. J. Hershman, J. W. Good, T. Bernd-Cohen, R. F. Goodwin, V. Lee, P. Pogue, "The Effectiveness of Coastal Zone Management in the United States," CoastalManagement 27 (1999): 113-38. 43. Ibid., p. 115. 44. Hershman et al. (n. 42 above).
45. Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. s. 7401 (1955). 46. Clean Water Act (n. 19 above). 47. Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (n. 22 above). 48. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, (Public Law 94-580) . This Public Law enacted no effective sections. 49. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. s. 9601 (1980).
50. W. Meyer, "Promoting Decentralization and Strengthening Local Govern- ment: The Perspective of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation," in EastandSoutheastAsiaNetworkforBetterLocalGovernments,:NewPublicManagement:LocalPoliticalandAdministrativeReforms, (Pasay City, Philippines: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Local Government Development Foundation (LOGODEF), 2000), pp. 45-59. No editor named.
51. D. Hinrichsen, CoastalWatersoftheWorld:Trends,ThreatsandStrategies (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998). 52. B. Cicin-Sain and R. W. Knecht, IntegratedCoastalandOceanManagement:Conce(�tsandPractices (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1998), pp. 317-19.
53. H. L. A. Hart. TheConceptof Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961). 54. A. Seidman, R. B. Seidman and N. Abeyesekere, LegislativeDrafting forDemo-craticSocialChange:AManual forDrafters (London: Kluwer Law International, 2001 ) . •
55. Hart (n. 53 above). 56. Seidman et al. (n. 54 above), p. 16.
57. R. Dahuri and I. M. Dutton, "Integrated coastal and marine management enters a new era in Indonesia," IntegratedCoastalZoneManagement1 (2000): 11-16. 58. Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (BAPPENAS), Repelita (Ren- cana Pembangunan Lima Tahun) VI, 1994/95-1999.
2000. 59. Departemen Kelautan & Perikanan (DKP) 2001. Annual Report 1999- 2000. 60. Minister S. Kusumaatmadja, National Marine Exploration and Fisheries Policy, Statement by the Minister, 14 February 2000. 61. C. MacAndrews, CentralGovernmentandLocalDevelopmentinIndonesia, (Ox- ford: Oxford University Press, 1986). . 62. A note on terminology: this article uses the terms 'regency' and 'district' interchangeably, translating into 'kabupaten.' Use of these terms also includes cities' ('kota'), which, under Indonesian law, have the same jurisdictional authority as kabupaten. 'Regional government' refers to both the regency and provincial lev- els. This article also uses the term 'act' to describe an 'undang-undang,' a law that is enacted by the DPR and signed by the President of the Republic of Indonesia. Undang-undang' is often translated as 'law,' but as noted by Pak Koesnadi Hardja- soemantri, the term 'law' is a general reference to governing rules and regulations, rather than the particular type of rule constituting an 'undang-undang'; O. Podger, GovernmentinRegions:AnOverviewofGovernmentOrganizationwithinProvincesandRegionsofIndonesia (Surubaya: publisher unknown, 1994).
63. J. Alm and R. Bahl, DecentralizationinIndonesia:ProspectsandProblem (Jakarta, unpublished report prepared for USAID, 1999). 64. There are two notable exceptions to these new regional authorities. First, the seabed underneath the sea territory is not explicitly included in the maritime area, so that authority for management of the seabed remains under central govern- ment control. This includes rights to conduct activities on the seabed, such as oil, gas and mineral extraction. Second, traditional fishing rights are not restricted by the regional territorial sea delimitation.
65. Act No. 22/1999, Art. 7(2).
66. Section (1) of Article 11, Regulation No. 104/ 2000, defines these revenues to include levies on fishery exploitation and levies on fishery production. 67. Reg. 104/2000, Art. 11(2). 68. GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit), "Project support for decentralization measures (SFDM)," Decentralization News Issues, no. 1-8 (2001). Accessed Aug. 2001 on the World Wide Web: http://www.gtzsfdm.or.id. 69. B. S. H. Hoessein et al., Emikiran Filosofis, Yuridis Dan Sosiologis Revisi UU No. 22 Tahun 1999 Dan UU No. 25 Tahun 1999, Sekretariat Jenderal Dewan Perwalikilan Rakyat, Republik Indonesia and United Nations Development Pro- gramme, 2001. 70. T. H. Brown, EconomicCrisis,FiscalDecentralizationandAutonomy:ProspectsforNaturalResourceManagement, (Jakarta: Natural Resources Management Project, August 1999); U.S. Embassy, EconomicReport:Wherethe(NaturalResource)WealthIs, (Jakarta: 18 May 1999). 71. GTZ (n. 68 above).
72. R. MacClellan, Chief Science Officer, U.S. Embassy, Jakarta, personal com- munication, 22 March 2001. 73. BICA (Building Institutional Capacity in Asia), "Public Sector Challenges and Government Reforms in South East Asia"ed. University of Sydney. Conference Proceedings, 12 March 2001, The University of Sydney, Research Institute for Asia and the Pacific, Jakarta, p. 42. 2001. 74. I. P. Diantha, Fakultas Hukum Unud, personal communication, 12 July
75. BICA (n. 73 above), p. 43. 76. L. Heydir, 1986. Skripsi, Peran Sekretariat Negara Dalam Proses Pembentu- kan Peraturan Perundangan, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Universitas Gadja Mada, Fakultas Hukum. 77. T. H. Purwaka, "Policy on marine and coastal resource development plan- ning," Occasional Paper Series 8, (Bandung: Center for Archipelago, Law and De- velopment Studies, 1995); S. Putra, Head of Sub-Directorate of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, Direktorat Jenderal Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil, DKP, per- sonal communication, March 2001. 78. Putra (n. 77 above).
. 79. F. Sofa, ProgramPengalolaanPesisirdanKelautandiIndonesia:SebuahTin-jauan,ProyekPesisirTechnicalReport.ProyekPesisir (Jakarta: Coastal Resoures Manage- ment Program, 2000). 80. CIDE (Center for International Development and Environment), World Resources Institute, and the Foundation for Sustainable Development, StrengtheningLocalCommunity-NGO-PrivateSector-GovernmentPartnershipsfortheEnvironmentalChal-lengesAhead:IndonesiaEnvironmentalThreatsAssessmentandStrategicActionPlan (Ja- karta: US Agency for International Development, April 1995); A. T. White, L. Z. Hale, Y. Renard and L. Cortesi, CollaborativeandCommunity-basedManagementofCoralReefs (West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press, 1994). 81. I. M. Dutton, K. Shurcliffe, D. Neville, R. Merrill, M. Erdmann and M. Knight, 2001. "Engaging Communities as Partners in Conservation and Develop- ment," " VanZorgeReportonIndonesia, Vol. III, No. 8, p. 4. 82. B. R. Crawford, I. A. Dutton, C. Rotinsulu and L. Z. Hale, "Community- based Coastal Resources Management in Indonesia: Examples and Initial Lessons from North Sulawesi," in Proceedingsof InternationalTropicalMarineEcosystemsManage-mentSymposium, eds. I. Dight, R. Kenchington and J. Baldwin, (Townsville, Australia: International Coral Reef Initiative, 1998), pp. 299-308. 83. B. R. Crawford andj. Tulungen, "Scaling-up Models of Community-based Marine Sanctuaries into a Community-Based Coastal Management Program as a Means of Promoting Marine Conservation in Indonesia," Working Paper, (Narra- gansett, RI: Center for Marine Conservation, University of Rhode Island, 1999).
84. J. M. Patlis, R. Dahuri, M. Knight, J. Tulungen, "Integrated coastal manage- ment in a decentralized Indonesia: how it can work," Jurnal Pesisir & Kelautan, Indonesian JournalofCoastalandMarineResources, vol. 4, no. 1 (2001 ) , Bogor, Indone- sia, pp. 24-38. 85. G. F. Bell, "The new Indonesian laws relating to regional autonomy: good intentions, confusing laws," Asian-PacificLawandPolicyfournal, (2001), vol. 2, p. 1.
86. Crawford et al. (n. 82 above).
87. S. B. Suominen and C. Cullinan, LegalandInstitutionalAspectsofIntegratedCoastalAreaManagementinNationalLegislation (Rome: Food and Agriculture Organi- zation of the United Nations, 1994). 88. Departemen Kelautan & Perikanan (DKP). Direktoratjenderal Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil, Naskah Akademik Pengelolaan Wilayah Pesisir, Jakarta, Indone- sia (2001).
89. L. M. Kaimudin, "Decentralization of Coastal and Marine Reosurce Man- agement," (paper presented at the Second Conference on the Management of Indo- nesian Coastal and Marine Resources, Makassar, 15-17 May 2000 ).
90. At the time of writing the currency exchange rate was approximately 10,000 Indonesian rupiah to US$ 1. 91. M. E. Rudianto, Head, Sub-Directorate for Rehabilitation and Coastal Re- sources Utilization, DirektoratJenderal Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil, DKP, personal communication, March 2001.