Integrated Coastal Management in Decentralizing Developing Countries: The General Paradigm, the U.S. Model, and the Indonesian Example*

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References
  • * Research for this article was conducted in Indonesia with funding through a Fulbright Senior Scholarship to Jason M. Patlis.

  • 1. Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) 302, 16 U.S.C. 1451.

  • 2. A. Agrawel and J. C. Ribot, Accountability in Decentralization: A Framecuork ruith South Asian and West African Cases (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2000), p. 23. 3. K. Lowry, "Decentralized Coastal Management" (unpublished report pre- pared for Coastal Resources Management Project, USAID, University of Hawaii, 2001). 4. A. Cheung, "The Paradox of Administrative Reform in Asia: Comments on the BICA Report 2001," in Public Sector Challenges and Government Reforms in South East Asia, pp. 15-25. (No editor listed. Conference Proceedings, Building Institutional Capacity in Asia (BICA), 12 March 2001, Jakarta). . 5. World Bank, 2001. "Decentralization and governance: does decentraliza- tion improve public service delivery?," Poverty Reduction and Economic Management (PREM) Network, 55. Accessed Sept. 2001 on the World Wide Web: http:// / wwwl.worldbank.org/publicsector/legal/PREMnote55.pdf (Washington, DC); See generally O. Azfar, S. Kahkonen, A. Lanyi, P. Meagher and D. Rutherford, Decentral- ization, Governance and Public Services, The Impact of Institutional Arrangements: A Review of the Literature (Rockville, Md.: IRIS Center, University of Maryland, 1999).

  • 6. D. Rondinelli and S. Cheema, eds., Decentralization and Development: Policy Implementation in Developing Countries (London: Sage Publications, 1983). 7. Agrawal and Ribot (n. 2 above).

  • 8. H. I. Vista-Baylon, "Decentralization: What, When and How," in To Serve and To Preserve; Improving Public Administration in a Competitive World, eds. S. Schiavo- Campo and P. S. A. Sundaram, (Manila, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, pp. 156-186. . 9. W. Dillinger and M. Fay, "From Centralized to Decentralized Governance," in Finance and Development, IMF, (1999) vol. 36, no. 4, p. 1.

  • 10. Azfar et al. (n. 4 above). 11. United States Agency for International Development, Decentralization and Democratic Local Covernance Programming Handbook (Washington, DC: U.S. AID, 1999). 12. S. Schiavo-Campo and P. S. A. Sundaram, eds., To Serve and Preserve: Im�rrov- ing Public Administration in a Competitive World (Manila, Philippines: Asian Develop- ment Bank, 2001), p. 10. 13. Ibid., p. 15.

  • 14. L. Carino, "Governance in Local Communities: Towards Development and Democracy," in P. D. Tapales, J. C. Cuaresma, and W. L. Cabo, Local Governments in the Philippines,: A Book of Readings, vol. 1: Local Government Administration, Center for Local and Regional Governance and National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of Philippines, (Manila, Philippines: Kadena Press, 1998), pp. 67-83. 15. B. Crawford, M. Balgos and C. Pagdilao. Community-Based Marine Sanctuaries in the Philippines,: A Report on Focus Group Discussions. Coastal Management. Report no. 2224. PCAMRD Book Series no. 30. Los Banos, Philippines: Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island and Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development, 2000. 16. R. S. Pomeroy and M. B. Carlos, 1997. "Community-based coastal resource management in the Philippines: a review and evaluation of programs and projects, 1984-1994," Marine Policy, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 445-64.

  • 17. Azfar et al. (n. 5 above). 18. Ibid. 19. Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. s. 1294 (1977). 20. Marine Mammal Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. s. 1361 (1972). 21. Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. s. 1531 (1973). 22. Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 16 U.S.C. s. 1801 (1976). 23. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments, 43 U.S.C. s. 1331 (1953); Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act 1978 Amendments, 43 U.S.C. s. 1801 (1978), Public Law 95-372; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments, (Public Law 99-272). This Public Law enacted no currently effective sections.

  • 24. Coastal Zone Management Act (n. 1 above)

  • 25. CZMA 304(1), 16 U.S.C. 1453(1). 26. CZMA 304(2), 16 U.S.C. 1453(2). 27. CZMA 306(d) (11), 16 U.S.C. 1455(d) (11). 28. CZMA 306(d) (2), 16 U.S.C. 1455(d)(2).

  • 29. CZMA306(d)(1), 16U.S.C. 1455(d)(1). 30. CZMA 306(d) (4), 16 U.S.C. 1455(d)(4). 31. CZMA 306(d) (2), 16 U.S.C. 1455(d) (2). 32. CZMA 306(d) (3), 16 U.S.C. 1455(d) (3). 33. D. R. Christie and R. G. Hildreth, Coastal and Ocean Management Law (St. Paul, Minn: West Group, 1999), p. 63. 34. CZMA 312(a), 16 U.S.C. 1458(a). 35. CZMA 306(e), 16 U.S.C. 1455(e).

  • 36. CZMA 306a(b), 16 U.S.C. 1455a(b). 37. CZMA 309(a), 16 U.S.C. 1456b(a). 38. CZMA307(c)(l)(A), 16 U.S.C. 1456(c) (1) (A). 39. CZMA 307(c) (3) (A), 16 U.S.C. 1456(c) (3) (A). 40. CZMA 310(a), 16 U.S.C. 1456c(a).

  • 41. Christie and Hildreth (n. 33 above), p. 68. 42. M. J. Hershman, J. W. Good, T. Bernd-Cohen, R. F. Goodwin, V. Lee, P. Pogue, "The Effectiveness of Coastal Zone Management in the United States," Coastal Management 27 (1999): 113-38. 43. Ibid., p. 115. 44. Hershman et al. (n. 42 above).

  • 45. Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. s. 7401 (1955). 46. Clean Water Act (n. 19 above). 47. Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (n. 22 above). 48. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, (Public Law 94-580) . This Public Law enacted no effective sections. 49. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. s. 9601 (1980).

  • 50. W. Meyer, "Promoting Decentralization and Strengthening Local Govern- ment: The Perspective of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation," in East and Southeast Asia Network for Better Local Governments,: New Public Management: Local Political and Administrative Reforms, (Pasay City, Philippines: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Local Government Development Foundation (LOGODEF), 2000), pp. 45-59. No editor named.

  • 51. D. Hinrichsen, Coastal Waters of the World: Trends, Threats and Strategies (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998). 52. B. Cicin-Sain and R. W. Knecht, Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management: Conce(�ts and Practices (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1998), pp. 317-19.

  • 53. H. L. A. Hart. The Concept of Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961). 54. A. Seidman, R. B. Seidman and N. Abeyesekere, LegislativeDrafting forDemo- cratic Social Change: A Manual forDrafters (London: Kluwer Law International, 2001 ) . •

  • 55. Hart (n. 53 above). 56. Seidman et al. (n. 54 above), p. 16.

  • 57. R. Dahuri and I. M. Dutton, "Integrated coastal and marine management enters a new era in Indonesia," Integrated Coastal Zone Management 1 (2000): 11-16. 58. Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (BAPPENAS), Repelita (Ren- cana Pembangunan Lima Tahun) VI, 1994/95-1999.

  • 2000. 59. Departemen Kelautan & Perikanan (DKP) 2001. Annual Report 1999- 2000. 60. Minister S. Kusumaatmadja, National Marine Exploration and Fisheries Policy, Statement by the Minister, 14 February 2000. 61. C. MacAndrews, Central Government and LocalDevelopment in Indonesia, (Ox- ford: Oxford University Press, 1986). . 62. A note on terminology: this article uses the terms 'regency' and 'district' interchangeably, translating into 'kabupaten.' Use of these terms also includes cities' ('kota'), which, under Indonesian law, have the same jurisdictional authority as kabupaten. 'Regional government' refers to both the regency and provincial lev- els. This article also uses the term 'act' to describe an 'undang-undang,' a law that is enacted by the DPR and signed by the President of the Republic of Indonesia. Undang-undang' is often translated as 'law,' but as noted by Pak Koesnadi Hardja- soemantri, the term 'law' is a general reference to governing rules and regulations, rather than the particular type of rule constituting an 'undang-undang'; O. Podger, Government in Regions: An Overview of Government Organization within Provinces and Regions of Indonesia (Surubaya: publisher unknown, 1994).

  • 63. J. Alm and R. Bahl, Decentralization in Indonesia: Prospects and Problem (Jakarta, unpublished report prepared for USAID, 1999). 64. There are two notable exceptions to these new regional authorities. First, the seabed underneath the sea territory is not explicitly included in the maritime area, so that authority for management of the seabed remains under central govern- ment control. This includes rights to conduct activities on the seabed, such as oil, gas and mineral extraction. Second, traditional fishing rights are not restricted by the regional territorial sea delimitation.

  • 65. Act No. 22/1999, Art. 7(2).

  • 66. Section (1) of Article 11, Regulation No. 104/ 2000, defines these revenues to include levies on fishery exploitation and levies on fishery production. 67. Reg. 104/2000, Art. 11(2). 68. GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit), "Project support for decentralization measures (SFDM)," Decentralization News Issues, no. 1-8 (2001). Accessed Aug. 2001 on the World Wide Web: http://www.gtzsfdm.or.id. 69. B. S. H. Hoessein et al., Emikiran Filosofis, Yuridis Dan Sosiologis Revisi UU No. 22 Tahun 1999 Dan UU No. 25 Tahun 1999, Sekretariat Jenderal Dewan Perwalikilan Rakyat, Republik Indonesia and United Nations Development Pro- gramme, 2001. 70. T. H. Brown, Economic Crisis, Fiscal Decentralization and Autonomy: Prospects for Natural Resource Management, (Jakarta: Natural Resources Management Project, August 1999); U.S. Embassy, Economic Report: Where the (Natural Resource) Wealth Is, (Jakarta: 18 May 1999). 71. GTZ (n. 68 above).

  • 72. R. MacClellan, Chief Science Officer, U.S. Embassy, Jakarta, personal com- munication, 22 March 2001. 73. BICA (Building Institutional Capacity in Asia), "Public Sector Challenges and Government Reforms in South East Asia"ed. University of Sydney. Conference Proceedings, 12 March 2001, The University of Sydney, Research Institute for Asia and the Pacific, Jakarta, p. 42. 2001. 74. I. P. Diantha, Fakultas Hukum Unud, personal communication, 12 July

  • 75. BICA (n. 73 above), p. 43. 76. L. Heydir, 1986. Skripsi, Peran Sekretariat Negara Dalam Proses Pembentu- kan Peraturan Perundangan, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Universitas Gadja Mada, Fakultas Hukum. 77. T. H. Purwaka, "Policy on marine and coastal resource development plan- ning," Occasional Paper Series 8, (Bandung: Center for Archipelago, Law and De- velopment Studies, 1995); S. Putra, Head of Sub-Directorate of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, Direktorat Jenderal Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil, DKP, per- sonal communication, March 2001. 78. Putra (n. 77 above).

  • . 79. F. Sofa, Program Pengalolaan Pesisir dan Kelautan di Indonesia: Sebuah Tin- jauan, Proyek Pesisir Technical Report. Proyek Pesisir (Jakarta: Coastal Resoures Manage- ment Program, 2000). 80. CIDE (Center for International Development and Environment), World Resources Institute, and the Foundation for Sustainable Development, Strengthening Local Community-NGO-Private Sector-Government Partnerships for the Environmental Chal- lenges Ahead: Indonesia Environmental Threats Assessment and Strategic Action Plan (Ja- karta: US Agency for International Development, April 1995); A. T. White, L. Z. Hale, Y. Renard and L. Cortesi, Collaborative and Community-based Management of Coral Reefs (West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press, 1994). 81. I. M. Dutton, K. Shurcliffe, D. Neville, R. Merrill, M. Erdmann and M. Knight, 2001. "Engaging Communities as Partners in Conservation and Develop- ment," " Van Zorge Report on Indonesia, Vol. III, No. 8, p. 4. 82. B. R. Crawford, I. A. Dutton, C. Rotinsulu and L. Z. Hale, "Community- based Coastal Resources Management in Indonesia: Examples and Initial Lessons from North Sulawesi," in Proceedings of International Tropical Marine Ecosystems Manage- ment Symposium, eds. I. Dight, R. Kenchington and J. Baldwin, (Townsville, Australia: International Coral Reef Initiative, 1998), pp. 299-308. 83. B. R. Crawford andj. Tulungen, "Scaling-up Models of Community-based Marine Sanctuaries into a Community-Based Coastal Management Program as a Means of Promoting Marine Conservation in Indonesia," Working Paper, (Narra- gansett, RI: Center for Marine Conservation, University of Rhode Island, 1999).

  • 84. J. M. Patlis, R. Dahuri, M. Knight, J. Tulungen, "Integrated coastal manage- ment in a decentralized Indonesia: how it can work," Jurnal Pesisir & Kelautan, Indonesian Journal of Coastal and Marine Resources, vol. 4, no. 1 (2001 ) , Bogor, Indone- sia, pp. 24-38. 85. G. F. Bell, "The new Indonesian laws relating to regional autonomy: good intentions, confusing laws," Asian-Pacific Law and Policyfournal, (2001), vol. 2, p. 1.

  • 86. Crawford et al. (n. 82 above).

  • 87. S. B. Suominen and C. Cullinan, Legal and Institutional Aspects of Integrated Coastal Area Management in National Legislation (Rome: Food and Agriculture Organi- zation of the United Nations, 1994). 88. Departemen Kelautan & Perikanan (DKP). Direktoratjenderal Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil, Naskah Akademik Pengelolaan Wilayah Pesisir, Jakarta, Indone- sia (2001).

  • 89. L. M. Kaimudin, "Decentralization of Coastal and Marine Reosurce Man- agement," (paper presented at the Second Conference on the Management of Indo- nesian Coastal and Marine Resources, Makassar, 15-17 May 2000 ).

  • 90. At the time of writing the currency exchange rate was approximately 10,000 Indonesian rupiah to US$ 1. 91. M. E. Rudianto, Head, Sub-Directorate for Rehabilitation and Coastal Re- sources Utilization, DirektoratJenderal Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil, DKP, personal communication, March 2001.

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