Communicating the Harmful Impact of TBT: What can Scientists Contribute to EU Environmental Policy Planning in a Global Context?*

in Ocean Yearbook Online
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Have Institutional Access?

Login with your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • *The funding of the EU Life Programme was crucial in designing and per- forming this cooperative project. The ongoing participation of the policy network of this project has been of great value. We thank the members for their continuing interest and willingness to participate in formal and informal discussions throughout the project, in particular Mr L. Burgel, Mr H. Foeken and Ms M. van Binsbergen (Directorate General for Transport, NL Ministry for Transport, Public Works and Water Management), Mr S. Josephus Jitta (Directorate General for the Environ- ment, NL Ministry for Public Housing, Physical Planning and the Environment), Professor Dr E. Hey (International Natural Resources Law, Erasmus University, The Netherlands), Mr H. Van Hoorn (NL Ministry for Transport, Public Works and Wa- ter Management), Ms S. Lintu (International Maritime Organization), and Mr M. Leonard-Williams (Directorate General for Transport, European Commission). We are grateful to the many representatives from policy and from interested organisa- tions for their preparedness to present their views at the project public meetings and at special seminars and their willingness to join in the public discussions. This is NIOZ Publication No. 3676.

  • 1. International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships. Adopted 5 October 2001. IMO Documents on the International Confer-

  • ence on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, Agenda Item 8: "Adoption of the Final Act of the Conference and any Instruments, Recommenda- tions and Resolutions resulting from the Work of the Conference. International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, 2001. Text adopted by the Conference." IMO, AFS/CONF/25, 8 October 2001; IMO, AFS/ CONF/26, 18 October 2001. Entry into force: 12 months after 25 States, represent- ing 25 percent of the world's merchant shipping tonnage have ratified it. The harm- ful antifouling systems to be prohibited under the regime of the Convention are defined in Annex 1 to the Convention. At present only organotins used as biocide in antifouling paints are listed; the Annex will be updated as and when necessary. Annex 1 states that by an effective date of 1 January 2003, all ships shall not apply or re-apply organotin compounds which act as biocides in antifouling systems. By 1 January 2008 (effective date), ships either: (a) shall not bear such compounds on their hulls or external parts or surfaces; or (b) shall bear a coating that forms a barrier to such compounds leaching from the underlying non-compliant antifouling systems. ' The Diplomatic Conference adopted a Resolution on Early and Effective Applica- tion of the Convention, which invites Member States of the Organization to do their utmost to prepare for implementing the Convention and also urges the relevant industries to refrain from marketing, sale and application of the substances con- trolled by the Convention (Resolution 1 to the Convention). . 2. A. Underdal, "Science and Politics: the anatomy of an uneasy partnership," in Science and politics in international environmental regimes: Between integrity and involve- ment, (eds.), S. Andresen, T. Skodvin, A. Underdal and J. Wettestad, (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000), p. 3. 3. J. Wettestad, "Dealing with land-based marine pollution in the North-East Atlantic: The Paris Convention (PARCON) and the North Sea Conferences," in Andresen et al. (n. 2 above). 4. Underdal (n. 2 above), p. 80.

  • 5. A. Vallega, "Ocean governance in post-modern society - a geographical per- spective," Marine Policy 25 (2001): 399-414. 6. C. C. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes and G. Peet, "Research interests in the North Sea," Marine Policy 6(l) (1982), p. 63-66. 7. J. Rothblatt, History of the Pugruash Conferences (London: Taylor & Francis, 1962), in E. Adler "The emergence of cooperation: national epistemic communities and the international evolution of the idea of nuclear arms control," International Organization 46 (1992): 101-146.

  • 8. D. Freestone and E. Hey, (eds.), The Precautionary Principle in International Law, The Challenge of Implementation (The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, 1996), 274 pp.; Underdal (n. 2 above); T. Skodvin and A. Underdal, "Exploring the dynamics of the science-politics interaction," in Andresen et al. (n. 2 above). . 9. D. Santillo, R. L. Stringer, P. A.Johnston andj. Tickner, "The Precautionary Principle: Protecting against failures of scientific method and risk assessment," Ma- rine Pollution Bulletin 36 (1998): 939-950. 10. B. Wynne and S. Mayer, "How science fails the environment," New Scientist (5 June 1993), p. 33-35.

  • 11. S. Funtowicz, I. Shepherd, D. Wilkinson andj. Ravetz, "Science and gover- nance in the European Union: a contribution to the debate," Science and Public Policy 27 (2000): 327-336. 12. E. Hey, "The international regime for the protection of the North Sea: from functional approaches to a more integrated approach," ThelnternationalJour- nal of Marine and Coastal Law 17 (2002), (forthcoming). 13. OSPAR Commission for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic. Quality Status Report. 2000, Region II Greater North Sea, (London: OSPAR Commission, 2000). 14. Wettestad (n. 3 above).

  • 15. J. S. Gray, "Integrating precautionary scientific methods into decision- making," in Freestone and Hey (n. 8 above), p. 133-146. 16. Wettestad, "From common cuts to critical loads: the ECE Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution," in Andresen et al. (n. 2 above). 17. K. Fent, "Ecotoxicology of organotin compounds," Critical Reviews in Toxi- ecology 26(1) (1996), pp. 1-117. 18. J. Ward, "Antifouling paints threaten fisheries resources," Naga: The ICLARM, Quarterly, (Manila, Philippines: International Center for Living Aquatic Re- sources Management, 1988), p. 15; L. D. Mee, "Scientific methods and Precaution- ary Principle," in Freestone and Hey (n. 8 above), pp. 109-131. 19. D. Dundee, Personal communication, University of New Orleans (1980).

  • 20. C. Alzieu, M. H6ral and J.-P. Dreno, "Les peintures marines antisalissures et leur impact sur 1'ostreiculture." Equinoxe 24 (1989), p. 22-31; C. Alzieu. "Environ- mental problems caused by TBT in France: Assessment, regulations, prospects," Ma- rine Environmental Research 32 (1991): 7-17. 21. Resolution MEPC 46(30), "Resolution on the Control of Harmful Antifoul- ing," (London: IMO, 1990). 22. M. M. Santos, M. N. Vieira and A. M. Santos, "Imposex in the dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus (L.), along the Portuguese coast," Marine Pollution Bulletin 40 (2000): 643-646. 23. Mee (n. 18 above). 24. C. C. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes, J. M. Everaarts, B. P. Mensink and J. P. Boon. "The decline of the North Sea whelk (Buccinum undatum L.) between 1970 and 1990: a natural or a human-induced event?," MarineEcology PSZN1, 17 (1996): 333- 343. 25. Gray (n. 15 above). 26. N. Spooner, P. E. Gibbs, G. W. Bryan and L. Goad, "The effect of tributyltin upon steroid titres in the female dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus, and the development

  • of imposex," Marine Environmental Research 32 ( 1991 ) , p. 37-49; E. Oberdörster and P. McClellan-Green, "The neuropeptide APGWamide induces imposex in the mud snail, Ilyanassa obsoleta " Peptides 21 (2000): 1323-1330. 27. C. C. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes, "Tributyltin and policies for antifouling," Envi- ronmental Technology 18 (1997), p. 1265-1268. 28. C. C. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes, J. F. Kemp and J. P. Boon, "Imposex in whelks (Buccinnm undatum) from the open North Sea: relation to shipping traffic intensi- ties," Marine Pollution Bulletin 28 (1994), p. 311-313. 29. B. P. Mensink, J. M. Everaarts, H. Kralt, C. C. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes and J. P. Boon, "TBT exposure in early life stages induces the development of male sexual characteristics in the common whelk, Buccinum undatum," MarineEnvironmental Re- search 42 (1996), p. 151-154; B. P. Mensink, "Imposex in the common whelk, Bucci- num undatum," (Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 1999), 125 PP.; B. P. Mensink, H. Kralt, A. D. Vethaak, C. C. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes, J. H. Koeman, B. Van Hattum and J. P. Boon, "Imposex induction in laboratory reared juvenile Buccinum undatum by Tributyltin (TBT)," Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 11 (2002): 49-65. ** . 30. C. Swennen, N. Ruttanadakul, S. Ardseungnern, H. R. Singh, B. P. Men- sink, and C. C. ten Hallers-Tjabbes, "Imposex in sublittoral and littoral gastropods from the Gulf of Thailand and Strait of Malacca in relation to shipping," Environmen- tal Technology 18 (1997): 1245-1254.

  • 31. Ward (n. 18 above) 32. Resolution MEPC 46(30); MEPC 30, Report of Meeting (London: IMO, 1990); MEPC 35, Report of 35th Meeting Marine Environment Protection Commit- tee (MEPC). (London: IMO, 1994). 33. Swennen et al. (n. 30 above). 34. MEPC 38, 1996. Report of Meeting, (London: IMO, 1996); MEPC 38/ INF.16: "Harmful effects of the use of antifouling paints for ships. Impact of anti- fouling paints in South-East Asian seas," Submitted by the Netherlands (London: IMO, 1996). 35. MEPC 42, Report of Meeting, (London: IMO, 1998). 36. MEPC 46, Report of Meeting, (London: IMO, 2001); Ten Hallers-Tjabbes (n. 28 above). 37. HIGTBT, Report of Malmo Seminar, World Maritime University (2000). 38. MEPC 42, Report of Meeting, (London: IMO, 1998). 39. The project consortium partners Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (The Netherlands), CaTO Marine Ecosystems (The Netherlands), Institute for Envi- ronmental Studies, Free University (The Netherlands), Department of Chemistry and Material Sciences, University of Huelva (Spain), Department of the Environ- ment, ENEA-CASACCIA (Italy), with additional assistance by Professor J. F. Kemp, University of Nottingham (U.K.) and Mr M. Santos, University of Porto (Portugal).

  • 40. A. C. Hardy, The Open Sea - its Natural History. Part I, The World of Plank- ton, (London: Collins, 1956), p. 1-2. 41. R. Johnson, K. Bell, and D. Huppert, "Public Perceptions, Attitudes, and Values: Coastal Resident Survey," Chapter 13 in Pacific Northwest Coastal Ecosystem Regional Study (PNCERS), Annual Report (2000), p. 125-142. 42. T. Horiguchi, H. Shiraishi, M. Shimizu and M. Morita, "Effects of triphe- nyltin chloride and five other organotin compounds on the development of imposex in the rockshell, Thais clavigera," Environmental Pollution 95 (1997), p. 85-91; D. V. Ellis and L. A. Pattisina, "Widespread neogastropod imposex: a biological indicator of global TBT contamination?" Marine Pollution Bulletin 21 (1990): 248-253. 43. MEPC 35 (1994) (n. 32 above).

  • 44. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes et al., (n. 28 above). 45. EU Directive 89/677/CEE (1989). 46. J. L. Gomez Ariza, E. Morales, I. Giraldez, R. Beltran and M. A. F. Reca- males, "General appraisal of organotin in the Southwest Spain coastal environ- ment," Quimica Analitica 16 (1997): 451-455. 47. B. Kettle, Paper presented at LC/SG 23, (Townsville, Australia, May 2000), Report of Meeting LC/SG 23 (London: IMO, 2000).

  • 48. Map of the World: the internal representation of human beings as based on their reflection and interpretation of all sensory information as received from the external world, as well as internal sensory (proprioceptive) signals. The interpre- tation reflects people's backgrounds, such as the community in which they operate and its rules, structure and processes, the values of the individual human and of relevant peer groups, as well as character traits and structures. See A. Korzybski, Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics, (Lakeview, Conn., USA: The International Non-Aristotelian Library Publishing Co., 1958).

  • 49. E. Hey, "The Precautionary Concept in Environmental Policy and Law: Institutionalizing Caution," Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 6 (1992), p. 257-318; D. Freestone and E. Hey, "Origins and development of the Precautionary Principle," in Freestone and Hey (n. 8 above), pp. 3-15; Gray (n. 15 above); Mee (n. 18 above); Santillo et al., (n. 9 above).

  • 50. Available online: . 51. EU, Green Week Conference, (Brussels: 24-28 April 2001).

  • 52. C. C. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes,].-W. Wegener, A. G. M. Van Hattum, J. F. Kemp, E. Ten Hallers, T. J. Reitsema and J. P. Boon, "Imposex and organotin concentra- tions in Buccinum undatum and Neptunea antiqua from the North Sea: relationship to shipping density and hydrographical conditions," Marine Environmental Research (2002), (in press). 53. J. L. Gomez-Ariza, M. M. Santos, N. Vieira, E. Morales, I. Giraldez, D. San- chez-Rodas, A. Velasco, J. P. Boon and C. C. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes, "The Impact of organotins in open Atlantic sea along the Iberian coast in relation to shipping," (2002), (in press).

  • . 54. S. Chiavarini, P. Massanisso, P. Nicolai, C. Nobili and R. Morabito, "Butyl- tins concentration levels and imposex occurrence in snails from the Sicilian coasts (Italy)," (2002), (in press).

  • 55. (n. 51 above). 56. RIKZ, An issue of substance, TBT in marine antifouling paints, (The Nether- lands: Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, 1998). 57. MEPC 44/INF.11, "Harmful effects of the use of antifouling paints for ships. Information on TBT levels and the occurrence of imposex in certain marine species in the North Sea, the Mediterranean and the coastal waters of Portugal," submitted by Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain, (London: IMO, 1999). 58. MEPC 46/INF.2, "Harmful effects of the use of antifouling paints for ships. Information on TBT levels and the occurrence of imposex in certain marine species in the North Sea, the Mediterranean and the coastal waters of Portugal," submitted by Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain, (London: IMO, 2000).

  • 59. TBT Seminars, Rio de Janeiro and Brasilia (Brazil: Ministry of the Environ- ment, 28-30 August 2000). 60. WWF-initiative Global 2000 - TBT: Conference "A threat to the oceans shown in three ecoregions - environmentally sound ship-paints as alternatives," (Hanover EXPO, 19 September 2000). 61. LC/SG 23, Report of Meeting (2000), (London: IMO, 2000); LC/SG 24, Report of Meeting (2001), (London: IMO, 2001). . 62. C. C. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes and B. van Hattum, "Imposex and TBT in Buc- cinum undatum and in sediments in the North Sea," Report re STOF*CHEMIE, RIKZ-RWS, 1996). Also LC/SG 19/INF.18, Submitted by the Netherlands, May 1996; M. M. Santos, M. N. Vieira, A. M. Santos, J. L. Gomez-Ariza, I. Giraldez and C. C. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes, "Impact of Butyltins released by discharge of dredged spoil material," (Submitted, 2002).

  • 63. C. C. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes, "Science communication and Precautionary Policy: A marine case study," in J. Tickner (ed.), Precaution, Science and Preventive Public Policy (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2002), (in press). 64. Korzybski (n. 48 above); R. A. Hinde, Biological basis of hu�rcan social behaviour (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974). 65. HIC-TBT Project, Report of 2nd Progress Meeting, available at: (2000).

  • 66. Underdal (n. 2 above), p. 11. 67. Wettestad (n. 3 above). 68. Hey (n. 12 above).

  • 69. North Sea Task Force, North Sea Quality Status Report, (London: Oslo and Paris Commissions, 1993), 132 pp.; OSPAR (2000) (n. 13 above). 70. A. Underdal and J. Wettestad, "Science and politics in international envi- ronmental regimes: Between integrity and involvement," in Andresen et al. (n. 2 above).

  • 71. T. Skodvin and A. Underdal, "Exploring the dynamics of the science-poli- tics interaction," in Andresen et al. (n. 2 above). 72. A. Bijlsma and C. C. Ten Hallers, "Executive summary to the proceedings," in 3rd North Sea Seminar. Distress Signals. Signals from the Environrnent in Policy and Decision-Making, Ten Hallers-Tjabbes and Bijlsma, (eds.), (Amsterdam: Werkgroep Noordzee Foundation, 1989), pp. 9-13. 73. Underdal (n. 2 above). 74. L. F. Scura, T.-E. Chua, M. D. Pido and J. N. Paw, "Lessons for integrated coastal zone management: the ASEAN experience," in Integrative Frarreework and Methods forArea Management, T.-E. Chua and L. F. Scura, (eds.), ICLARM Conference Proceedings No. 37 (Manila: ICLARM, 1992), pp. 1-70; B. Cicin-Sain and R. W. Knecht, Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management: Concepts and Practices (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1998).

  • . 75. R. K. Mitchell, B. R. Agle and D. J. Wood, "Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: defining the principle of who and what really counts," The Academy) of Management Review 22 (1997), p. 853-886; K. H. Mikalsen and K. Jentoft, "From user groups to stakeholders? The public interest in fisheries manage- ment," " Marine Policy 25 (2001): 281-292. 76. Mikalsen and Jentoft (n. 75 above). 77. T.-E. Chua, "An analysis of the application of integrated coastal manage- ment - Linking local and global environmental concerns." Proceedings, Oceans and Coasts Rio+ 10 (Paris: UNESCO, December 2001).

  • 78. Available online: (

  • 79. LC 22/20, Report of 22nd Consultative Meeting London Convention 1972 (LC 72), (London: IMO, 2000).

  • 80. LC 23/16, Report of 23rd Consultative Meeting London Convention 1972 (LC 72), (London: IMO, 2001). 81. LC/SG 23, 2000, Report of 23rd Meeting Scientific Group LC 72, (Lon- don: IMO, 2000). LC/SG 24, 2001, Report of 24th Meeting, (London: IMO, 2001). 82. MEPC 41/10, 1997, "Harmful effects of the use of antifouling paints for ships. Final report of the correspondence group," Submitted by The Netherlands acting as lead country of the correspondence group. (London: IMO, 1997).

  • 83. Underdal and Wettestad (n. 70 above).

Index Card
Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 10 9 0
Full Text Views 14 14 0
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0