Global Warming and Canada's Shipping Lanes: An Oceanographer's View†

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  • '�'EDITORS' NOTE.-An earlier version of this paper was presented to a seminar on 'Global Warming and Canada's Shipping Lanes" at the Canadian Maritime Law Association Annual General Meeting, 15 June 2001, Montreal, Canada. 1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Summary For Policy- makers. A Report of Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, January 2001. 2. P. Wadhams, J. A. Dowdeswell and A. N. Schofield, eds., "The Arctic and Environmental Change," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, A (1995) 352, pp. 197-385. y � � ,

  • 3. Energy, Mines and Resources, National Atlas of Canada 5th Ed., Water Trans- portation Infrastructure, Canada (1:7 500,000 map), (Ottawa, Canada: Energy, Mines and Resources, 1986).

  • 4. Canadian Ice Service, Bi-weekly Arctic sea ice animation. (Ottawa, Canada: Envi- ronment Canada, 2001). 5. K. J. Spears, Arctic Marine Risks-The Interaction of Marine Insurance and Arctic Shipping,. Transportation Research Report No. 21, May 1986. Halifax, Canada: Cana- dian Marine Transportation Centre, Dalhousie University, 1986.

  • I 6. M. Soubiliere, ed. The Nunavut Handbook, (Iqaluit, Canada: Nortext Media Inc., 1998).

  • 7. Geological Survey of Canada, Minerals and Metals Sector and National En- ergy Board, "Geological Survey of Canada Map 900A, scale 1: 6 000 000," in Principal Mineral Areas of Canada 46th ed. (Ottawa, Canada: Geological Survey of Canada, 996). '

  • 8. Canadian Hydrographic Service, Pilot ofArctic Canada, 2nd ed. (Ottawa, Can- ada: Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources, 1970) vol. 1. 9. W. D. Smith, Northwest Passage, (New York: American Heritage Press, 1970).

  • 10. W. Ostreng, ed., The Natural and Societal Challenge of the Northern Sea Route: A Reference Work (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999).

  • 11. Ibid. 12. IPCC (n. 1 above).

  • 13. IPCC (n. 1 above). 14. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), "Climate Change 1995: The Science of "Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds. J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg and K. Maskell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996) .

  • 15. P. Wadhams, Ice in the Ocean (Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 2000).

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