Climate Change and Canada's Shipping Lanes: The Background Science†

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References
  • EDITORS' NoTE.-Presented to a seminar on "Global Warming and Canada's Shipping Lanes" at the Canadian Maritime Law Association Annual General Meet- ing, June 2001, Montreal, Canada.

  • 1. R. Revelle and H. E. Suess, "Carbon dioxide exchange between the atmo- sphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric C02 during the Past decades," Tellus 9 (1957): 18-27.

  • 2. World Meteorological Organization. Report of the International Conference on the Assessment of the Role of Carbon Dioxide and of Other Greenhouse Gases in Climate Varia- tions and Associated Impacts. WMO Report #661. Geneva: World Meteorological Orga- nization, 1986, p. 1. 3. World Meteorological Organization. Proceedings of the World Conference on the Changing Atmosphere: Implications for Global Security. WMO Report #710. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization, 1988, p. 292. 4. J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins and J. J. Ephraums, eds., Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), preface.

  • 5. S. Agrawala, "Structural and process history of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change," Climatic Change 39 (2000): 621-42; IPCC., 2001. Third Assess- ment Report on Climate Change, Volumes I, II and III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

  • 6. C. Anderson, "Global Warming and Canada's Shipping Lanes: An Oceanog- rapher's View," in Ocean Yearbook 17 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), Pp. 563-579. l 7. L. Mortsch, H. Hengeveld, M. Lister, B. Lofgren, F. Quinn, M. Slivitzky and L. Wenger, "Climate change impacts on the hydrology of the Great Lakes-St. Law- rence system," Canadian Water Resources journal 25 (2000): 153-80.

  • 8. F. Millerd, "The impact of water level changes on commercial navigation in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River," Canadian Journal of Regional Science 19 (1996): 119-30; J. Smith, B. Lavender, H. Auld, D. Broadhurst and T. Bullock, "Adapting to Climate Variability and Change in Ontario," in The Canada Country Study: Climate Impacts and Adaptation, vol. N (Toronto: Environment Canada, 1998), p. 117.

  • 9. S. J. Cohen, ed. MacKenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS). Toronto: Environment Canada, 1997, p. 372. 10. Ibid. 11. S. Lambert, "The effect of enhanced greenhouse warming on winter cy- clone frequency and strengths," Journal of Climate 8 (1995): 1447-52. 12. R. E. Carnell, C. A. Senior andj. F. B. Mitchell, "An assessment of measures of storminess: simulated changes in Northern Hemisphere winters due to increasing C01," ClimateDynamics 12 (1996): 467-76.

  • 13. L. R. Schade and K. A. Emanuel, "The ocean's effect on the intensity of tropical cyclones: results from a simple coupled atmosphere-ocean model," journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 56 (1999): 642-51; T. R. Knutson, R. E. Tuleya and Y. Kuri- hara, "Simulated increase of hurricane intensities in a C02-warmed climate," Science 279 (1998): 1018-20. 14. J. Shaw, R. B. Taylor, D. L. Forbes, S. M. Solomon and M.-H. Ruz. Sensitivity of the Coasts of Canada to Sea Level Rise. GSC Report #505. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada, 1998, pp. 1-79.

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