Marine Archaeology: A Misunderstood Science

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Marine Archaeology: A Misunderstood Science

in Ocean Yearbook Online


1. Thomas W. Jacobsen, "Evidence for Neolithic Trade in Greece" (paper delivered at a symposium on the Archaeology of Trade in the East Mediterranean, Duke Univer- sity and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, February 23, 1979, the proceedings to be published in Archaeological News). 2. D. J. Mulvaney, ThePrehistory ofAustralia (New York: Praeger, 1969), p. 66; R. and M. E. Shutler, Oceanic Prehistory (Menlo Park, Calif.: Cummings, 1975), p. 31. 3. Lecture at Texas A&M University, April 24, 1978. 4. T W. Jacobsen, "Excavation in the Franchthi Cave, 1969-1971, Part I," Hesperia 42 (1973): 59, 62.

5. S. S. Weinberg, "The Stone Age in the Aegean," in The Cambridge Ancient History, ed. 1. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, and N. G. L. Hammond, 3d ed. (Cambridge: Cam- bridge University Press, 1970), 1, pt. 1: 563-64. 6. J. D. Evans, "Excavations in the Neolithic Settlement of Knossos, 1957-60. Part I," Annual of the British School at Athens 59 (1964): 140; H. G. Buchholz and V Karageor- ghis, Prehistoric Greece and Cyprus, trans. Francisca Garvie (London: Phaidon, 1973), p. 138. 7. C. Renfrew, "Cycladic Metallurgy and the Aegean Early Bronze Age,"American Journal of Archaeology 71 (1967): 2-20. 8. Charles Seltman, Greek Coins, 2d ed. (London: Methuen, 1955), p. 33; Rhys Carpenter, Greek Sculpture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), pp. 3-26, and "The Greek Alphabet Again," American Journal of Archaeology 42 (1938): 58-69. 9. Anonymous reviews, presumably by professors of anthropology, for proposals to the National Science Foundation for the study of ancient ships, 1977-78: "Underwater archaeology, no matter how competant [.sic], does suffer an unusual divorce from normal anthropological concerns"; "fun ..."; etc. The most recent textbook on ar- chaeology to pass my desk had no mention of underwater archaeology. 10. A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire 284-602 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1964), p. 842: "It was cheaper to ship grain from one end of the Mediterranean to the other than to cart it 75 miles." 11. N. K. Sandars, The Sea Peoples (London: Thames & Hudson, 1978); A. Nibbi, The Sea Peoples and Egypt (Park Ridge, N.J.: Noyes, 1975), reviewed by K. A. Kitchen, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 64 (1978): 169-71.

12. G. F. Bass, Archaeology beneath the Sea (New York: Walker, 1975), pp. 127-29. 13. John Roper in The Underwater Cultural Heritage, report of the Committee on Culture and Education, Council of Europe, doc. 4200-E (Strasbourg, 1978), p. 7. 14. Willard Bascom, Deep Water, Ancient Ships (New York: Doubleday, 1976), p. 72.

15. C. Lyell, Principles of Geology, 1st ed. (London, 1832), 1:258, as quoted by Keith Muckelroy, Maritime Archaeology (London: Cambridge University Press, 1978), p. 11. 16. G. F. Bass, Archaeology under Water, 2d ed. (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Pen- guin, 1970), pp. 70-80; David 1. Owen, "Excavating a Classical Shipwreck" Archaeology 24 (1971): 118-29. 17. G. F. Bass, "The Pottery," in Yassi Ada I: A Seventh-Century Byzantine Shipwreck, ed. G. F. Bass and F. H. van Doorninck, Jr. (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, in press), and "Pelagos, Northern Sporades," Intern.ational Journal of Nautical Archaeology 1 (1972):192. 18. G. F. Bass, Cape Gelidonya: A Bronze Age Shipwreck, in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, n.s., vol. 57, pt. 8 (Philadelphia, 1967). 19. G. F. Bass, "The Shipwreck at Serçe Liman, Turkey," Archaeology 32 (1979): 36-43, and "Glass Treasure from the Aegean," National Geographic 153 (June 1978): 786-93. 20. M. L. Katzev, "Iron Objects," in Bass and van Doorninck. 21. G. Kenneth Sams, "The Weighing Implements," in Bass and van Doorninck. 22. Muckelroy, pp. 118-25. 23. Gerhard Kapitan, "The Church Wreck off Marzamemi,"Archaeology 22 (1969): 122-33. 24. Arne Emil Christensen, "Scandinavian Ships to the Vikings," in A History of Seafaring Based on Underwater Archaeology, ed. G. F. Bass (London: Thames & Hudson; New York: Walker, 1972), pp. 160-80; Arne Bang Andersen in Roper, p. 189.

25. G. F. Bass, "Nautical Archaeology Comes of Age: The Vital Fifth Stage," Sea Hi.story 13 (Winter 1979): 27, summarizing stages first defined in a 1977 National Science Foundation proposal by the author. 26. Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway, "The Bronze Apollo from Piombino in the Louvre," Antike Plastik 7 (1967): 43-44. 27. Bass, Archaeology under Water, pp. 70-79. 28. Ibid., chaps. 6 and 7.

29. F. Benoit, L'Epave du Grand Congloue a Mar.seille; Gallia, suppl. 14 (1961); review by G. F. Bass in Antiquity 37 (1963): 155-57. 30. Honor Frost, Under the Mediterranean (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963), pp. 15-18, 171, 254; review by G. F. Bass in Antiquity 38 (1964): 70-72. 31. Bass, Cape Gelidonya. 32. R. C. Wheeler, W. A. Kenyon, A. R. Woolworth, and D. A. Birk, I�oices from the Rapids (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1973). 33. Anders Franzen, The Warship (Stockholm: Norstedts, 1961). 34. Ole Crumlin-Pederson, "Viking and Hanseatic Merchants," in Bass, A History of Seafaring, pp. 183-86; Olaf Olsen and O. Crumlin-Pedersen, "The Skuldelev Ships," Acta Archaeologica 38 (1967): 73-174.

35. Peter Marsden, A Roman Ship from Blackfriar.s, London (London: Guildhall Museum, 1966), and "Ships of the Roman Period and after in Britain," in Bass, A History of Seafaring, pp. 119-22. 36. Michael L. Katzev, "Resurrecting the Oldest Known Greek Ship," National Geographic 137 (June 1970): 840-57. 37. Bass, Archaeology under Water, passim. 38. G. F. Bass and M. L. Katzev, "New Tools for Underwater Archaeology," Ar- chaeology 21 (1968): 164-73; E. J. Ryan and G. F. Bass, "Underwater Surveying and Draughting-a Technique," Antiquity 36 (1962): 252-61; M. L. Katzev and F. H. van Doorninck, Jr., "Replicas of Iron Tools from a Byzantine Shipwreck," Studies in Conserua- tion 11 (1966): 133-42; Muckelroy, pp. 16-17. 39. G. F. Bass, "New Tools for Undersea Archaeology," National Geographic 134 (September 1968): 402-23. 40. F. H. van Doorninck, Jr., "The Seventh-Century Ship at Yassi Ada: Some Contributions to the History of Naval Architecture" (Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsyl- vania, 1967).

41. Bass, Cape Gelidonya.

42. Susan and Michael Katzev, "Last Harbor for the Oldest Ship," National Geo- graphic 146 (November 1974): 618-25. 43. J. Barto Arnold III and Robert S. Weddle, The Nautical Archaeology of Padre island (New York: Academic Press, 1978); David McDonald and J. B. Arnold III, Documentary Sources for the Wreck of the New Spain Fleet of 1554 (Austin: Texas Antiquities Committee No. 8, 1979).

44. Reports in the InternationalJournal of Nautical Archaeology 5 (1976): 293-303; 6 (1977): 331-47; 7 (1978): 205-26, 301-19; and in the INA (formerly AINA) Newsletter (Drawer AU, College Station, Texas 77840). 45. Colin Martin, Full Fathom Five, Wrecks of the Spanish Armada (New York: Viking, 1975); P. Marsden, The Wreck of the `Amsterdam' (London: Hutchinson, 1974); A. McKee, KingHenry VIII,5Mary Rose'(London: Souvenir, 1973); R. Stenuit, Treasures of theArmada, trans. Francine Barker (London: Sphere, 1974). 46. D. J. Blackman, ed., Marine Archaeology, Proceedings of the Twentythird Symposium of the Colston Research Society Held in the University of Bristol, April 4-8, 1971 (London: Butterworths, 1973). 47. G. F. Bass, "Underwater Archaeology-Key to History's Warehouse," National Geographic 124 (July 1963): 138-56; Henry S. F. Cooper, Jr., "The Wreck at Yassi Ada," Horizon 10, no. 2 (Spring 1978): 82-90. 48. G. F. Bass, "A Byzantine Trading Venture," Scientfic American 224 (August 1971): 22-33. 49. Bass and van Doorninck.

50. For a detailed discussion of the Rhodian Sea Law, see John Wilkinson's chapter in this volume, pp. 89-93.

51. G. F. Bass, "A Medieval Islamic Merchant Venture" (paper delivered at a symposium on the Archaeology of Trade in the East Mediterranean, Duke University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the proceedings to be published in Archaeological News). 52. Gail Sheehy, Passages (New York: Bantam, 1977), p. 405.

53. E. Walraven, "Deep Seas and Texas Caves Reveal Our Heritage," Texas Aggie 59, no. 6 (October 1978): 2-5. 54. P F. Johnston, J. O. Sands, and J. R. Steffy, "The Cornwallis Cave Shipwreck, Yorktown, Virginia," International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 7 (1978): 205-26; Robert Adams, "Report on the Survey of the Steamboat Black Cloud" (report submitted to the Texas Antiquities Committee, April 1979). 55. G. F. Bass and F. H. van Doorninck, Jr., "The loth Century Shipwreck at Serge Liman, Turkey," International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 7 (1978): 119-21.

56. D. A. Frey, "The Capistello Project: Saturation Archeology for Deep Wrecks," Sea Technology 19, no. 12 (December 1978): 14-18, 49; D. A. Frey, F. D. Hentschel, and D. H. Keith, "Deepwater Archaeology: The Capistello Wreck Excavation, Lipari, Aeo- lian Islands," International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 7 (1978): 279-300. 57. F. N. Spiess and J. K. Orzech, "Location of Ancient Amphorae in the Deep Waters of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea by the Deep Tow Vehicle" (paper delivered at the Tenth Annual Conference on Underwater Archaeology, Nashville, Tenn., January 2-5, 1979). 58. W. A. Oddy, ed., Problems in the Conservation of Waterlogged Wood, Maritime Monographs and Reports, no. 16 (Greenwich: National Maritime Museum, 1975); Karl Borgin, "Wood in Archaeological Research,"AINA Newsletter 2, no. 4 (Winter 1976): 1-4.

59. Richard Evans Hamilton, "A Proposal for Federal Legislation for the Protection and Preservation of Submerged Cultural Resources on the Outer Continental Shelf" (M.S. thesis, Texas A&M University, 1978); L. V Prott and P. J. O'Keefe in The Underwa- ter Cultural Heritage, pp. 45-135; Bascom, pp. 205-12. 60. See ICNT, Article 149, Ocean Yearbook I, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), p. 635. 61. G. F. Bass, "Cape Gelidonya and Bronze Age Maritime Trade," Orient and Occident (1973), pp. 29-38.

62. Hamilton, p. 39.


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