Oceans and the Law of the Sea Report of the Secretary-General, 2006*

in Ocean Yearbook Online
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SUMMARY

The present report has been prepared in compliance with the request made by the General Assembly in paragraph 110 of its resolution 60/30 that the Secretary-General submit to the Assembly at its sixty-first session his annual comprehensive report on developments and issues relating to oceans and the law of the sea. It is also submitted to States parties to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, pursuant to article 319 of the Convention, to be considered by the meeting of States parties under the agenda item entitled "Report of the Secretary-General under article 319 for the information of States parties on issues of a general nature, relevant to States parties, that have arisen with respect to the Convention on the Law of the Sea." It will serve as a basis for discussion at the seventh meeting of the United Nations Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea and contains information on developments and issues relating to ecosystem approaches and oceans, the topic chosen for the seventh meeting, as recommended by the General Assembly. The report contains information on the status of the Convention and its implementing Agreements, on declarations and statements made by States under articles 287, 298 and 310 of the Convention and on recent submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. The report includes a section on capacity-building activities and elaborates on recent developments regarding international shipping, safety and security of navigation, People at sea, protection of the marine environment and conservation of marine living resources and the Indian Ocean tsunami. Finally, it provides information concerning the settlement of disputes and inter-agency coordination and cooperation.

Oceans and the Law of the Sea Report of the Secretary-General, 2006*

in Ocean Yearbook Online

Sections

References

  • *EDiTOR$* NOTE.-This document was provided by the United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS) and is extracted from the United Nations General Assembly, Sixty-first Session, Item 69(a) of the preliminary list (A/61/50), UN Document A/61/63, 9 March 2006, available at the DOALOS Web site: http://www.un.org/Depts/los. The document has been edited for publication in the Ocean Yearbook.

  • 1. See ISBA/10/C/WP.1.

  • 2. See ISBA/Il/C/5. 3. See ISBA/Il/C/10.

  • 4. For more information, see Statement by the Chairman of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf on the progress of work in the Comrnission- sixteenth session (CLCS/48).

  • 5. Further information on the fellowship, including application forms and the list of participating universities can be found on the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea website at www.un.org/depts/los. 6. Further information, including the past fellows' research papers, application files and an up-to-date list of participating institutions, is available on the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea website at www.un.org/depts/los under the link "Technical Cooperation Trust Ftutd-United Nations and the Nippon Foundation of Japan."

  • 7. For information regarding the first and the second training courses, see A/60/63, para. 49, and A/fi0/63/Add.2, para. 110, respectively.

  • 8. An independent panel of experts makes recommendations to the Division regarding the amount of financial assistance to be given to a State from the trust fund. The current members of the panel are as follows: the Permanent Representa- tives of Mexico, Norway, Papua New Guinea and Senegal; the Deputy Permanent Representatives of Japan and the Russian Federation; and the Law of the Sea Director, Department of Foreign Affairs of Ireland. 9. For further information on the activities of the fund, see document A/CONF/210/2006/2.

  • 10. See World Maritime Day 2005, IMO circular letter No. 2660 of August 2005. 11. Africa's share of world exports was 8.6 per cent, the Americas 21.4 per cent, Asia 38.4 per cent, Europe 22.7 per cent and Oceania 8.9 per cent. Reniezn of Maritirne Transport 2005 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.05.1l.D.14), p. 4. 12. Ibid., p. 19. General cargo vessels had the highest average age (17.5 years) and container vessels the lowest (9.4 years).

  • 13. Ibid., p. 26. The fleets of developing countries of Africa decreased marginally, while modest gains were recorded by the fleets of developing countries in America, Europe and Oceania. The fleets of the socialist countries in Asia expanded, whereas those of the countries of central and eastern Europe contracted. 14. M. Gianni and W. Simpson, The Changing Nature of High Seas Fishing, available at: www.wwforg.ati/ pt il)licat ions/ I U U_CliangingNatttreOfflighSeasFish- ing/. 15. IAEA General Conference resolution GC(49)/RES/9, "Measures to strengthen international cooperation in nuclear, radiation and transport safety and waste management," section B on "Transport safety."

  • 16. Ibid., preambular paragraph (j). 17. IAEA International Conference on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Material, Vienna, 7-11 July 2003. 18. A/60/63, para. 74. 19. Resolution 60/1, para. 56 (o). 20. A/CONF.207/11, chap. I, resolution 1, annex II. 21. The action areas include reviewing and revising the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, refining the review process, compliance and quality assurance, denial of shipments, emergency response, liability and communication.

  • 22. Difficulties encountered in the shipment of the IMDG Code class 7 radioactive materials. Submission by Canada and the United Kingdom to the IMO Assembly (IMO document A 24/13/1, paras. 7-9). 23. See IMO Assembly resolution A.984(24) "Facilitation of the carriage of the IMDG Code class 7 radioactive materials, including those in packaged form used in medical or public health applications." The Assembly also noted in the resolution that the ultimate desired goal of small island developing States and some other countries was the cessation of the transport of radioactive materials through the regions of such States, with the exception of those materials used in medical or public health applications, and recognized the right of freedom of navigation in accordance with international law. The delegation of India reserved its position with regard to the approval of an Assembly resolution for the general transport of all IMDG Code class 7 radioactive materials. It would have preferred a resolution focused exclusively on radioactive materials used for medical or public health applications (IMO document A 24/5(b)/2, para. 81). 24. IAEA General Conference resolution GC(49)/RES/9, "Measures to strengthen international cooperation in nuclear, radiation and transport safety and waste management," section B on "Transport safety," para. 12.

  • 25. Declaration of Panama adopted at the Fourth Summit of Heads of States and/or Government, Panama City, Panama, 29 July 2005. 26. Communique of the 36th Pacific Islands Forum, Papua New Guinea, 25-27 October 2005. Document PIFS(05) 12, para. 19g, available at www.sidsnet.org/

  • pacific/forumsec. See also past reports of the Secretary-General on oceans and the law of the sea. 27. See A/60/PV.54-56. 28. A/60/529, annex I.

  • 29. Ibid., annex II. 30. IMO document C/ES.23/13, para. 17.

  • 31. See the press release of the Paris memorandum of understanding, "Changing course," 27 July 2005, available at www.parismou.org.

  • 32. One of the projects to address ferry safety is the pilot project in Bangladesh, under the IMO technical cooperation programme; see the IMO press release "IMO and Interferry sign agreement on ferry safety," 24 January 2004, available at I'�-iiiio.org. F 33. See the press release, "ILO to adopt 'bill of rights' for seafarers," 6 February 2006, available at www.ilo.org. 34. The Paris memorandum of understanding on port State control conducted a concentrated inspection campaign to verify cotnpliance with ILO standards in the last quarter of 2004. More than 40 per cent of the ships inspected had deficiencies in

  • at least one of the selected inspection areas and a total of 21 ships were detained. Most deficiencies were found in areas of food storage, conditions of the galley, sanitary facilities and hospital accommodations. In Almost 50 per cent of all inspections, deficiencies were found relating to working arrangements. See website of the Paris memorandum of understanding at www.parismou.org. 35. Ships of 500 gross tonnage and above engaged in international voyages or voyages between foreign ports.

  • 36. See the report of the sixth session of the Joint IMO/ILO Ad Hoc Expert Working Group on Liability and Compensation regarding Claims for Death, Personal Injury and Abandonment of Seafarers, report of the Joint Working Group document IMO/ILO/WGLCCS 6/6. 37. Counting only those who have lived outside their country for more than one year and including 9.2 million refugees. Almost half of the world's international migrants are women. Migrants can be regular or irregular, skilled or unskilled, students, family reunion migrants, transit migrants, asylum-seekers or refugees. "Migration in an interconnected world: New directions for action." Repmt of the

  • GlobalCommissiononInternationalMigration, October 2005. Introduction, paras. 13-14. The report is available at www.gcim.org. 38. Ibid., annex II. 39. During the second half of 2005, only Greece and Italy submitted reports. "Unsafe practices associated with the trafficking or transport of migrants by sea." First biannual report. Document MSC.3/Circ.l0, available on the website of IMO at www.imo.org. 40. "Migration in an interconnected world: New directions for action." Report of the Commission on International Emigration, October 2005, chap. III, paras. 6-9.

  • 41. Ibid., para. 5. 42. Review of the implementation of the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime: draft report. Document CTOC/COP/ / 2005/L.l/Add.5. 43. Draft provisional agenda and proposed organization of work for the third session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and draft questionnaire on the implementation of the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplement- Ing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Documents CT'OC/COP/2005/L.11 and CTOC/COP/2005/L.9.

  • 44. General Assembly resolution 60/1, para. 7. 45. The launch of the Ocean Security Initiative. "Sustainable Management of Oceans and Coastal Resources as a Tool for Security." ACOPS concept paper prepared for the First Conference of the Ocean Security Initiative, Tripoli, 23-25 Jury 2005, available at www.acops.org. 46. The Symposium on Maritime Security in the South China Sea, Haikou City, Hainan Province, China, was held on 8 and 9 December 2005. It was organized along five panels: 1. World economy and navigation security of the South China Sea; 2. Malacca Strait and the South China Sea sea lane; 3. Maritime security and law enforcement in the South China Sea; 4. Maritime terrorism, piracy and regional cooperation mechanism; and 5. Precaution and prevention of oil spills in the South China Sea area.

  • 47. The Ministerial Conference on International Transport Security was held in Tokyo on 12 and 13 January 2006 and was attended by the Ministers responsible for transport security of Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany., Indonesia, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, the Russian Federation, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States and by representatives of the European Commission, the International Civil Aviation Organization, IMO and the World Customs Organization. See IMO document MSC.81/5/9. 48. See the fnll citation of the document in the chapter on shipping (A/60/529, annex I and annex II, para. 5).

  • 49. A/60/529, annex II. 50. Protocol of 2005 to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation and Protocol of 2005 to the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms located on the Continental Shelf, IMO documents LEG/CONF.15/21 and LEG/CONF.15/22.

  • 51. Maritime Training Programmes. Note by the Secretary-General. IMO document A 24/1'7(d)/Rev.l.

  • 52. This matter was considered also at the Intersessional MSC Working Group on Long-Range Identification and Tracking, first session, 17-19 October 2005. 53. See MSC.4/Circ.69, MSC.4/Circ.72, MSC.4/Circ.76, MSC.4/Circ.77, MSC.4/Circ.78, MSC.4/Circ.79. 54. ICC International Maritime Bureau: Annual report of incidents of piracy and anned robbery against ships (1 January-31 December 2005). N 55. Piracy and armed robbery against ships in waters off the coast of Somalia. Note by the Secretary-General of IMO. IMO document C/ES.23/17(a).

  • 56. Report of the Ecological Society of America Committee on the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem Management (1996), available at www.csus.edu/indiv/m/ rnerzj /cot irse I /handotits/ECosysteiiiniaiiageinen t. 57. H. Wang, "Ecosystem Management and Its Application to Large Marine Ecosystems: Science, Law, and Politics," Ocean Development) and International, Lara, vol. 35 (1), 2004, pp. 41-74. 58. Ibid. 59. H. Wang, op. cit., p. 47.

  • 60. Statement on the ecosystem approach to the management of human activities, First Joint Ministerial Meeting of the Helsinki and OSPAR Commissions, Bremen, Germany, 25-26 June 2003. 61. Report of the Expert Consultation on Ecosystem-based Fisheries Manage- ment, held in Reykjavik from 16 to 19 September 2002.

  • 62. H. Wang, op. cit., p. 42. ' 63. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: A Framework for Assessment, p. 71. 64. H. Wang, op. cit., p. 42. 65. See reports of the Secretary-General of the United Nation A/58/65, A/59/62/Add.l and A/60/63/Add.l. 66. S.M. Garcia, A. Zerbi, C. Aliaume, T. Do Chi and G. Lasserre, "The ecosystem approach to fisheries: Issues, terminology, principles, institutional foundations, implementation and outlook," FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 443 (2003), p. 7.

  • 67. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Strategic approaches to freshwater management: Background paper-The ecosystem approach. 68. Report of the Expert Consultation on Ecosystem-based Fisheries Manage- ment, held in Reykjavik from 16 to 19 September 2002. 69. Guidance on the Application of the Ecosystem Approach to Management of Human Activities in the European Marine Environment, ICES Cooperative Research Report, No. 273 (2005), p. 2.

  • 70. UNCLOS, art. 61 (3) and (4) and art. 119 (1 (a) and (b)). 71. Ibid., art. 194 (5). 72. Ibid.., art. 211 (6 (a)). 73. Ibid., art. 145 (b). 74. Agreement for the implementation of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks, art. 5 (d) (e) (f) and (g).

  • 75. Ibid., art. 7. 76. The introductory Ramsar Convention brochure, 2nd ed., 2004.

  • 77. A/C,ONF.48/14/Rev.l. 78. General Assembly resolution 37/7. 79. Report of the unite Nations Conferences on Enilironment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.1.8 and corrigenda).

  • 80. Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment From Land-based Activities, UNEP (OCA)/LBA/IG.2/7, 5 December 1995.

  • 81. FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, introduction. 82. Ibid., art. 6. 83. FAO Fisheries, Report No. 658, Rome, 2002, appendix I. 84. International Coral Reef Initiative, Framework For Action, approved 3 June 1995. Available at www.icriforum.org.

  • 85. Report of the World Summit on "Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August-4 September 2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.03.II.A.I and corrigendum), chap. I, resolution 2, annex.

  • 86. See Secretary-General's reports A/58/65, A/59/62/Add.l and A/60/63/Add.l for relevant information on these Conventions. 87. This section is based on several articles and documents: H. Wang, op. cit.; ICES, op. cit.; S. Parsons, "Ecosystem Considerations in Fisheries Management: Theory and Practice," 20 IJMCL (2005), pp. 381-422; Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, "The Ecosystem Approach," 2004; United Kingdom Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, "Charting Progress: An integrated assessment of the state of United Kingdom seas," and "Safeguarding Sea Life," both 2005; secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, "Enhancing the Implementation of Integrated Marine and Coastal Area Management (IM- �M)," UNEP/CBD/COP/8/26/Add.l, 15 January 2006; Fisheries and Oceans Canada, "Canada's Oceans Action Plan," 2005; Commission of the European Communities, Communication from the Commission to the Council) and the European Parliament, Thematic Strategy on the Protection and Conservation of the Marine Environment, COM(2005)504 final, Brussels. 24 October 2005; Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Marine Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Directive), COM(2005)505 final, 2005/0211 (COD), Bnissels, 24 October 2005. 88. T. Hancock, "Towards Healthy and Sustainable Communities: Health, Environment and the Economy at the Local Level," quoted in Wang, op. cit., p. 42.

  • 89. Decision V/6 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, section A.

  • 90. "The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries: Issues, terminology, principles, illstittitional foundations, implementation and outlook," FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 443, Rome, 2003, pp. 1-71.

  • 91. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsiblr Fisheries 4, Suppl.2, Rome, 2003, pp. 1-112. 92. Ibid.

  • 93. For example, the Indian Ocean Commission launched a study on the feasibility of a project for the conservation of coastal and marine ecosystems for countries located in the Indian Ocean. See the 2003 annual report of the Commission, available at www.coi-info.org/. 94. For example, the Andean Community adopted a Regional Biodiversity Strategy for Tropical Andean Countries (decision 523 of 7 July 2002). Available on the website of the Community at www.comunidadandina.org/.

  • 95. The following regions are covered by the UNEP Regional Seas Programme: Black Sea, Caspian, eastern Africa, East Asian Seas, Mediterranean, North-east Pacific, North-west Pacific, South Pacific, Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, ROPME Sea Area, South Asian Seas, South-east Pacific, the Western and Central Africa and the wider Caribbean. Non-UNEP regional seas organizations are: the Arctic, Antarctic, Baltic and North-east Atlantic. 96. Compilation and Analysis of Economic Data in Support of UNEP's Regional Seas Programme and the Regional Seas, Conventions and Action Plans, submitted to the seventh Global Meeting of the Regional Seas available at www.unep.org/regionalseas/Publications/INF.I3.Economic.Activity.LMEs.pdf.

  • 97. Implementing the Ecosystem Approach in a Marine Ecoregion-The Baltic Example, HELCOM 26/2005, document 3/4, pp. 2-6, available on the HELCOM website at http://sea.helcorn.fi/dps.hunl. See also Baltic Sea Regional Project and HELCOM-Progress Report, HELCOM 26/2005, document 9/2. 98. Report of the Activities of the Commission 2004, HELCOM 26/2004, document 2/1, pp. 15-16. 99. The project is managed in cooperation with the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, the International Baltic Sea Fisheries Commission, the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and the World-Wide Fund for Nature of Sweden. 100. Report of the Activities of the Commission 2004, HELCOM 26/2004, document 2/1, pp. 15-16.

  • 101. Summary record, Meeting of the OSPAR Commission, July 2005, OSPAR 05/21/1-E, pp. 14-26, available at www.ospar.org/. See also annex 19 of the summary record entitled "The Programme of Work for the Biodiversity Committee 2005-2006," which contains a list of activities for the implementation of the ecosystem approach. 102. See statement in Record of the Meeting, Joint Meeting of the Helsinki and OSPAR Commissions 2003, annex 5, available at www.hekom.fi/ministeriaCdeclara- tions/en_GB/ministerial/. 103. Ibid., p. 4. 104. Record of the Meeting, Joint meeting of the Helsinki and OSPAR Commissions 2003, annex 7.

  • 105. See www.ats.aq. The Antarctic is a low productivity ecosystem as a result of extreme weather conditions and extensive seasonal ice cover. The ecological and biological characteristics of the Antarctic marine species are unique, as the food chain is very short and based almost entirely on krill. See A/59/62/Add.l, para. 287. . 106. The Arctic marine environment has unique sociocultural aspects, econom- ic potential and an integral role in climatic processes. Climatic and developmental pressures on the Arctic marine environment from shipping, dumping, offshore oil and gas development and land-based activities are increasing. 107. The assessments results stated that in comparison with most other areas in the world, the Arctic remains a clean environment. However, for some pollutants, combinations of different factors give rise to concern in certain ecosystems and for some human populations. These circumstances sometimes occur on a local scale, out in some cases may be regional or circumpolar in extent. 108. Overview Report on the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, available at www,arctic�ouncil.org/files/87/CAFFReportSAOmay4and5_2004.pdf.

  • 109. Seoul Oceans Declaration, preambular para. 7; operative paras. ] and 9. Available at www.apec-oceans.org/. 110. A Survey to Determine the Status of implementation of the APEC Seoul Oceans Declaration Across APEC Member Economies, APEC MRC05/2005 Project, pp. 6, 9 and 10, available at www.apec-oceans.org/. It should also be noted that 68 per cent of the APEC members that responded stated that their economy had been involved in a regional seas programme implementing the ecosystem approach since 2002. See also Tsamenyi, M., Djalal, H. and Palma, M., "Institutional Frameworks for Ecosystem-Based Management in the Asia-Pacific Region," available at www.oceans. gov.au/pdf/EBM/EBM-Asia%20Pacific%20Paper.pdf. 111. Joint Ministerial Statement, Bali 2005, para. 11, available at www.apec- oceans.org/. 112. Bali Plan of Action, p. 3, available at www.apec-oceans.org/. 113. Commission of the European Communities, Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament, "Thematic Strategy on the Protection and Conservation of the Marine Environment," COM(2005)504 final, Brussels, 24 October 2005; Proposal for a Directive of the European

  • Parliament and of the Council Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Marine Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Directive), COM(2005)505 final, 2005/0211 (COD), Brussels, 24 October 2005. 114. Towards a Future Maritime Policy for the Union: A European Vision for the Oceans and Seas, Communication to the Commission from the President and Mr. Borg; The Future Maritime Policy and the Regions, speech by J. Borg, 2 December 2005, available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/fisheries/maritime/index_en.htm. 115. See the website of the NEPAD secretariat at www.nepad.org/2005/files/ home.php. 116. Available at www.africa-union.org/. 117. The Action Plan is available at www.environment-directory.org/nepad/ content/action_plan.asp. 118. Cluster of projects on coastal, marine and freshwater biodiversity, see Background Paper and Action Plan on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Coastal, Marine and Freshwater Resources, available at www.environment-directory.org/ nepad/content/coastal.asp. Other projects which are of relevance include climate change impacts on coastal and marine ecosystems.

  • 119. Pacific Islands Regional Ocean Policy and Pacific Islands Regional Ocean Framework for Integrated Strategic Action, available at www.spc.int/piocean/ fomm/New/forum.htm. See also Pacific Islands Regional Ocean Forum communi- que. 120. Initiative 1.4 and 3.1, Pacific Islands Regional Ocean Framework for Integrated Strategic Action. 121. See the website of the SOPAC secretariat at www.sopac.org/.

  • 122. Article II of the CCAMLR Convention. 123. CCAMLR Conservation Measure 25-02 (2003) and Conservation Measure 25-03 (2003). 124. CCAMLR Conservation Measure 25-01 (1996).

  • 125. Resolutions G04-09 and C-05-02 provide conservation measures for tunas; resolutions C-04-05, G04-07 and C-05-03 provide measures for by-catches. 126. IATTC resolution G04-05. 127. IATTC resolution C-04-05. 128. ICCAT resolutions 03-14 and 96-15.

  • 129. IOTC recommendations 05/08 and 05/09. 130. Articles 9-12 of the NAFO Conservation and Enforcement Measures. 131. Contribution of NEAFC to the present report.

  • 132. See the outcomes of the Ocean Policy Summit, Portugal, 2005, available at www.globaloceans.org/tops2005/index.html. 133. H. Wang, "An Evaluation of the Modular Approach to the Assessment of Management of Large Ecosystems," Ocean Development and International Lam, vol. 35 (3), 2004, pp. 277-280. See the next section on capacity-building in the present report. 134. TOPS 2005, The Ocean Policy Summit, available at www.globaloceans. org/tops2005/index.html.

  • 135. The Integrated Oceans Management Working Group, Oceans Board of Management, the National Oceans Advisory Group and the Oceans Policy Science Advisory Group have been established. See National Oceans Office, Australia's oceans Policy, at www.oceans.gov.au/content_policy vl/default jsp; B. Addison and - Petrachenko, Australia's Ocean Policy, available at www.globaloceans.org/ tops2005/p f/Atistralia.pdf-, S. Parsons, Ecosystem Considerations in Fisheries Management: Theory and Practice, available at www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fgc-cgp/ documents/parsons_e.htm.

  • 136. See Canada's Ocean Strategy website at www.cos-soc.gc.ca/; Fisheries and Oceans Canada, www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/canwaters-eauxcan/index e.asp; and S. Par- sons, ibid. 137. P.A. Torres and others, Mexico's Case Study, Research Task Force on Ocean Policies, available at www.globaloceans.org/tops2005/pdf/ Volume20ceanPolicies.pdf.

  • 138. J. Batongbacal, The Philippines National Marine Policy: Navigating Unpredictable Currents, Research Task Force on Ocean Policies, ibid.; see also the website of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources at www.denr.gov.ph/.

  • 139. Global Environment Facility Project Executive Summary, Integrated Marine and Coastal Resources Management, Senegal, available at www.gefweb.org/ Documen ts/W ork_Programs/ wp_F eb04/Bio_-_Senegal_-Executive_Summary .pdf. See also the website of the GIRMaC Project at www.girmac.sn/. 140. R8, List of recommendations, available at wwwjncc.gov.uk/page-2815; see also Defra, Marine: UK Marine Policy at www.defra.gov.uk/environrnent/water/ marine/uk/policy/marine-bill/and Compilation of Summaries of National and Regional Ocean Policies (draft), Research Task Force on National Ocean Policies (2005), available at www.globaloceans.org/tops2005/pdf/OceanPolicySutnmaries. pdf.

  • 141. Government Bill in Progress, see www.commonsleader.gov.uk/output/ Page966.asp. 142. Safeguarding Sea Life, p. 5. 143. The Commission has completed its work; see its website at WWw.oceancommission.gov/ welcome .html. 144. Final report of the Commission, executive summary, page 5. 145. United States Ocean Action Plan, page 3, available at http://ocean. ce9,gov/actionplan.pdf. See also B. Cicin-Sain, C. Ehler and G. Kuska, USA Ocean Policy, available at www.globaloceans.org/tops2005/pdf/USA.pdf.

  • 146. Ibid. 147. Additional information on capacity-building programmes to protect marine ecosystems is contained in A/58/65. 148. The Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia do not mention the concept of ecosystem approach but recognize the relevance of the protection of marine ecosystems in environmental management. Ecosystem- based management workshop, Cairns, Australia, 20 June 2003. 149. Ibid.

  • 150. Contribution if the World Bank to the Secretary-General's report on oceans and the law of the sea. 151. See A/58/65.

  • 152. See the International Waters website at www.undp.org/gef/undp-gef_ focal areas_of action/sub_international_water.html; see also UNDP-GEF brochure "Protecting International Waters Sustaining Livelihoods," available on the same website. 153. See the brochure produced jointly by UNEP and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, available at www.unep.org/regionalseas/ Publications/ RSP _Large_Marine. pdf. 154. Ibid. 155. H. Wang, op. cit., p. 272. 156. Ibid., p. 276.

  • 157. Ibici., pp. 276-277. 158. See also para. 128. 159. See www.gpa.unep.org.

  • 160. United States Department of Energy at www.eia.doc.gov/cabs/World_Oil_ Transit_Chokepoints/Background.htrnl. 161. Double Hull Tankers: High-Level Panel of Experts Report, presented to IMO by the European Commission, together with the European Maritime Safety Agency. See A 24/INF.5 and www.emsa.eu.int/Docs/workshops/dh%20tanker% 20panel%20final%20report%20complete%203.6.05.pdf. 162. Ibid.

  • 163. Information provided by the Interpol general secretariat. 164. IMO Assembly resolution A.983(24) adopted at the twenty-fourth session of the IMO Assembly (21 November to 2 December 2005).

  • 165. The International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds reported that the total amount available for compensation for each incident in the States which are Members of the Supplementary Fund, i.e., Barbados, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden, was approximately $1.07 million.

  • 166. IMO Assembly resolutions A.976(24) and A.977(24). 167. A 24/5(b)/2, para. 30.

  • 168. Report of the 27th Consultative Meeting of Parties to the London Convention, IMO document LC.27/16, and Report of the 28th Meeting of the Scientific Group, LC/SG28/14.

  • 169. As stated in the previous report (A/60/63).

  • 170. The ILO Guidelines have also been translated into Bengali, Chinese, Hindi and Turkish. 171. This section is based on the FAO contribution to the report.

  • 172. The parties are: Benin, Belize, Canada, Japan, Namibia, New Zealand, Norway, the Syrian Arab Republic, the United States of America and the European Community.

  • 173. For developments in other fomms, see www.fao.org/Sids. 174. UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/ 11 / 11. 175. The report on that meeting is contained in UNEP/CBD/COP/8/3. 176. Available, respectively, at www.biodiv.org/doc/publications/cbd-ts-l9.pdf and www.biodiv.org/doc/publications/cbd-ts-20.pdf.

  • 177. See UNEP/CMS/Resolution 8.14. 178. See UNEP/CMS/Resolution 8.13; UNEP/CMS/Resolution 8.14; UNEP/ CMS/Recommendation 8.16; UNEP/CMS/Resolution 8.22; and UNEP/CMS/ Recommendation 8.17. 179. See UNEP/CMS/Resolution 8.2. 180. The workshop was mandated by Decisions 13.18 and 13.19 of the Conference of the Parties to CITES. 181. The report of the workshop was not available at the time of writing. When finalized, it will be circulated to all parties and FAO for comment. Comments will be incorporated into a discussion paper and draft resolution that the secretariat will prepare for consideration at the 54th meeting of the CITES Standing Committee (Geneva, 2-6 October 2006).

  • 182. See the Final Report of the XXVIII ATCM and relevant documents, available at www.ats.aq/.

  • 183. See the report of the meeting, available at www.icriforum.org/. 184. UNEP Regional Seas Programme contribution. 185. Based on UNEP Regional Seas regions.

  • . 186. While the Proceedings of the Conference are not yet available, informa- tion can be found at www.impacongress.org/. 187. See General Assembly resolution 60/197 of 22 December 2005 on Protection of global climate for present and future generations. See also hup:/ /unfccc.int for details. 188. NASA, "2005 was the wannest year in a century," 26 January 2006, availahle at www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/environment/2005_warmest.html.

  • 189. Jonathan A. Foley, "Tipping Points in the Tundra," Science, vol. 310, No. 5748 (28 October 2005), pp. 627-628. 190. Published in Science on 17 February 2006; see news release dated 16 February 2006 at wwwjpl.nasa.gov/news.cfrn?release=2006-023. 191. Article in Nature, 1 December 2005, reported in The Geeardian, 1 December 2005, p. 3. 192. Overpeck et al., "Arctic System on Trajectory to New, Seasonally Ice-Free State," EOS Transcution, American Geophysical union, 86(34), 2005, p. 309, available at http://atoc.co!orado.edu/"dcn/reprints/Overpeck_etaLEOS2005.pdf. 193. NOAA Climate Prediction Center, "El Nino/southern oscillation (ENSO) diagnostic discussion,," 9 February 2006, at www.cpc.noaa.gov/products/analysis_ monitoring/enso_advisory/. La Niria events are operationally defined using the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI), which is the three-month running-mean values of sea surface temperature departures from average in the Nino 3.4 region of the central Pacific. This definition was adopted by the United States and 25 other countries in North and Central America and the Caribbean in April 2005.

  • 194. For further details see A/59/62/Add.l, para. 220. 195. Review of Small Cetaceans: Distribution, Behaviour, Migration and Threats by B.M. Culik. Illustrations by M. Wurtz. UNEP/CMS Secretariat, Bonn, Germany,. 196. See report of the meeting (A/60/99), para. 12 (d). 197. See the report of the Chairman of the International Whaling Commission on the 56th Annual Meeting, Sorrento, Italy, 19-22 July 2004; Chairman's summary report for the 57th Annual Meeting (Revised 1 ), Ulsan, Republic of Korea, June 2005. 198. Bulletin EU 10-2004, Environment (14/17).

  • 199. Second Meeting of Parties, resolution 2.16 on the assessment and impact assessment of man-made noise. The report of the meeting is available at www.accobams.org/. 200. For a definition of the word "tsunami,," see A/60/63. 201. Estimates vary from 217,000 to 278,000 people killed by flooding caused by the tsunami. . 202. "UN tsunami envoy, Bill Clinton urges immediate steps to prevent disaster," United Nations News, 20 January 2006. 203. See A/60/63/Add.2. 204. "Report from United Nations Special Envoy Clinton says tsunami-hit countries make good progress," United Nations Neurs Service, 28 December 2005. 205. The Central Emergency Revolving Fund or Global Emergency Fund was established by the General Assembly on 15 December 2005 in its resolution 60/124.

  • 206. For additional information, visit the website of the Office of the Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs at http://ochaonline.un.org/. 207. "One Year after the tsunami," The Neru York Tirrce.s, 28 December 2005. 208. "Lack of coordination hits housing hardest," Financial Times, 23 Decem- ber 2005. 209. "UN agency predicts building boom for tsunami-hit Indonesian region," United Nations Nerus Service, 28 December 2005. 210. "Tsunami Legacy: Extraordinary Giving and Unending Strife," The New York Times, 25 December 2005. 211. For additional information on tourism industry recovery, see the UNWTO website at www.world-tourism.org/newsroom/Releases/2006/january/06_0] _24. htm.

  • 2006. 212. Contribution of ESCAP to the report of the Secretary-General, January T 213. Early Warning Systems, United Nations Office of the Special Envoy for Tsunami Recovery, 29 December 2005. F 214. Contribution of UNESCO/IOC to the report of the Secretary-General, February 2006. 215. IOC submission, February 2006.

  • 216. The Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System: one year after, 29 December 2005, at http://portal.UNESCO.org. 217. On 6 February 2006, the Court elected Judge Rosalyn Higgins (United Kingdom) as President of the Court and Judge Awn Shawkat Al Khasawneh (Jordan) as Vice-President for a term of three years as of that date. 218. www.icj-cij.org. 219. Official Records of the ('�eneral Assembly, Sixtieth Session, Supplement No. 4 (A/60/4).

  • 220. See also paras. 22-24 above. 221. Text available at www.itlos.org. 222. See Official Journal of the European Union of 10 January 2004 (2004/C7/39), Proceedings of the Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance of the European Communities (18 January 2006) and the website of the Court of Justice of the European Communities at www.curia.eu.int/. 223. See Mox Plant Case in document A/58/65/Add.l.

  • 224. See reports in documents A/60/63/Add.2 and A/60/90.

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