Consensus or Not Consensus: That Is the CCAMLR Question

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Consensus or Not Consensus: That Is the CCAMLR Question

in Ocean Yearbook Online

References

1. C. Ku and P. Diehl, "Filling in the Gaps: Extrasystemic Mechanisms for Addressing Imbalances Between the International Legal Operating System and the Normative System," Global Governance 12 (2006): 161-183. 2. Id., p. 161. 3. Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, 19 Internacional Legal Materials 837.

4. P. Diehl, C. Ku and D. Zamora, "The Dynamics of International Law: The Interaction of Normative and Operating Systems," International Organizatioyz 57 (Winter 2003): 43-75.

5. Diehl, Ku and Zamora, see n. 4 above, p. 46. 6. Ill., p. 48.

7.Id., p. 47. 8. Id., p. 53. 9. P. Diehl and C. Ku, "Coloring Within the Lines: How the International Legal Operating System Influences Treaty Making" (paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Chicago, 28 Feb.-3 Mar. 2007). 10. CCAMLR Basic Documents, available online: . 11. D. Edwards and J. Heap, "Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources: A Commentary," Polar Record 20, 127 (1981): 353-362. 12. 402 United Nations Treaty Series 71.

13. P. Beck, The International Politics of Antarctica (Beckenham: Crooin Helm, 1986) .

14. C. Joyner, Governing the Frozen Commons (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1998). 15. 21 International Legal Materials 1261. 16. D. Miller, "Exploitation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources: A Brief History and a Possible Approach to Managing the Krill Fishery," South African Journal of Marine Science 10 (1991): 321-339. 17. I. Everson, Krill: Biology, Ecology and Fisheries (Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2000). 18. D. Agnew, "Review: The CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Programme," Antarctic Science 9, 3 (1997): 235-242.

19. B. Mitchell and R. Sandbrook, The Management of the Southern Ocean (London: International Institute for Environment and Development, 1980); S. Nicol and W. de la Mare, "Ecosystem Management and the Antarctic Krill," American Scientist 81 (1993): 36-47. 20. Edwards and Heap, see n. 11 above. 21. CCAMLR Basic Documents, see n. 10 above. 22. D. Powell, "Antarctic Marine Living Resources and CCAMLR," in Antarcti- ca's Future: Continuity or Change? ed. R. Herr, H. Hall and M. Haward (Hobart: Tasmanian Government Printing Office, 1990), pp. 61-70; A. Constable, W. de la Mare, D. Agnew, I. Everson and D. Miller, "Managing Fisheries to Conserve the Antarctic Marine Ecosystem: Practical Implementation of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)," ICES Journal of Marine Science 57 (2000): 778-791.

23. R. Arnaudo, "A short history of CCAMLR: A Unique Management and Conservation Regime" (paper presented to CCAMLR Symposium, Valdivia, 05-08 Apr. 2005); see also Constable et al., n. 22 above.

24. Id. 25. CCAMLR Basic Documents, see n. 10 above.

26. Report of the Ninth Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-IX), (Hobart: CCAMLR, 1990), para. 7.6. 27. Scientific Committee Rules of Procedure, Part II, Rule 3, in CCAMLR Basic documents, see n. 10 above.

28. Beck, see n. 13 above. 29. D. Miller, E. Sabourenkov and D. Ramm, "CCAMLR's Approach to Managing Marine Living Resources," in Deep Sea 2003: Conference on the Governance, aid Management of Deep-.sea Fisheries, Part 1: Conference reports, 1-5 December 2003, Queen.storun, New Zealand, ed. R. Shotton (Rome: FAO, 2006), pp. 433-481. 30. CCAMLR-IX, see n. 26 above, paras. 9.1-9.10; D. Miller, E. Sabourenkov and D. Ramm, "Managing Antarctic Marine Living Resources: The CCAMLR Approach," International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 19, 3 (2004): 317-325.

31. CCAMLR Commission, "CCAMLR's Management of the Antarctic" (Ho- bart: CCAMLR Secretariat, 2001). 32. CCAMLR Basic Documents, n. 10 above, Part II, Rule 3. 33. David Anderson, CMG, member of an independent panel to develop a model for improved governance by Region Fisheries Management Organizations, pers. comm. (2006). 34. R. Trolle-Anderson, "The Antarctic Scene: Legal and Political Facts," in The Antarctic Treaty Regime: Laru, Environment, f�' Resources, ed. G. Triggs (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 57-64.

35. CRAMRA, available online: . 36. J. Charney, "The Antarctic System and Customary International Law," in International Law for Antarctica, eds. F. Francioni and T. Scovazzi (The Hague: Kluwer Law International), pp. 51-101 at pp. 52-53. 37. A. Watts, Internacional Lam and the Antarctic Treaty System (Cambridge: Grotius Publications, 1992); S. Kaye, Inlerrcational Fisheries Management (London: Kluwer Law, 2001). 38. Report of the Twenty-fifth Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-XXV) (Hobart: CCAMLR, 2006), para. 9.38. 39. Miller et al., see n. 30 above. 40. A. Willock and M. Lack, Folloru the Leader. Learning from Experience and Best Practice in Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (WWF International and TRAFFIC International, 2006). 41. J. Swan, "Decision-Making in Regional Fishery Bodies or Arrangements: The Evolving Role of RFBs and International Agreement on Decision-Making Processes," FAOFisheries CircularNo. 995 (Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2004).

42. CCAMLR-XXV, see n. 38 above, para. 9.16. 43. The text of this, and all CCAMLR Conservation Measures, is available online at .

44. Report of the Twenty-fourth Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-XXIV), (Hobart: CCAMLR, 2005), CMs 10-06 and 10-07. 45. CCAMLR-XXV, see n. 38 above, Annex 5, para. 2.37. 46. CCAMLR Secretariat, COMM CIRC 06/51. 47. CCAMLR-XXV, see n. 38 above, Annex 5, para. 2.38. 48. Id., paras. 2.39 and 2.41. 49. Id., Annex 5, paras. 2.28-2.62. 50. Id., para. 2.29. 51. Id., paras. 2.57, 2.29 and 2.30 respectively. 52. Id., para. 2.56.

53. Id., para. 9.32. 54. Id., para. 9.51. 55. Id., paras. 9.52, 9.40 and 9.39 respectively. 56. Id., para. 2.29. 57. Swan, see n. 41 above. 58. T. McDorman, "Decision-Making Processes of Regional Fisheries Manage- ment Organizations (RFMOs)," (paper presented at the Conference on the Governance of High Seas Fisheries and the United Nations Fish Stock Agreement, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, 1-5 May 2005). 59. CCAMLR-XXV, see n. 38 above, para. 12.22.

60. P. Partridge, Consent and Consensus (London: Pall Mall Press Limited, 1971).

61. J. Green and D. Agnew, "Catch Document Schemes to Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing: CCAMLR's Experience with Southern Ocean Toothfish," Ocean Yearbook 16, eds. E. Mann Borgese, A. Chircop and M. McConnell (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002): 171-194 at 172-173. 62. FAO, Implementation of the Interreational Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing (Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2002); U. Sumaila, J. Alder and H. Keith, "Global Scope and Economics of Illegal Rishing," Marine Policy 30, 6 (2006): 696-703. 63. I. Everson and A. Murray, "Size at Sexual Maturity of Patagonian Toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides)," CAMLR Science, 6 (1999): 37-46. 64. Report of the Twenty-fourth Meeting of the Scientific Committee (SG CAMLR-XXIV), (Hobart: CCAMLR, 2005), Annex 5, Appendix 0, Table 18. 65. Report of the Eighth Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-VIII), (Hobart: CCAMLR, 1989) para. 25. 66. Unlike CMs, Resolutions are not legally binding. Resolutions are consecu- tively numbered according to the meeting they were adopted, that is, in this case the fifth Resolution from the eighth Meeting. 67. CCAMLR-VIII, see n. 65 above, paras. 129-130.

68. Report of the Tenth Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-X) (Hobart: CCAMLR, 1991), paras. 10.1-10.2. 69. Report of the Thirteenth Meeting of the Scientific Committee (SC-CAMLR- XIII), (Hobart: CCAMLR, 1994), Annex 8. 70. Report of the Sixteenth Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-XVI) (Hobart: CCAMLR, 1997), paras. 6.40-6.41. 71. CCAMLR-XXV, see n. 38 above, para. 5.6. 72. E. Sabourenkov and D. Miller, "The Management of Transboundary Stocks of Toothfish, Dissostichus spp., Under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources," in Management of Shared Fish Stocks eds. A. Payne, C. O'Brien and S. Rogers (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2004): pp. 68-94.

73. Report of the Twenty-Fifth Meeting of the Scientific Committee (SC- CAMLR-XXV) (Hobart: CCAMLR, 2006), Annex 8.

74. Report of the Seventeenth Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-XVII) (Hobart: CCAMLR, 1998), para. 5.37. 75. Report of the Twenty-First Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-XXI) (Hobart: CCAMLR, 2002), Annex 5, para. 5.12. 76. Id., para. 8.55. 77. Report of the Twenty-Second Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-XXII) (Hobart: CCAMLR, 2003, Annex 5, paras. 3.27-3.54. 78. Id., para. 10.12. 79. Report of the Twenty-Third Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-XXIII) (Hobart: CCAMLR, 2004), para. 10.8. 80. Willock and Lack, see n. 40 above.

81. CCAMLR-XVII, see n. 74 above, paras. 5.16-5.25. 82. Report of the Eighteenth Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-XVIII) (Hobart: CCAMLR, 1999), para. 5.27 and attached footnote. 83. Reports of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Meetings of the Commission (CCAMLR-XVIX and XX) (Hobart: CCAMLR, 2000 and 2001), Annex 5, para. 2.24 and Annex 5, para. 2.68 respectively. 84. Ill., CCAMLR-XX, Annex 5, paras. 2.89 and 9.12. 85. Id., CCAMLR-XX, para. 2.95; CCAMLR-XXI, n. 75 above, para. 7.16. 86. Miller et al., see n. 29 above. 87. CCAMLR-XXIII, see n. 79 above, Annex 5, para. 4.16. 88. CCAMLR-XXIV, see n. 44 above, para. 7.5. 89. 7�., para. 4.5.

90. UNCLOS was not in force at the time of the CCAMLR negotiations, although a 200-NM fishing zone was not uncommon. Australia declared its Australian Fishing Zone in 1979, including the area around Heard Island but excluding waters adjacent to its continental Antarctic territory. 91. D. Powell, "Scientific and Economic Considerations Relating to the Conservation of Marine Living Resources in Antarctica" in Antarctic Resources Policy: Scientific, Legal and Political Issues, ed. F. Vicuna (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), pp. 111-118. 92. CCAMLR-X, see n. 68 above, Conservation Measures 36/X and 37/X. 93. Id., paras. 4.10 and 4.11.

94. Report of the Eleventh Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-XI) (Hobart: CCAMLR, 1992), paras. 4.3 and 9.28. 95. Antarctic Treaty Secretariat, Extract from ACTM Recommendation IX-2, available online: .

96. D. Miller and E. Molenaar, "The SEAFO Convention: A Comparative Analysis in a Developing Coastal State Perspective," Ocean Yearbook 20, eds. A. Chircop, S. Coffen-Smout and M. McConnell (New York: Transnational Publishers, 2006): 305-375. 97. Agreement on Maritime Delimitation between the Government of Australia and the Government of the French Republic (Melbourne, 4 Jan. 1982), Australian Treaty Series 1983, No. 3.

98. P. Vigni, "Antarctic Maritime Claims: 'Frozen Sovereignty' and the Law of the Sea," in The Law of the Sea and Polar Maritime Delimitation and Jurisdiction, eds. A. Oude Elferink and D. Rothwell (London: Kluwer Law International, 2001), p. 90. 99. W. Bush, Antarctica and International Lazt�: A Collection of Interstate and National Documents, 3 Vols. (London: Oceana Publications, 1982), 1: Doc. AT20051980B, p. 431. 100. United Kingdom, Proclamation (Maritime Zone) No. 1, 1993 (1 May 1993). 101. United Kingdom, The Fisheries (Conservation and Management) Ordi- nance 1993 (23 July 1993) and The Fishing (Maritime Zone) Order 1993 (26 July 1993). 102. South Africa, Maritime Zone Act No. 15, 1994. Application to the Prince Edward Islands is as per the Prince Edurard Islands Act No. 43, 1948.

103. Kaye, see n. 37 above, p. 388. 104. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook (last updated 3 Dec. 2007), Bouvet Island, available online: . 105. CCAMLR-XXV, see n. 38 above, para. 12.84.

106. For example: "Except for waters adjacent to the Kerguelen and Crozet Islands" or "Except for waters adjacent to the Prince Edward Islands." 107. D. Miller, "The international framework for the management of fishing in the Southern Ocean" (paper presented to Outlook 2004, Canberra, 2 Mar. 2004), p. 12. 108. CCAMLR-XVIII, see n. 82 above, para. 5.39. 109. E. Molenaar, "CCAMLR and Southern Ocean Fisheries," The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 16, 3 (2001): 480. 110. D. Vignes, "Protection of the Antarctic Marine Fauna and Flora: The Canberra Convention of 20 May 1980 and the Commission set up by it," in International Law for Antarctica, eds. F. Francioni and T. Scovazzi (London: Kluwer Law International, 1996), pp. 161-164.

111. M. Levy, Tite Enforcement of Antarctic Marine Living Resources Claims (paper presented to Duke University School of Law, International Development Clinic, 1997), pp. 65-69. 112. Miller et al., see n. 30 above. 113. Report of the Twelfth Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-XII), (Hobart: CCAMLR, 1993), para. 15.2. 114. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Gazette (No: 3 of 1993), "The Fisheries (Conservation and Management) Ordinance 1993," (Falkland Islands: Government Printer), 23 July 1993. 115. Id. 116. Levy, see n. III above, pp. 70-73. 117. See the discussion in F. Vicuna, "The Regime of Antarctic Marine Living Resources," in Francioni and Scovazzi, n. 110 above, pp. 153-156.

118. Report of the Fifteenth Meeting of the Commission (CCAMLR-XV), (Hobart: CCAMI,R, 1996), para. 13.4-"Argentina rejects the UK's interpretation that the islands referred to in the Chairman's Statement include also those under disputed sovereignty, among other reasons, because this would lead to a paradox that no islands in the Convention Area north of parallel of 60° south would be excluded by the Statement." 119. Id., para. 13.6: The UK cannot agree with Argentina that there has to be unanimous agreement within this Commission as to which state has sovereignty over South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands before the understandings of the Chairman's Statement can apply to them. The right of the UK to exercise coastal state jurisdiction is rooted in Article IV (2) (b) of the Convention and para. 5 of the Chairman's Statement. Paragraph 5 includes the critical phrase "over which the existence of state sovereignty is recognised by all Contracting Parties." This was most carefully formulated. Its sole purpose was to cover the islands which Parties accept are subject to the sovereignty of some state, even though there may be a dispute as to which. It is the recognition of the existence of state sovereignty which is referred to, not the recognition of the sovereignty of a particular state. There is no doubt that South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is sovereign territory, nor that the UK exercises sovereignty over it d,e facto and, the UK of course believes, de jure. 120. CCAMLR-XXII, see n. 77 above, para. 10.21. 121. Vigni, see n. 98 above, p. 90; J. Green, "Australian maritime boundaries: the Australian Antarctic Territory," Marine Policy 25 (2001): 1-11. 122. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook (last updated 15 Mar. 2007), South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, available online: .

123. CCAMLR-XXI, see n. 75 above, para. 5.4.

124. See various CMs in CCAMLR, Schedule of Consemation Measures in Force 2006/07 (CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia, 2006) available online: . 125. For a more in depth discussion on CCAMLR Conservation Measures, their development and efficacy, see Miller et al., see n. 30 above. 126. For example, CMs 22-01, 22-02, and 22-03 regarding mesh size have not been modified since being adopted in 1986, 1984 and 1990 respectively. CM 10-02 regarding licensing and inspection obligations of Contracting Parties has been modified four times since it was first adopted in 1997, most recently in 2006.

127. CCAMLR-XVIII, see n. 82 above, para. 7.5. 128. Id., para. 9.43. 129. Id., para. 9.44. 130. Id., para. 9.45. 131. Id., paras. 9.47-9.52. 132. CCAMLR-XXI, see n. 75 above, para. 10.1. 133. Id., paras. 10.3-10.75. 134. CITES Secretariat, Resolution Conf. 12.4, available online: .

135. CCAMLR-XXV, see n. 38 above, para. 9.40. 136. CCAMLR-XXII, see n. 77 above, Annex 5, para. 2.50. 137. Id., Annex 5, paras. 2.48 and 2.49, 8.30, 2.51 and 2.52, and 8.55 and 8.56 respectively. 138. E. Molenaar, "Multilateral Hot Pursuit and Illegal Fishing in the Southern Ocean: The Pursuits of the Viarsa 1 and the South Tomi," Tlte International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 19, 1 (2004): 19-42. 139. Interviews conducted by author, Ms. J. Turner, in her capacity as M.Sc. candidate, Institute of Antarctic and Southern Ocean Studies.

140. Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 Relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, 1995, available online: . 141. Nicol and de la Mare, see n. 19 above. 142. CCAMLR-X, see n. 68 above, para. 6.13. 143. Willock and Lack, see n. 40 above. 144. Kaye, see n. 37 above.

145. Sabourenkov and Miller, see n. 72 above. 146. CCAMLR Statistical Bulletin 1996-2005. (Hobart: CCAMLR, 2006), Section E, Tables 17 and 18. 147. Green and Agnew, n. 61 above; Sabourenkov and Miller, see n. 72 above. 148. Miller et a]., see n. 29 above.

149. Sabourenkov and Miller, see n. 72 above; M. Lack, "Catching On? Trade- Related Measures as a Fisheries Management Tool," TRAFFIC (2007).

150. The People's Republic of China became a full member of CCAMLR on Oct. 2, 2007. At its 26th Meeting in Oct./Nov. 2007, CCAMLR decided not to retain the Uolna on the CCAMLR CP-IUU vessel list 2006 or to include it in the adopted CP-IUU vessel list for 2007 (Report of the Twenty-Sixth Meeting of the Commission (CCAMI,R-XXVI) (Hobart: CCAMLR, 2007), para. 10.67.

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