Policy Transfer in Oceans Governance: Learning Lessons from Australia's Oceans Policy Process

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  • 1. D. Dolowitz and D. Marsh, "Learning from Abroad: The Role of Policy Transfer in Contemporary Policy Making," Governance,: An International Journal of Policy and Administration 13, no. 1 (Jan. 2000): 5. 2. D. Levi-Faur and E. Vigoda-Gadot, "New Public Policy, New Policy Transfers: Some Characteristics of a New Order in the Making," International Journal of Public Administration 29, no. 4-6 (Apr. 2006): 260. 3. Dolowitz and Marsh, see n. 1 above, p. 12. 4. M. Evans and J. Davies, "Understanding Policy Transfer: A Multi-Level, Multi-Disciplinary Perspective," Public Administration 77, no. 2 (1999): 361-385. 5. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, done in Montego Bay, Jamaica, (10 Dec. 1982), in force 16 Nov. 1994, 1833 united Nations Treaty Series 396. 6. Id., arts. 55-75. 7. Id., art. 33. 8. Id., arts. 76-85. 9. Id., arts. 2-32. 10. Id., arts. 192-237. 11. Id., arts. 116-119. 12. Id., arts. 64-67.

  • 13. Id., arts. 65 and 120. 14. See, for example, L. Juda, "Changing National Approaches to Ocean Governance: The United States, Canada and Australia," Ocean Development and International Laru 34 (2003): 161-187. 15. United Nations, "Chapter 17," Agenda 21: Programme of Action for Sustainable Development and the MACED Proceedings (New York: Oceana, 1992). 16. United Nations, "Principle 15," UNCED Rio Declaration on the Environment, and Development, adopted at Rio de Janiero (14 June, 1992), International Legal Materials 874. 17. D. Johnston, "UNCLOS and UNCED: A Collision of Mind-Sets?," in Oceans Law and Poliry in the Post-I7NCED Era: Australiau and Canadian Perspective, ed. L. Kriwoken, M. Haward, D. VanderZwaag and B. Davis, (London: Kluwer Law International, 1996), p. 15. 18. United Nations, see n. 15 above. 19. D. Vanderzwaag and J. Hutchings, "Canada's Marine Species at Risk: Science and Law at the Helm, but a Sea of Uncertainties," Ocean Development and International Law 36 (2005): 238.

  • 20. See J. Vince, "Az�.stralia's Oceans Policy: Five Years of Integration Across Sectors and Jurisdictions?," Maritime Studies, 133 (Nov./Dec. 2003): 1-13, hereafter cited as "Five Years of Integration"; J. Vince, "The Development of Australia's Oceans Policy: Institutions and the 'Oceans Policy Community,' " (presented at the Australasian Political Studies Association Conference, Hobart, 29 Sept.-l Oct. 2003), hereafter cited as "Oceans Policy Community"; J. Vince, The Developments of Australia's Oceans Policy: Change and Stability in a Policy Community (Ph.D. diss., University of Tasmania 2004) hereafter cited as "The Development of Australia's Oceans Policy"; M. Haward and J. Vince, "Australian Ocean Governance-Initia- tives, Challenges and Opportunities," Australasian Political Studies Association Confer- ence, Newcastle (25-27 Sept. 2006). 21. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canada's Oceans Strategy (Ottawa: Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 2002). 22. Vanderzwaag and Hutchings, see n. 19 above.

  • 23. D. McAdam and D. Rucht, "The Cross-National Diffusion of Movement Ideas," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 528 ( 1993) : 56-74. 24. M. Evans, Policy Transfer in Global Perspective (Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing, 2004), p. 212; K. Jacobs and P. Barnett, "Policy Transfer and Policy Learning: A Study of the 1991 New Zealand Health Services Taskforce," Governance: An In.tern.ational Journal of Policy and Administration, and Institutions 13, no. 2, (Apr. 2000): 187; Evans and Davies, see n. 4 above, p. 367. 25. C. Bennett and M. Howlett, "The Lessons of Learning: Reconciling Theories of Policy Learning and Policy Change," Policy Sciences 25 (1992): 275-294. 26. G. Majone, "Cross-National Sources of Regulatory Policy Making in Europe and the United States," Journal of Public Policy 11, (1991): 79-106. 27. W. Coleman, "Policy Convergence in Banking: A Comparative Study," Political Studies XLII (1994): 274-92. 28. R. Rose, Lesson l3raruing in Public Policy (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House, 1993). 29. H. Wolman, "Understanding Cross National Policy Transfers: The Case of Britain and the US," Governance, 5, no. 1, (1992): 41; also see D. Stone, "Non-

  • Governmental Policy Transfer: The Strategies of Independent Policy Institutes," I Governance,: An International Journal of Policy and Administration, and Institutions 13, no. 1, (Jan.2000):59. 30. 0. James and M. Lodge, "The Limitations of 'Policy Transfer' and 'Lesson Drawing' for Public Policy Research," Political Studies Revieru 1, (2003): 181. 31. Id., p. 190. 32. Levi-Faur and Vigoda-Gadot, see n. 2 above, p. 249. 33. See the Special Issue of the InternationalJournal of Public Administration (no. 29, issue 4-6, 2006). 34. See, for example, R. Christensen, "Policy Learning and Management in a Global World" and P. Humphreys, "Globalization, Regulatory Competition, and EU Policy Transfer in the Telecoms and Broadcasting Sectors," International Journal of Public Administration 29, no. 4-6 (Apr. 2006): 281-303, 305-334. 35. Evans and Davies, see n. 4 above, pp. 361-385. 36. Vince, "The Oceans Policy Community"; Vince, The Development of Austra- lia's Oceans Poliry, n. 20 above. 37. See P. Pross, Group Politics and Public Poliry 2d ed. (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1992). 38. Evans and Davies, see n. 4 above, pp. 361-385; Also see Evans, n. 24 above.

  • 39. Evans and Davies, see n. 4 above, p. 376. 40. Evans, see n. 24 above, p. 46. 41. Id., 49. 42. Dolowitz and Marsh, see n. 1 above, p. 13. 43. Id., p. 10. 44. Jacobs and Barnett, 2000, see n. 24 above, p. 187. 45. See Stone, n. 29 above, pp. 281-303. 46. Interview 1NZ2005, interview with government official (30 May 2005), Wellington, New Zealand; Interview 2NZ2005, interview with government official (30 May 2005), Wellington, New Zealand; Interview 3NZ2005, interview with NGO official (3 July 2005), Auckland, New Zealand; Interview 1CA2005, interview with government official (23 June 2005), Ottawa, Canada; Interview 1AU2005, interview with government official (1 Aug. 2005), Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Also see Vince, The Development of Australin's Oceans Policy, n. 20 above.

  • 47. Dolowitz and Marsh, see n. 1 above, p. 17. 48. D. Stone, "Learning Lessons and Transferring Policy Across Time, Space and Disciplines," Politics 19, no. 1 (1999): 51-59. 49. A. Schneider and H. Ingram, "Systematically Pinching Ideas: A Compara- tive Approach to Policy Design," Journal of Public Policy 8, no. 1, (Jan.-Mar. 1988): 67. 50. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, see n. 21 above. 51. Transboundary stocks are an exception that are managed by the Australian Commonwealth government (for example, the Southern Bluefin Tuna Fishery).

  • 52. McAdam, and Rucht, see n. 23 above, pp. 56-74. 53. Id., p. 73. 54. Evans, see n. 24 above, p. 36. 55. D. Dolowitz, S. Greenwold and D. Marsh, "Policy Transfer: Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed, But Why Red, White and Blue?," Parliamen- tary Affairs (Oct. 1999): 719.

  • 56. Vince, The Development of Australia's Oceans Policy, n. 20 above; M. Haward, "The Offshore," in Inter-Governmental Relations and Public Policy, ed. B. Galligan, O. Hughes and C. Walsh (Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1991); M. Haward, "The Ocean and Marine Realm," in Managing Australia's En7�ironment, ed. S. Dovers and S. Wild River (Sydney: The Federation Press, 2003). 57. Vince, see n. 20 above; J. Vince, "The South East Regional Marine Plan: Implementing Australia's Oceans Policy," Marine Policy 30 (July 2006): 420-430. 58. Commonwealth of Australia, Australia's Ocean.s Policy: Caring, Understanding and using Wisely (Canberra: AGPS, 1998); Commonwealth of Australia, Australia's Oceans Policy: Specific Sectoral Measures (Canberra: AGPS, 1998). 59. See Commonwealth of Australia, Australia's Oceans, New Horizons, Oceans Policy Consultation Paper, (Canberra: AGPS 1997); Commonwealth of Australia, Australia's Ocean Policy-An Issues Paper, (Canberra: AGPS, May 1998); Common- wealth of Australia, Australia's Oceans Policy: Oceans Facts and Figures, A Prime on Australia's Oceans and Exclusive Economic Zone, Background Paper 1, A Report Commissioned by Environment Australia (1997); M. Herriman, M. Tsamenyi, J. Ramli and S. Bateman, Australia's Oceans Policy: International Agreements, Background Paper 2, A Report Commissioned by Environment Australia (1997), hereafter cited as "International Agreements"; Portfolio Marine Group, Australia's Oceans Policy: Analysis of the Submissions to the Oceans Policy Consultation Paper, Background Paper 3, Environment Australia (1997); L. Zann and O. Earley, Australia's Oceans Policy: Reviews and Recommendation.s, Analysis of Marine and Coastal Reviews and their Recommendations in relation to Development of an Oceans Policy for Australia, Background Paper 4, A Report Commissioned by Environment Australia (1997); K. Sainsbury, M. Haward, L. Kriwoken, M. Tsamenyi and T. Ward, Australia's Oceans Policy: Oceans Planning and Management, Multiple Use Management in the Australian Marine Environ- ment: Principles, Definitions and Elements, Issues Paper 1, A Report Commissioned by

  • Environment Australia (1997); R. Greiner, M. Young, A. McDonald and M. Brooks, Australia's Oceans Policy: Oceans Planning and Management:, Management Instruments for Marine Allocation and Use, Issues Paper 2, A Report Commissioned by the Common- wealth Department of Primary Industries and Energy (1997); D. Pitts, Australia's Oceans Policy: Oceans Planning and Management, Best Practice Mechanisms for Marine Use Planning, Issues Paper 3, A Report Commissioned by the Commonwealth Department of Primary Industries and Energy (1997); V. Brown and M. Spink, Australia's Oceans Policy: Socio-Cultural Considerations, Caring for the Commons Socio-cultural Considerations in Oceans Policy Development and 1implementation, Issues Paper 4, A Report Commis- sioned by Environment Australia (1997); G. Claridge and C. Claridge, Australia's Oceans Policy: Socio-Cultural Considerations, Expanding the Role of Collaborative Manage- ment and Stewardship in the Conseruation Management of Australia's Marine and Coastal Resources, Issues Paper 5, A Report Commissioned by Environment Australia (1997); D. Smyth, Australia's Oceans Policy: Socio-Cultural Considerations, Saltruater Country Aborigin.al and Torres Strait Islander Interest in Ocean Policy Deuelofiment and Implementa- tion, Issues Paper 6, A Report Commissioned by Environment Australia (1997); T. Ward, J. Alder, C. Margules, K. Sainsbury, D. Tarte and L. Zann, Australia's Oceans Policy: Biodiversity Conservation, Issues Paper 7, A Report Commissioned by Environ- ment Australia (1997). 60. Commonwealth of Australia, see n. 58 above, p. 1. 61. Vince, "The South East Regional Marine Plan," see n. 57 above. 62. Vince, see n. 20 above.

  • 63. Commonwealth of Australia, see n. 59 above, p. 17. 64. T. Hmdloe, "The Environment: How to Solve Problems That Don't Respect Borders," Australian Journal of Public Administration 57, no. 3, (Sept., 1998): 87-91. 65. M. Haward and R. Herr, Australia's Oceans Policy: Policy and Process, ACORN Phase 2 Workshop, Vancouver, (10-11 Dec. 2000). 66. Environment Australia, "About ANZECC," available online: , date last modified: 1 July 2003, date cited: 4 July 2003. 67. Department of Environment and Heritage, "Department of Environment and Heritage Home," available online , date cited 10 Aug. 2005. Also see TFG International, Reuieru o/'the Implementation of the Oceans Poliey (TFG International 2002). 68. Department of Environment and Water Resources, available online: .

  • 69. Interview 1NZ2005, interview with government official (30 May 2005), Wellington, New Zealand; Interview 2NZ2005, interview with government official (30 May 2005), Wellington, New Zealand; Interview 3NZ2005, interview with NGO official (3 July 2005), Auckland, New Zealand; Interview 1('.A2005, interview with government official (23 June 2005), Ottawa, Canada; Interview IAU2005, interview with government official (1 Aug. 2005), Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. 70. J. Mansell, "The Voyage Towards National Oceans Policy in New Zealand- Encountering Rocks and Shoals," Maritimo Studies 137, (July/Aug. 2004): 3. 71. Environment Australia, see n. 67 above.

  • 72. Ms. Megan Linwood, Ministry for the Environment, New Zealand, attended the National Oceans Forum in Hobart, 14-15 Apr. 2000. 73. NOAG, Towards a Regional Marine Plan for the South East, Proceedings of a Forum convened by NOAG to develop the inputs to the first phase of the implementation of Australia's Oceans Policy, the development of the marine planning process for the South East region, held in Hobart, Tasmania, 14-15 Apr. 2000 (Hobart: National Oceans Office June 2000). 74. P. Cozens, "An Australasian Oceans Policy?," Maritime Studies, no. 115 (Nov.-Dec. 2000). 75. McAdam and Rucht, see n. 23 above, p. 66. 76. New Zealand Government. "Oceans Policy-Developing the Policy," available online: , date cited: 15 July 2003. 77. New Zealand Government, "Stage Two Project Structure," available online: , date cited: 15 July 2003.

  • 78. Mansell, see n. 70 above, p. 5. 79. D. Benson-Pope, "Seachange 05-Oceans Policy Recommended," Speech to the Seachange Conference. 2005, Auckland, (21 Nov. 2005). 80. Interview 2NZ2005, interview with government official (30 May 2005), Wellington, New Zealand. 81. Id. 82. Id.

  • 83. Id 84. Id 85. Interview 3NZ2005, interview with NGO official (3 July 2005), Auckland, New Zealand.

  • 86. Mr. Sam Baird, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada, attended the National Oceans Forum in Hobart, 14-15 Apr. 2000. 87. Herriman et al. Interndtional Agreements, n. 59 above, pp. 104-107. 88. Id. 89. Id.

  • 90. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. see n. 21 above, v. 91. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canada's Oceans Action Plan: For Present and Future Generations (Ottawa: Communications Branch DFO, 2005). 92. McAdam and Rucht, see n. 23 above, pp. 56-74. 93. Interview 1CA2005, interview with government official (23 June 2005), Ottawa, Canada. 94. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Strategic Plan 2005-2010 (Ottawa: Communi- cations Branch DFO 2005), p. 15. 95. Interview 1CA2005, interview with government official (23 June 2005), Ottawa, Canada. 96. Office of the Auditor General. Canada, 2005 Report of the Commissioner of the Enaironment and Sustainable Development, 29 Sept. 2005, available online: .

  • 97. Id 98. Interview 2CA2005, interview with government official (22 June 2005), Ottawa, Canada. 99. Vince, see n. 57 above. 100. See Global Forum on Oceans, Coasts and Islands, "Third Global Conference on Oceans, Coasts and Islands: Jan. 23-28, 2006, UNESCO, Paris," available online: , date cited: 2 May 2006. 101. Government of Canada, Canada's Federal Marine Protected Areas Strategy (Ottawa: Communications Branch DFO, 2005). 102. Interview 2CA2005, interview with government official, (22 June 2005), Ottawa, Canada. 103. See ANCORS, "Advisory Board," , date cited 16 Apr. 2007.

  • 104. Interview 1CA2005, interview with government official, (23 June 2005), Ottawa, Canada. 105. See D. Rothwell and D. VanderZwaag, eds, Toruards Principled Oceans Governance,: Australian and Canadian Approaches and Challenges (London: Routledge, 2006) . 106. McAdam and Rucht, see n. 23 above, pp. 56-74. 107. Ministry for the Environment, "Oceans," available online: .

  • 108. Commonwealth of Australia, see n. 58 above. 109. Dolowitz et al., see n. 55 above, p. 728.

  • 110. Interview 1NZ2005, interview with government official (30 May 2005), Wellington, New Zealand; Interview 2NZ2005, interview with government official (30 May 2005), Wellington, New Zealand; Interview 3NZ2005, interview with NGO official (3 July 2005), Auckland, New Zealand; Interview 1CA2005, interview with government official (23 June 2005), Ottawa, Canada. 111. See also Vince, see n. 20 above. 112. Dolowitz and Marsh, see n. 1 above, p. 7.

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