MPAs: What's in a Name?

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  • 1. J.F. Caddy and K.L. Cochrane, "A Review of Fisheries Management Past and Present and Some Future Perspectives for the Third Millennium, Ocean and Coastal Management 44, (2001): 653-682. 2. DJ. Doulman, "Community-Based Fishery Management: Towards the Resto- ration of Traditional Practices in the South Pacific," Marine Policy 17, 2 (1993): 108-117. 3. R.G. Halliday and A.T. Pinhorn, "A Review of the Scientific and Technical Basis for Policies on the Capture of Small Fish in North Atlantic Groundfish Fisheries," Fisheries Research 57, (2002): 211-222.

  • 4. OECD, Towards Sustainable Fisheries. Economic Aspects of the Management of Living Marine Resources (Paris: OECD, 1997), 268 pp. 5. PROTECT, 2006. Report on the State of the Art of MPAs as a Tool for Ecosystem Consemation and Fisheries Managemerzt. SSPB-CT-2004-513670. 6. G.S. Jamieson and C.O. Levings, "Marine Protected Areas in Canada: Implications for Both Conservation and Fisheries Management," Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58, 1 (2001): p. 138. 7. C.G. Attwood, J.M. Harris and AJ. Williams, "International Experience of Marine Protected Areas and Their Relevance to South Africa," .South African Journal of Marine .Science 18, (1997): 311-332. 8. A.T. White, C.A. Courtney and A. Salamanca, "Experience with Marine Protected Area Planning and Management in the Philippines," Coastal Management 30 (2002): 1-26. 9. G. Kelleher and L. Hay, 1984. The Great Banner Reef The Great Management Challenge, Polis, 11 (1): 10-13 (staffpaper 1983-09).

  • 10. Convention on Biological Diversity, Conference of the Parties 7, Decision VII/5 (note 11). 11. FAO, Report and Documentation of the Expert Workshops on Marine Protected Areas and Fisheries Management: Review of Issues and Considerations (Rome, 12-14 June 2006. FAO Fisheries Report, No. 825. Rome: FAO, 2007), 332 pp.

  • 12. J.S. Sanders and K.L. Cochrane, "The "Rise" of Marine Protected Areas as a Tool in an Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management Environment," (paper presented at Fisheries Forum (Fiskerifaglig Forum) Bergen, Norway, 24-25 Oct., 2006) . 13. IUCN-The World Conservation Union, 1994. Resolution 19.46 of the l9th Session of the General Assembly of the IUCN. Buenos Aires, Argentina. 14. K. Bishop, N. Dudley, A. Phillips and S. Stolton, Speaking a Common Language: The Uses and Performance of the IUCN System of Management Categories for Protected Areas. Cardiff University and IUCN, 2004. 15. The World Bank, The Environment Department. 2006. Scaling up Marine Managem�rzt: The Role of Marine Protected Areas. Report No. 36635-GLB. 16. National Marine Protected Areas Center, "A Functional Classification System for Marine Protected Areas in the United States," available online: .

  • 17. FAO, 2007, n. 11 above. 18. L.W. Botsford, F. Micheli and A.M. Parma, "Biological and Ecological Considerations in the Design, Implementation and Success of MPAs," in Report of the Workshops on the Rose of MPAs in Fisheries Management (Rome, Italy, June 2006. FAO Fisheries Report. Rome: FAO, 2007). 19. P. Christie and A.T. White, "Best Practices in Governance and Enforce- ment of Marine Protected Areas: An Overview," in Report of the Workshop on the Role of MPAs in Fisheries Management (Rome, Italy, June 2006. FAO Fisheries Report. Rome: FAO, 2007).

  • 20. The full text of this paragraph reads: 17.85. States should identify marine ecosystems exhibiting high levels of biodiversity and productivity and other critical habitat areas and should provide necessary limitations on use in these areas, through, inter alia, designation of protected areas. Priority should be accorded, as appropriate, to: (a) Coral reef ecosystems; (b) Estuaries; (c) Temperate and tropical wetlands, including mangroves; (d) Seagrass beds; (e) Other spawning and nursery areas." .

  • 21. K.L. Cochrane, "Marine Protected Areas as Management Measures: Tools or Toys," in eds. M.H. Nordquist, R. Long, T.H. Heidar and J.N. Moore, Law, Science and Ocean Management) (Leiden/Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2007), pp. 701-737.

  • 22. Id. 23. IUCN 5th World Parks Congress (Durban, South Africa, 8-17 Sept. 2003). - 2003. "Building a Global System of Marine and Coastal Protected Area Networks," in Recommendations of the 5th IIICN World Parks Congress. 24. FAO, Fisheries Department, The Ecosysterre Approach to Fisheries. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. No. 4, Suppl. (Rome: FAO, 2003). 112 p. 25. Cochrane, n. 21 above; Sanders and Cochrane, n. 12 above; R. Hilborn, K Stokes, J J. Maguire, T. Smith, L.W. Botsford, M. Mangel, J. Orensanz, A. Parana, J. Rice, J. Bell, K.L. Cochrane, S.G. Garcia, SJ. Hall, G.P. Kirkwood, K. Sainsbury, G. Stefansson and C. Walters, "When Can Marine Reserves Improve Fisheries Management?," Ocean and Coastal Management 47 (2004): 197-205. 26. Marine Conservation Biology Institute, USA. "Troubled Waters: A Call for Action," .

  • 27. C.M. Roberts and J.P. Hawkins, Fully Protected Marine Reserves: A Glide (Washington D.C.: WWF Endangered Seas Campaign, 2000), 137 pp. 28. Hilborn et al., n. 25 above. 29. Cochrane, n. 21 above.

  • 30. Cochrane, n. 21 above; Sanders and Cochrane, n. 12 above. 31. B.S. Halpern, "The Impact of Marine Reserves: Do Reserves Work and Does Reserve Size Matter?," Ecological Applications 13, 1 Supplement (2003): 8117-S137. 32. For a comprehensive review, see Botsford et al., n. 18 above. 33. Referred to in Botsford et al., n. 18 above.

  • 34. MJ. Fogarty, "Essential Habitat, Marine Reserves and Fishery Manage- ment," Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14 (1999): 133-134. 35. KJ. Sainsbury, R.A. Campbell, R. Lindholm and A.W. Whitelaw, "Experi- mental Management of an Australian Multispecies Fishery: Examining the Possibility of Trawl-Induced Habitat Modification," in E.L. Pikitch, D.D. Huppert and M.P. Sissenwine eds. Global Trends: Fzsheries Management (Bethesda: American Fisheries Society Symposium, 20, 1997), 107-112. 36. J. Lindholm, P. Auster and P. Valentine, "Role of a Large Marine Protected Area for Conserving Landscaped Attributes of Sand Habitats on Georges Bank (NW Atlantic)," Marine Ecology Progress Series 269 (2004): 61-68; J.M. Hermsen, J.S. Collie and P.C. Valentine, "Mobile Fishing Gear Reduces Benthic Megafaunal Production on Georges Bank," Marline Ecology Progress Series 260 (2003): 97-108. 37. P J. Mumby, AJ. Edwards, J.E. Arias Gonzales, K.C. Linedeman, P.G. Blackwell, A. Gall, M.I. Gorczynska, A.R. Harborne, (:.L. Pescod, H. Renken, C.C.C. Wabnitz and G. Llewellyn, "Mangroves Enhance the Biomass of Coral Reef Fish Communities in the Caribbean," Nature 427 (2004): 533-536. 38. C.Y. Burridge, C.R. Pitcher, BJ. Hill, T J. Wassenberg and I.R. Poiner, "A Comparison of Demersal Communities in an Area Closed to Trawling with Those in Adjacent Areas Open to Trawling: A Study in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia," Fisheries Research 79 (2006): 64-74.

  • 39. See review by Botsford et al., n. 18 above. 40. S. Murawski, P. Rago and M. Fogarty, 2004. "Spillover Effects from Temperate Marine Protected Areas," in J. Brooke Shipley ed. Aquatic Protected Areas as Fisheries. Management) Tools (Bethesda: American Fisheries Society, 2004), 301 pp. 41. G. Stefannson and A.A. Rosenberg, "Combining Control Measures for More Effective Management of Fisheries Under Uncertainty: Quotas, Effort Limitation and Unprotected Areas," Philosophical Tran.sactions of Ihe Royal Society B 360 (2005): 133-146. 42. R. Hilborn, F. Micheli and G.A. De Leo, "Integrating Marine Protected Areas with Catch Regalation," Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63 (2006): 642-649.

  • 43. Cochrane, n. 21 above. 44. See MCBI, n. 26 above.

  • 45. T. Agardy, P. Bridgewater, M.P. Crosby, J. Day, P.K. Dayton, R. Kenching- ton, D. Laffoley, P. MacConney, P.A. Murray, J.E. Parks, and L. Peau, "Dangerous Targets? Unresolved Issues and Ideological Clashes Around Marine Protected Areas," Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 13 (2003): 353-367.

  • 46. FAO, 2001. Report of the Reykjavik Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem. Reykjavik, Iceland, Oct. 2001. FAO Fisheries Report 658: 135 pp. 47. The Plan of Implementation of this Summit included the exhortation to "encourage the application by 2010 of the ecosystem approach, noting the Reykjavik Declaration on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem and decision 5/6 of the Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity," (Paragraph 29d; . 48. FAO, 2007. Report of the twenty-seventh session of the Committee on Fisheries. Rome, 5-9 Mar. 2007. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 830. 74 p. 49. FAO, n. 24 above. 50. S.A. Murawski, "Ten Myths Concerning Ecosystem Approaches to Marine Resource Management," Marin.e Policy 31 (2007): 681-690.

  • 51. K.L. Cochrane, "Reconciling Sustainability, Economic Efficiency and Equity In Fisheries: The One That Got Away?," Fisla and Fisheries 1 (2000): 3-21. 52. Christie and White, n. 19 above; R.S. Pomeroy, M.B. Mascia and R.B. Pollnac, 2007. "Marine Protected Areas: The Social Dimension," in Report of the Workshop on the Role of MPAs in Fisheries Managentent (Rome, Italy, June 2006. FAO Fisheries Report. Rome: FAO, 2007); World Resources Institute, Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean (Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 2004), 80 pp. 53. E. Pinkerton, "Partnerships in Management," in K.L. Cochrane ed. A Fishery Manager's Guidebook. Management Measures and Their Application, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 424 (2003): 159-173. 54. Christie and White, n. 19 above. 55. Id.

  • 56. M.M. Fouda, "MPAs: An Effective Tool for Managing Coastal and Marine Areas of the Egyptian Red Sea as Single Units," in S. Belfiore, B. Cicin-Sain and C. Ehler, eds. Incorporating Marine Protected Areas into Integrated Coastal Management,: Principles and Guidelines (Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K.: IUCN, 2004). 57. E.F. Granek and M.A. Brown, "Co-Management Approach to Marine Conservation in Moh6li, Comoros Islands," Conservation Biology 19, 6 (2005): 1724-1732. 58. J.E Cinner, MJ. Marnane and T.R. McClanahan, "Conservation and Community Benefits from Traditional Coral Reef Management at Ahus Island, Papua New Guinea," Conservation Biology 19, 6 (2005): 1714-1723. 59. Christie and White, n. 19 above.

  • 60. J.R. McGoodwin, Cyzsis in the World's Fisheries. People, Problem and Policies (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1990), p. 96. 61. Hanna, 2004 cited in Pomeroy et al., n. 52, above.

  • 62. P. Christie, "MPAs as Biological Successes and Social Failures in Southeast Asia," in Aquatic Protecled Areas as Fisheries Management Tools: Design, (Ise, and Evaluation of These Fully Protected AreasJ.B. Shipley ed. (Bethesda: American Fisheries Society, 2004): 155-164. 63. ICSF. 2006. Fislaing Communities, and "Sustainable Development in Eastern and Southern Africa: The Role of Srrzall Scale Fisheries. Report of a workshop, 14-17 Mar. 2006, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. International Collective in Support of Fishworkers. 71 pp. 64. Id. 65. H.T. Sanderson and S. Koester, "Co-Management of Tropical Coastal Zones: The Case of Soufriere Marine Management Area, St. Lucia, WI," Coastal Management) 28 (2000): 87-97. 66. CANARI, 2005. Marine Protected Areas and Sustainable Coastal Livelihoods, CANARI Policy Brief, 5 (Jan. 2005), 4.

  • 67. T. Agardy, "An Environmentalist's Perspective on Responsible Fisheries: The Need for Holistic Approaches," in M. Sinclair and G. Valdimarsson eds. Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem (Wallingford: FAO and CABI Publishing, 2003), pp. 65-85; Roberts and Hawkins, n. 27 above. 68. R. Hilborn, "Moving to Sustainability by Learning from Successful Fisher- ies," Ambit 4 (2007): 296-303. 69. R.B. Pollnac, B.R. Crawford and M.L.G. Gorospe, "Discovering Factors that Influence the Success of Community-Based Marine Protected Areas in the Visayas, Philippines," Ocean and Coastal Management) 44 (2001): 683-710. 70. World Resources Institute, Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean (Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 2004), 80 pp. 71. See World Wildlife Fund. "Problems: not enough protections," . 72. For example, J. Sobel and C. Dahlgren, Marine Reserves: A Guide to Science, Design and Use (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2004); A.T. White, P.M. Alino and A.T. Meneses, Creating and Managing Marine Protected Areas in the Philippines (Fisheries Improved for Sustainable Harvest Project, Coastal Conservation and Education Foundation, Inc. and the University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute. Cebu City, Philippines, 2006); FAO, n. 11 above; 73. FAO, n. 11 above.

  • 74. M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, eds., Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (Contribu- tion of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge, U.K., Cambridge University Press, 2007), 1000 pp. 75. C.G. Soto, "The Potential Impacts of Global Climate Change on Marine Protected Areas," Revierus in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11 (2002): 181-195. 76. Id.; Greenpeace, 2007. The Heat Is On: The Role of Marine Reserves in Boosting Ecosystem Resilience to Climate Change, available online: . 77. G.D. Grimsditch and R.V. Salm, Coral Reef Resilience and Resistance to Bleaching (Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 2006), 52 pp. 78. P. Marshall and H. Schuttenberg, A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching. Chapter 3: Building Lon� Term Reef Resilience. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, Australia, 2006. 79. Soto, n. 75 above.

  • 80. Id. 81. Hilborn et al., n. 25 above. 82. A. Fonteneau, "Tuna Management and Closed Areas," Collectzve Volume of Scientific Papers ICCAT 60, 1 (2007): 190-223; IATTC, 2006. Workshop on Manage- ment Strategies, La Jolla, California, 17-20 Oct. 2006. Compiled by M. Maunder. .

  • 83. IATTC, 2006, n. 82 above. 84. J. Wilson, C. Rilling, J. Desfosse and K. Brewster-Geisz, "Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Pelagic Longline Time/Area Closures in the Gulf of Mexico to Reduce Discards of Bluefin Tuna," Collective Volume of Scientific Papers ICCAT 60, 4 (2007): 1179-1236. 85. Letter from the Director, IATTC to the Executive Secretary, Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission dated 27 Nov. 2006. ; IATTC, 2007. Review of IATTC Management Measures for Tunas in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and Current Management Options. Document AH-05. IATTC. 6 pp. 86. IATTC, 2006, n. 82 above. 87. IATTC, 2007, n. 85 above. 88. M. Russell, 2001. "Spawning Aggregations of Reef Fishes on the Great Barrier Reef: Implications for Management," Fishery Issues Group, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

  • 89. Y. Sadovy and M. Domeier, "Are Aggregation-Fisheries Sustainable? Reef Fish Fisheries as a Case Study," Coral Reefs 24 (2005): 254-262 90. Y. Sadovy, M. Kulbicki, P. Labrosse, Y. Letourneur, P. Lokani and T J. Donaldson, "The Humphead Wrasse, Cheilinus Undulates: Synopsis of a Threatened and Poorly Known Giant Coral Reef Fish," Rmieras in Fish Biology and Fisheries 13 (2003): 327-364. 91. S. Hall, "The Use of Technical Measures in Responsible Fisheries: Area and Time Restrictions," in K.L. Cochrane ed., A Fishery Manager's Guidebook. Management Measure and Their Applications, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 424, 2003.

  • 92. FAO. Report and Documentation of the Expert Consultation on Deep-sea Fisheries in the High Seas (Bangkok, Thailand, 21-23 Nov. 2006. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 838. Rome: FAO, in press), 203 p. 93. M.W. Lodge, D. Anderson, T. Lobach, G. Munro, K. Sainsbury and A. Willock, Recommended Best Practices for Regional Fisheries Management Organizations: Report of an Independent Panel to Develop a Model for Improved Governance by Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (London: Chatham House, 2007). 94. EJ. Molenaar, "Addressing Regulatory Gaps in High Seas Fisheries," International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 20, (2005): 533-570.

  • 95. NEAFC (2007) Report of the Advisory Group for Data Communication, 26-27 Apr. 2007, Bergen, Norway . 96. International Consultations on the Establishment of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO). "Interim Measures Adopted by Participants in Negotiations to Establish SPRFMO," . 97. S. Grant, A. Constable, B. Raymond and S. Doust, 2006. Bioregionalisation of the Southern Ocean: Report of Experts Workshop, Hobart, Sept. 2006. WWF-Australia and ACE CRC. 98. For example, see NEAFC , NAFO , and SEAFO .

  • 99. SIODFA and IUCN. 2006. News Release: "Fishing Companies Announce World's First Voluntary Closures to High-Seas Deepwater Trawling," Released on July 6, 2006. Available online: . 100. FAO General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean, Report of the Thirtieth Session (Istanbtrl, Turkey, 24-27 Jan. 2006. GFCM Report. No. 30. Rome: FAO, 2006), 56 pp.

  • 101. K.L. Cochrane, "Current Paradigms and Forms of Advice," in Fish Reproductive Biology and its Implications for Assessment and Management eds. T. Jakobsen, M. Fogarty, B. Megrey and E. Moksness (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, in Press). 102. General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean, 31st Session 2007. Resolution GFCM/31/2007/2.

  • 103. See, for example, Convention on Biological Diversity, CoP Decision 11/10: 2. Encourages the use of integrated marine and coastal area management as the most suitable framework for addressing human impacts on marine and coastal biological diversity and for promoting conservation and sustainable use of this biodiversity; 104. Ehler and Douvere, see Table 2 source.

  • 105. Speech at workshop "Governance of an Integrated, Holistic Maritime Policy for Europe," Lisbon, 19 July 2007. .

  • 106. From Ro�neo and Juliet by W. Shakespeare: "What's in a name? That which we call a rose, by any other name would smell as sweet." 107. FAO, Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (Rome: FAO, 1995), 41 pp.

  • 108. FAO, n. 24 above.

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