1 Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies, University of Malta, Malta This article is an adaptation and also includes excerpts from the publication M. Colazingari, Marine Natural Resources and Technological Development: An Economic Analysis of the Wealth from the Oceans (New York: Routledge, 2007).
1. E.L. Cooper, "Marine Natural Products and Their Applications," Evidenced-BasedGomplementaryandAlternativeMedicine1, 2, (2004): 207-209. 2. Committee on Marine Biotechnology (CMB) National Research Council, Biomedical Applications of Marine Natural Products MarineBioteclanologyintheTruenty-FirstCentury:Problems,Promise,andProducts (Washington: The National Academies Press, 2002).
3. Foresight Marine Panel (FMP), AStudyintotheProspectsforMarineBiotechnolo-gyDevelopmentintheL1K, (London: Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology 2005), Vol. I and II, available online: (accessed January 13, 2007). 4. A.D. Rohan, "Chemical Investigations of Great Barrier Reef Ascidians. Natural Products and Synthetic Studies" (Ph.D. diss., Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia, 2000), available online: . 5. See FMP, n. 3 above. 6. Commission on Geosciences Environment and Resources (CGER), FromMonsoonstoMicrobes:"UnderstandingtheOcean'sRoleinHumanHealth (Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 1999). 7. C.E. Salomon, N.A. Magarvey and D.H. Sherman, "Merging the Potential of Microbial Genetics with Biological and Chemical Diversity: An Even Brighter Future
for Marine Natural Product Drug Discovery," NaturalProductsReport 21 (2004): 105-121. 8. See FMP, n. 3 above. 9. Gorgonian is an octocoral (soft coral) having a flexible, often branching skeleton of spiny material coming from the phylum Cnidaria.
10. J. Jimeno, G. Faircloth, J.M. Fernindez Sousa-Faro, P. Scheuer and K. Rinehart, "New Marine Derived Anticancer Therapeutics-A Journey from the Sea to Clinical Trials," MarineDrugs 2 (2004): 14-29. 11. G.M. Cragg, DJ. Newman and R.B. Weiss, "Coral Reefs, Forests, and Thermal Vents: The Worldwide Exploration of Nature for Novel Antitumor Agents," SeminarOncology 24 (1997): 156-163. 12. Alginates are used in bead encapsulation processes for cells, for research, drug delivery and tissue engineering. 13. DJ. Newman and G.M. Cragg, "Marine Natural Products and Related Compounds in Clinical and Advanced Preclinical Trials," JournalofNaturalProducts 67 (2004): 1216-1238. 14. Cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and Adenine arabinoside (Ara-A).
15. See Cooper, n. 1 above. 16. Biomass is the quantity of a marine living resource as measured by kg tissue/mz. 17. Out of the 33 phyla, 28 occur in marine habitats. 18. D. Malakoff, "Seas Yield a Bounty of Species," Science 277 (1997): 487. 19. R. O'Dor, TheUnknoranOcean:TheVaselineReportof theCensusofMarineLifeResearchProgram (Washington D.C.: Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education, 2003). 20. Taxonomy is the classification and identification of organisms. The traditional procedure to identify organisms involves comparing the physical characteristics of a collected specimen with the characteristics of a known species. There are numerous taxonomic books that describe the physical appearance, both externally and internally, of millions of species, as well as what it is known about their habitat and their general biology. 21. D. Malakoff, "Grants Kick Off Ambitious Count of All Ocean Life," Science 288 (2000): 1575-1576.
22. Sessile organisms are attached to a substrate and are not free to move about. 23. J.D. Faulkner, "Marine Natural Products," NaturalProductsReview19 (2002): 1-48. 24. At the depth of about 150 metres the sunlight cannot penetrate the water and consequently photosynthesis stops. Chemosynthetic life means an ecosystem that thrives transforming chemical compounds into energy without the need of sunlight. Both photosynthesis and chemosynthesis involve an energy source (carbon dioxide) and water in order to produce sugars. Photosynthesis gives off oxygen gas as a byproduct, while chemosynthesis produces sulphide. 25. C.L. Van Dover, C.R. German, K.G. Speer, L.M. Parson and R.C. Vrijen- hoek, "Evolution and Biogeography of Deep-Sea Vent and Seep Invertebrates," Science 295 (2002): 1253-1257.
26. Phylogenetic is the study of the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms.
27. Census of Marine Life-ChEss, Biogeography of Deep-Water Chemosynthetic Ecosystems. DeuelopingaLongTermFieldPhaseforUnderstandingtheBiogeographyofDeep-WaterChemosyntheticEcosystemsattheGlobalScale (2003), available online: . 28. C.R. Smith, H. Kukert, R.A. Wheatcroft, P.A. Jumars and J.W. Deming, "Vent Fauna on Whale Remains," Natacre 341 (1989): 27-28. 29. Hyperthermophiles also grow and dwell in terrestrial geothermal areas such as geysers, hot springs and volcanic areas. 30. L. Glowka, "The Deepest of Ironies: Genetic Resources, Marine Scientific Research, and the Area," in OceanYearbook 12 eds. E. Mann Borgese, A. Chircop, M. McConnell and J. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996): 154-178.
31. See FMP, n. 3 above. 32. Id.
33. D J. Newman, G.M. Cragg and K.M. Snader, "Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs over the Period 1981-2002," JournalofNaturalProducts 66 (2003): 1022-1037. 34. See FMP, n. 3 above. 35. Id.
36. For a review of marine natural products, see J.W. Blunt, B.R. Copp, M.H.G. Munro, P.T. Northcote and M.R. Prinsep, "Marine Natural Products," NaturalProductsReports 20 (2003): 1-48. 37. See CGER, n. 6 above. 38. J.N. Sanchirico, "A Social Scientist's Perspective on the Potential Benefits of the Census of Marine Life," MarinePolicy 29, 6 (2005): 507-552. 39. R.K. Jr. Boeckman, T J. Clark and B.C. Shook, "The Development of a Convergent and Efficient Enantioselective Synthesis of the Bengamides via a Common Polyol Intermediate," HelneticaChimicaActa 85 (2002): 4532-4560.
40. Discodermolide has been licensed to the pharmaceutical company Novartis and recently completed Phase I clinical trials. Committee on Exploration of the Seas (CES), Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies, ExplorationoftheSeas:VoyageintotheUnknown (Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press, 2003), available online: . 41. See Newman et al., n. 33 above.
42. See FMP, n. 3 above. 43. See Newman and Cragg, n. 13 above. 44.Id. 45. M.L. Amador, J. Jimeno, L. Paz-Ares, H. Cortes-Funes and M. Hidalgo, "Progress in the Development and Acquisition of Anticancer Agents from Marine Sources," AnnalsofOncology 14 (2003): 1607-1615.
46. See CMB, n. 2 above. 47. See Newman and Cragg, n. 13 above. 48. See Amador et al., n. 45 above.
49. Acyclovir, which was synthetically known as Ara A, was modelled based on sponge-derived spongothymidine or spongouridine. Ara A along with its acetyl congener Ara U, were later isolated as natural products from the gorgonian Eunicellacavolini. 50. See CMB, n. 2 above. 51. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Biotechnology:EconomicandWiderImpacts (Paris: OECD Publishing, 1989).
52. The genome is the entire set of genes of an organism. 53. B. Cicin-Sain, R.W. Knecht, L. Denno Bouman and G.W. Fisk, "Emerging Policy Issues in the Development of Marine Biotechnology," in OceanYearbook 12 eds. E. Mann Borgese, A. Chircop, M. McConnell and J.R. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996): 179-206. 54. T. Gr0nning, E. Dobos, F. Dahl-Hilstad, O.A. Johansson, M. Knell and D.S. Olsen, CaseStudyonBiotechInnovationSystems., Norway, vol. 2: Marine biotechnology. Report submitted to the OECD in the Series "Case Studies in Innovation," (Paris: OCSE, 2004), available online: . 55. Proteomics is the study of the structure and functions of the proteins contained in the genome of an organism.
56. European Science Foundation (ESF), MarineBiotechnology: AEuropeanStrategy forMarineBiotechnology, ESF Marine Board Position Paper 4 (Strasbourg: ESF, 2001 ) . 57. M. Gorina-Ysern, "Legal Issues Raised by Profitable Biotechnology Develop- ment Through Marine Scientific Research," AmericanSocietyo/'IntrrnationalLawInsights (Sept. 2003), available online: .
58. C.L. Delgado, N. Wada, M.W. Rosegrant, S. Meijer and A. Mahfuzuddin, Fishto2020SuppleandDemandinChangingGlobalMarkets (Washington: International Food Policy Research Institute and Malaysia: WorldFish Center Penang, 2003), available online: . 59. Presently TBT (tributyltin) is the predominant biocide in marine anti- fouling paints to prevent organisms from attaching to ship's hulls. TBT, which has been recognized as one of the most toxic substances ever introduced in the marine environment, accumulates in sediment and biota causing serious adverse effects in non-target organisms. The IMO banned TBT in 1990 for vessels below the length of 25 meters.
60. United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs and the International Seabed Authority, MarineMineralResources,ScientificAdvancesandEconomicsPerspectives (New York: United Nations Publishing, 2004) .
61. See FMP, n. 3 above. ' 62. . 63. E. Mann Borgese, TheOceanicCircle:GoverningtheSeasasaGlobalResource (Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 1998). 64. R. Cattaneo-Vietti, S. Schiaparelli and G. Albertelli, "The Epibiotic Assembly on the Sponge Hliclonadancoi (Topsent 1901) at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica, Ross Sea)," PolarBiology, 26, 5 (2003): 342-347. 65. V.C. Sundar, A.D. Yablon, J.L. Grazul, M. Ilan and J. Aizenberg, "Fibre- Optical Features of a Glass Sponge," Nature 424 (2003): 899-900.
66. See Borgese, n. 63 above. 67. See CMB, n. 2 above. 68. W J. Crookes, L.-L. Ding, Q.L. Huang, J.R. Kimbell, J. Horwitz and M. McFall-Ngai, "Reflections: The Unusual Proteins of Squid Reflective Tissues," Srience 303 (2004): 235-238.
69. See CMB, n. 2 above. 70. See . 71. See CMB, n. 2 above.
72. J. Arif, M. Al-Hazzani, A. Amal, M. Kunhi and F. Al-Khodairy, "Novel Marine Compounds: Anticancer or Genotoxic?," JournalofBiomr�lirineandBiotechnol-ogy 2 (2004): 93-98. 73. See Newman and Cragg, n. 13 above.
74. See CMB, n. 2 above. 75.Id. 76. See FMP, n. 3 above. 77. See Newman and Cragg, n. 13 above. This compound was originally isolated in 1985 from the Japanese sponge Holiehondriaokadai. However, the deep- sea sponge Lissodendrnyx was later discovered to contain the same substance, halichondrins, in greater concentrations.
78. See CMB, n. 2 above.
79. For the latest list of published genomes see . 80. See CMB, n. 2 above.