Economic Perspectives on Marine-Derived Products

In: Ocean Yearbook Online

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  • 1. E.L. Cooper, "Marine Natural Products and Their Applications," Evidenced- Based Gomplementary and Alternative Medicine 1, 2, (2004): 207-209. 2. Committee on Marine Biotechnology (CMB) National Research Council, Biomedical Applications of Marine Natural Products Marine Bioteclanology in the Truenty-First Century: Problems, Promise, and Products (Washington: The National Academies Press, 2002).

  • 3. Foresight Marine Panel (FMP), A Study into the Prospects for Marine Biotechnolo- gy Development in the L1K, (London: Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology 2005), Vol. I and II, available online: (accessed January 13, 2007). 4. A.D. Rohan, "Chemical Investigations of Great Barrier Reef Ascidians. Natural Products and Synthetic Studies" (Ph.D. diss., Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia, 2000), available online: . 5. See FMP, n. 3 above. 6. Commission on Geosciences Environment and Resources (CGER), From Monsoons to Microbes: "Understanding the Ocean's Role in Human Health (Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 1999). 7. C.E. Salomon, N.A. Magarvey and D.H. Sherman, "Merging the Potential of Microbial Genetics with Biological and Chemical Diversity: An Even Brighter Future

  • for Marine Natural Product Drug Discovery," Natural Products Report 21 (2004): 105-121. 8. See FMP, n. 3 above. 9. Gorgonian is an octocoral (soft coral) having a flexible, often branching skeleton of spiny material coming from the phylum Cnidaria.

  • 10. J. Jimeno, G. Faircloth, J.M. Fernindez Sousa-Faro, P. Scheuer and K. Rinehart, "New Marine Derived Anticancer Therapeutics-A Journey from the Sea to Clinical Trials," Marine Drugs 2 (2004): 14-29. 11. G.M. Cragg, DJ. Newman and R.B. Weiss, "Coral Reefs, Forests, and Thermal Vents: The Worldwide Exploration of Nature for Novel Antitumor Agents," Seminar Oncology 24 (1997): 156-163. 12. Alginates are used in bead encapsulation processes for cells, for research, drug delivery and tissue engineering. 13. DJ. Newman and G.M. Cragg, "Marine Natural Products and Related Compounds in Clinical and Advanced Preclinical Trials," Journal of Natural Products 67 (2004): 1216-1238. 14. Cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and Adenine arabinoside (Ara-A).

  • 15. See Cooper, n. 1 above. 16. Biomass is the quantity of a marine living resource as measured by kg tissue/mz. 17. Out of the 33 phyla, 28 occur in marine habitats. 18. D. Malakoff, "Seas Yield a Bounty of Species," Science 277 (1997): 487. 19. R. O'Dor, The Unknoran Ocean: The Vaseline Report of the Census of Marine Life Research Program (Washington D.C.: Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education, 2003). 20. Taxonomy is the classification and identification of organisms. The traditional procedure to identify organisms involves comparing the physical characteristics of a collected specimen with the characteristics of a known species. There are numerous taxonomic books that describe the physical appearance, both externally and internally, of millions of species, as well as what it is known about their habitat and their general biology. 21. D. Malakoff, "Grants Kick Off Ambitious Count of All Ocean Life," Science 288 (2000): 1575-1576.

  • 22. Sessile organisms are attached to a substrate and are not free to move about. 23. J.D. Faulkner, "Marine Natural Products," Natural Products Review 19 (2002): 1-48. 24. At the depth of about 150 metres the sunlight cannot penetrate the water and consequently photosynthesis stops. Chemosynthetic life means an ecosystem that thrives transforming chemical compounds into energy without the need of sunlight. Both photosynthesis and chemosynthesis involve an energy source (carbon dioxide) and water in order to produce sugars. Photosynthesis gives off oxygen gas as a byproduct, while chemosynthesis produces sulphide. 25. C.L. Van Dover, C.R. German, K.G. Speer, L.M. Parson and R.C. Vrijen- hoek, "Evolution and Biogeography of Deep-Sea Vent and Seep Invertebrates," Science 295 (2002): 1253-1257.

  • 26. Phylogenetic is the study of the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms.

  • 27. Census of Marine Life-ChEss, Biogeography of Deep-Water Chemosynthetic Ecosystems. Deueloping a Long Term Field Phase for Understanding the Biogeography of Deep-Water Chemosynthetic Ecosystems at the Global Scale (2003), available online: . 28. C.R. Smith, H. Kukert, R.A. Wheatcroft, P.A. Jumars and J.W. Deming, "Vent Fauna on Whale Remains," Natacre 341 (1989): 27-28. 29. Hyperthermophiles also grow and dwell in terrestrial geothermal areas such as geysers, hot springs and volcanic areas. 30. L. Glowka, "The Deepest of Ironies: Genetic Resources, Marine Scientific Research, and the Area," in Ocean Yearbook 12 eds. E. Mann Borgese, A. Chircop, M. McConnell and J. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996): 154-178.

  • 31. See FMP, n. 3 above. 32. Id.

  • 33. D J. Newman, G.M. Cragg and K.M. Snader, "Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs over the Period 1981-2002," Journal of Natural Products 66 (2003): 1022-1037. 34. See FMP, n. 3 above. 35. Id.

  • 36. For a review of marine natural products, see J.W. Blunt, B.R. Copp, M.H.G. Munro, P.T. Northcote and M.R. Prinsep, "Marine Natural Products," Natural Products Reports 20 (2003): 1-48. 37. See CGER, n. 6 above. 38. J.N. Sanchirico, "A Social Scientist's Perspective on the Potential Benefits of the Census of Marine Life," Marine Policy 29, 6 (2005): 507-552. 39. R.K. Jr. Boeckman, T J. Clark and B.C. Shook, "The Development of a Convergent and Efficient Enantioselective Synthesis of the Bengamides via a Common Polyol Intermediate," Helnetica Chimica Acta 85 (2002): 4532-4560.

  • 40. Discodermolide has been licensed to the pharmaceutical company Novartis and recently completed Phase I clinical trials. Committee on Exploration of the Seas (CES), Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies, Exploration of the Seas: Voyage into the Unknown (Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press, 2003), available online: . 41. See Newman et al., n. 33 above.

  • 42. See FMP, n. 3 above. 43. See Newman and Cragg, n. 13 above. 44. Id. 45. M.L. Amador, J. Jimeno, L. Paz-Ares, H. Cortes-Funes and M. Hidalgo, "Progress in the Development and Acquisition of Anticancer Agents from Marine Sources," Annals of Oncology 14 (2003): 1607-1615.

  • 46. See CMB, n. 2 above. 47. See Newman and Cragg, n. 13 above. 48. See Amador et al., n. 45 above.

  • 49. Acyclovir, which was synthetically known as Ara A, was modelled based on sponge-derived spongothymidine or spongouridine. Ara A along with its acetyl congener Ara U, were later isolated as natural products from the gorgonian Eunicella cavolini. 50. See CMB, n. 2 above. 51. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Biotechnology: Economic and Wider Impacts (Paris: OECD Publishing, 1989).

  • 52. The genome is the entire set of genes of an organism. 53. B. Cicin-Sain, R.W. Knecht, L. Denno Bouman and G.W. Fisk, "Emerging Policy Issues in the Development of Marine Biotechnology," in Ocean Yearbook 12 eds. E. Mann Borgese, A. Chircop, M. McConnell and J.R. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996): 179-206. 54. T. Gr0nning, E. Dobos, F. Dahl-Hilstad, O.A. Johansson, M. Knell and D.S. Olsen, Case Study on Biotech Innovation Systems., Norway, vol. 2: Marine biotechnology. Report submitted to the OECD in the Series "Case Studies in Innovation," (Paris: OCSE, 2004), available online: . 55. Proteomics is the study of the structure and functions of the proteins contained in the genome of an organism.

  • 56. European Science Foundation (ESF), Marine Biotechnology: A European Strategy for Marine Biotechnology, ESF Marine Board Position Paper 4 (Strasbourg: ESF, 2001 ) . 57. M. Gorina-Ysern, "Legal Issues Raised by Profitable Biotechnology Develop- ment Through Marine Scientific Research," American Society o/' Intrrnational Law Insights (Sept. 2003), available online: .

  • 58. C.L. Delgado, N. Wada, M.W. Rosegrant, S. Meijer and A. Mahfuzuddin, Fish to 2020 Supple and Demand in Changing Global Markets (Washington: International Food Policy Research Institute and Malaysia: WorldFish Center Penang, 2003), available online: . 59. Presently TBT (tributyltin) is the predominant biocide in marine anti- fouling paints to prevent organisms from attaching to ship's hulls. TBT, which has been recognized as one of the most toxic substances ever introduced in the marine environment, accumulates in sediment and biota causing serious adverse effects in non-target organisms. The IMO banned TBT in 1990 for vessels below the length of 25 meters.

  • 60. United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs and the International Seabed Authority, Marine Mineral Resources, Scientific Advances and Economics Perspectives (New York: United Nations Publishing, 2004) .

  • 61. See FMP, n. 3 above. ' 62. . 63. E. Mann Borgese, The Oceanic Circle: Governing the Seas as a Global Resource (Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 1998). 64. R. Cattaneo-Vietti, S. Schiaparelli and G. Albertelli, "The Epibiotic Assembly on the Sponge Hliclona dancoi (Topsent 1901) at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica, Ross Sea)," Polar Biology, 26, 5 (2003): 342-347. 65. V.C. Sundar, A.D. Yablon, J.L. Grazul, M. Ilan and J. Aizenberg, "Fibre- Optical Features of a Glass Sponge," Nature 424 (2003): 899-900.

  • 66. See Borgese, n. 63 above. 67. See CMB, n. 2 above. 68. W J. Crookes, L.-L. Ding, Q.L. Huang, J.R. Kimbell, J. Horwitz and M. McFall-Ngai, "Reflections: The Unusual Proteins of Squid Reflective Tissues," Srience 303 (2004): 235-238.

  • 69. See CMB, n. 2 above. 70. See . 71. See CMB, n. 2 above.

  • 72. J. Arif, M. Al-Hazzani, A. Amal, M. Kunhi and F. Al-Khodairy, "Novel Marine Compounds: Anticancer or Genotoxic?," Journal of Biomr�lirine and Biotechnol- ogy 2 (2004): 93-98. 73. See Newman and Cragg, n. 13 above.

  • 74. See CMB, n. 2 above. 75. Id. 76. See FMP, n. 3 above. 77. See Newman and Cragg, n. 13 above. This compound was originally isolated in 1985 from the Japanese sponge Holiehondria okadai. However, the deep- sea sponge Lissodendrnyx was later discovered to contain the same substance, halichondrins, in greater concentrations.

  • 78. See CMB, n. 2 above.

  • 79. For the latest list of published genomes see . 80. See CMB, n. 2 above.

  • 81. Glowka, n. 30 above.

  • 82. See CGER, n. 6 above.

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