Oceans and the Law of the Sea Report of the Secretary-General, 2007*

in Ocean Yearbook Online
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


Oceans and the Law of the Sea Report of the Secretary-General, 2007*

in Ocean Yearbook Online


*EDITORS' NoTE.-This document was provided by the United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS) and is extracted from the United Nations General Assembly, Sixty-second Session, Item 79(a) of the preliminary list (A/62/50), UN Document A/62/66, 12 March 2007, available at the DOALOS Web Site: . The document has been edited for publica- tion in the Ocean Yearbook.

1. United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 516, p. 205. 2. See "Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General," at http://untreaty.un.org/ENGLISH/bible/englishinternetbible/partl/chapterXXI/ treaty6.asp.

3. See ISBA/12/A/7-ISBA/12/C/9, annex II, available at http://www.isa. org jm.

4. See http://www.isa.org jm. 5. Available at http://www.itlos.org.

6. See CLCS/52 for more details on the eighteenth session.

7. During the seventeenth session of the Commission held in April 2006, the Subcommission presented its preliminary views on eight of the nine Australian regions under consideration by the Subcommission.

8. See http://www.tin.org/Depts/los/clcs-new/clcs-home.htyn.

T 9. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Preview of Maritime Transport 2006 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.06.II.D.7), pp. 1, 20 and 26; /160, annex, para. 27; and the contribution of UNCTAD to the present report. M 10. See resolution MSC.216 (82) adopted at the eighty-second session of the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), 29 November to 8 December 2006, in MSC 82/24/Add.l, annex 24.

11. Available at http://www.iaea.org. 12. Communique issued by the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community at the conclusion of the seventeenth intersessional meeting of the Conference, 9-10 February 2006, Port of Spain; and statement issued by the Chairman of the Caribbean Community on the planned shipment of high-level radioactive waste from France through the Panama Canal via the Caribbean Sea, News Release 54/2006, 14 March 2006, available at http://www.caricom.org. 13. Communique of the thirty-seventh Pacific Islands Forum, Fiji, 24-25 October 2006, A/61/558, annex.

14. Resolution MSC.232(82) of 5 December 2006, in MSC 82/24/Add.2. m 15. At its eighty-second session, MSC approved this requirement for the ntandatory carriage of the Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems.

16. All measures were adopted by MSC at its eighty-second session. See COLREG.2/Circ.58 and Corr.l, SN.I/Circ.257 and SN.I/Circ.258 and Corr.l, available at http://www.imo.org. 17. Adopted at the Kuala Lumpur Meeting on Enhancement of Safety, Security and Environmental Protection in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore on 20 September 2006. 18. See IMO/KUL 1/3. The projects relate to the following: removal of wrecks in the traffic separation schemes in the Straits; cooperation and capacity-building on hazardous and noxious substance preparedness and response; demonstration project of class B automatic identification system transponders on small ships; setting up tide, current and wind measurement systems; and replacement and maintenance of aids to navigation in the Straits.

19. The Meeting was convened by IMO in July 2005, in response to the invitation extended to IMO and other relevant competent international organiza- tions in C',eneral Assembly resolutions 58/240 and 58/14, to examine and clarify the role of the "genuine link" in relation to the duty of flag States to exercise effective control over ships flying their flag, including fishing vessels, and the potential consequences of non-compliance with duties and obligations of flag States described relevant international instruments. 20. The IMO Council had also encouraged Member States that had not yet volunteered for audits, to do so and also to continue to nominate as many qualified auditors as possible.

21. See C 97/WP.2, para. 7, and contribution of IMO to the present report. 22. See Shipping Industry Flag State Performance Table. 2006 Update, available at http://www.marisec.org. 23. Contribution of UNCTAD to the present report. 24. MSC 82/24, para. 10.11. 25. Ibid., paras. 10.13-10.14. 26. See Tokyo memorandum of understanding secretariat press release, 19 July 2006, available at http://www.tokyo-mou.org. 27. The campaign in 2007 is to be undertaken jointly by the Paris Memoran- dum of Understanding, Tokyo Memorandum of Understanding and the United States Coast Guard. See Tokyo memorandum of understanding secretariat press release, 26 September 2006.

S 28. Declaration of the first joint working session of the Committees of Black Sea and Mediterranean Memoranda of Understanding on Port State Control. MSC 82/23/2. 29. The text of the draft convention is contained in LEG/CONF.16/3. 30. Contribution by IMO to the present report. 31. See the submission by Norway, Italy and Denmark in LEG 92/4/3; the submission by Argentina in LEG 92/4/5 and the report of the ninety-second session

of the Legal Committee in LEG 92/ 13. The two proposals are contained in annexes 2 and 3. 32. See http://www.ilo.org/dyn/seafarers/seafarersbrowse.home. 33. LEG 92/13, sect. 5. 34. Contribution of ILO to the present report.

35. MSC 82/24, paras. 21.23-21.25 and 21.60. C 36. International Labour Organization, Provisional Record, International Labour Conference, 93rd Session, No. 25, Geneva, 2005. An Interregional Tripartite Round Table was convened in Geneva from 11-13 December 2006 to pursue this goal. 37. Ibid., No. 24, Geneva, 2005.

38. "Yemen: More deaths in Gulf of Aden." UNFICR Briefing Notes, 15 December 2006, available at http://www.unhcr.org; and contribution of UNHCR to the present report. 39. "Illegal migrants entering Spain by sea said to have tripled." ABC website, Madrid, 8 November 2006. 40. Reports on stowaway incidents submitted to IMO in 2006. FAL.2/Circ.102 at http://www.imo.org. 41. For example, people are sometimes thrown overboard by the smugglers. Op. cit., note 38; UNHCR News Stories, 7 September 2006. 42. Organized Crime and Irregular Migration from Africa to the Research and prepared by the Regional Office of West and Central Africa and the Research and Analysis Section of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and issued in July 2006, available at http://www.unodc.org. 43. "A guide to principles and practice as applied to migrants and refugees." Leaflet prepared by IMO and UNHCR. The text is available at http://www.imo.org and at http://www.unhcr.org. UNHCR also produced "Selected Reference Materi- als: Rescue at Sea, Maritime Interception and Stowaways," available at http://www.unhcr.org.

44. Contribution from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to the Present report and "Organized Crime and Irregular Migration from Africa to Europe,w op. cit., note 42. 45. Joint letter, dated 25 September 2006, addressed to the European Union presidency, from the heads of State of Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain. "Eight southern European countries call for EU action on m�gration." Agence France-Press news agency, Paris, 25 September 2006. N 46. "Spain will 'not tolerate' mass African migration-deputy premier." Radio Nacional de Espania Radio 1, Madrid, 4 September 2006. „ 47. The Migration Policy Framework for Africa adopted by the Executive ouncit of the African Union at its ninth ordinary session, held in Banjul, the Gambia, 25 to 29 July 2006, see A/61/345, annex I.

48. See, for example, the Chairman's Statement of the Thirteenth ASEAN Regional Forum, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 28 July 2006; the Joint Statement of the ASEAN-China Summit, Nanning, China, 30 October 2006; and the statement by the Foreign Secretary of the Philippines, Mr. Alberto G. Romulo, on 12 January 2007 regarding the ASEAN Japan Second Counter-Terrorism Dialogne to he held in 2007 and which will also deal with maritime security issues.

.. 49. The Forum was held from 23 to 25 October 2006 in Dakar, Senegal. See MSC 82/24, paras. 17.19-17.23. r 50. "Framework for Action Plan adopted at Ministerial Conference." Press release. by the Commander, Navy Region Europe, 15 November 2006, available at http://www.cnre.navy.inil. p 51. Statement on Global Energy Security at the Group of Eight Summit, St. Petersburg, 16 July 2006.

52. Submission by ICS to MSC. MSC 81/5/15. 53. UNCTAD Transport Nerusletter No. 33, Third Quarter 2006, pp. 5-6; and contribution of UNCTAD to the present report. 54. Interim Guidance on voluntary self-assessment by companies and company security officers (CSOs) for ship security. MSC.l/Circ.1217. 55. The security provisions of SOLAS and the ISPS Code do not generally apply to cargo ships, including high-speed craft, of less than 500 gross tonnage; nor to ships not propelled by mechanical means; wooden ships of primitive build; pleasure craft not engaged in trade; fishing vessels; all types of ships not engaged on international voyages; and all port facilities serving the ships which do not fall within the scope of SOLAS and the ISPS Code. 56. Report of the MSC on its eighty-second session. MSC 82/24, paras. 4.73-4.75.

N 57. Piracy and armed robbery against ships. Quarterly and monthly reports. "'ote by the IMO Secretariat. MSC 82/17 and Corr.l, and MSC.4/Circ.94, 95 and 96. 58. ICC International Maritime Bureau: Annual report of incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships (1 January-31 December 2006). 59. See MSC 82/24, sect. 17. M: 60. Joint communique by the delegations of the Governments of Kenya, �41)zarnbiqtie, the United Republic of Tanzania, and the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia, issued at the end of the regional meeting, Mombasa, �nYa, 23-24 February 2006, see http://www.mfa.go.ke.

61. Observations of participants at the Thirteenth Meeting of HONLEA, Asia and the Pacific, held in Bangkok, Thailand, from 14 to 17 November 2006, communicated in the contribution of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to the present report. 62. Ibid., Sixteenth Meeting of HONLEA, Latin America and the Caribbean, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 23 to 27 October 2006, communicated in the contribution of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to the present report. 63. Ibid., Fifteenth and Sixteenth Meetings of HONLEA, Africa, held in Ouagadougou, 29 March-1 April 2005, and Nairobi, 25-29 September 2006, respectively.

64. For further details on the Programme, see http://www.unodc.org/unodc/ en/law enforcement.html. 65. For additional details on these programmes, see A/60/63/Add.2, para. 90. I 66. See revised objectives of the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange, as adopted by the IOC Assembly at its twenty-third session, in resolution XXIII-4 and contained in document IOGXXIII/3.

67. See annotated provisional agenda of the meeting, document IOC-WMO- UNEP-ICSU/GSSC-X/1.1(2).

68. Contribution from UNESCO/IOC to the present report. 69. See IOC Assembly resolution XXIII-12 on the establishment and terms of reference of the Warning and Mitigation System available at: http://ioc3.unesco. org/indotsunami/IOC23/resolution l2.htm. 70. Members are: IOC, WMO, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitari- an Affairs, the World Bank, UNDP, UNEP, the International Federation of Red (-'r'(Igs and Red Crescent Societies and the International Strategy for Disaster Eduction secretariat. 71. For recent developments in this regard related to an Italian initiative, see Press release from the United Nations News service: "UN-backed tsunami warning astern for Europe could protect millions of people," 13 February 2007, available at http://H,�,.lln.org/apps/news; and also "Breakthrough at Bonn meeting for the provision of continuous seismic coverage to detect tsunamis in Europe" at http://portal.unesco.org.

72. Mervis, Jeffrey, Ocean Drilling: Higher Costs, Accident Imperial Plans, Science 27 October 2006: Vol. 314, No. 5799, p. 577, available at http://www. sciencemag.org. 73. "Mission Moho: Formation and Evolution of Oceanic Lithosphere," Inte- grated Ocean Drilling Program, in Eos, Vol. 87, No. 48, 28 November 2006, available at http://www.iodp.org.

74. www.postcoml.org/outreach/events.htm. 75. www.oceantrackingnetwork.org and http://www.oceanconserve.org. rue 76. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 457, Preview of the state of world marine fishery Sources (FAO, Rome, 2005), p. 6.

77. General Assembly resolutions 58/14, paras. 22 and 40; 59/25, paras. 30, 53 and 55; 60/31, paras. 37, 38, 57, 58 and 60; 61/105, paras. 34, 41, 66 and 73. 38 78. General Assembly resolutions 58/14, paras. 23 and 29; 59/25, paras. 31 and 38> 60/31, paras. 36 and 42; 61/105, para. 70; and Report of the Review Conference 0" the United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement (A/CONF.210/2006/15), annex, Para. 32. 79. FAO Compliance Agreement, art. III; United Nations Fish Stocks Agree- l11ent, arts. 18 and 19. . 80. International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing, paras. 34-50, available at http://www. FAO.org. 81. A. D'Andrea. "The 'genuine link' concept in responsible fisheries: legal aspects and recent developments." FAO Legal Papers Online No. 61. 2006.

82. FAO Fisheries Report No. 759: Report of the Technical Consultation to Review Port State Measures to Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing, Rome, 31 August-2 September 2004, para. 25. 83. See General Assembly resolution 61/105, para. 70; and A/CONF/210/2006/15, annex, para. 32 (j). 84. See General Assembly resolutions 60/31, para. 60; 61/105, para. 73; and A/CONF/210/2006/15, annex, para. 32 (j); FAO Fisheries Report No. 780: Report of the Twenty-sixth Session of the Committee on Fisheries, paras. 111-112. 85. See Performance Review Panel Report of the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission, http://www.neafc.org; and Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Annual Report 2006, http://www.nafo.int.

86. As of 31 December 2006, 34 States and the European Community have accepted the Agreement. 87. Belize, Benin, Canada, Ghana, Japan, Namibia, New Zealand, Norway, Syrian Arab Republic, United States and the European Community on behalf of its Member States. 88. In June 2006 a workshop for South Asian countries was held to assist countries to elaborate national plans of action (FAO Fisheries Report No. 809). Technical assistance was also provided to several countries for the development and dissemination of national plans of action on IUU fishing.

89. UNIDO in its contribution refers to GEF, FAO, UNEP, UNDP and WWF.

90. J. A. Westfall, "Nematocysts of the Sea Anemone Metridium," in American Zoology, Vol. 40 (1965); E. J. Martin, "Anticoagulant from the sea anemone Rhodactis hmuesii," in Proceedings of the Society for Experimental and Biological Medicine, vol. 121, No. 4 (1966); R. Blanquet, "Properties and composition of the nematocyst toxin of I the sea anemone, Aiptasiapallida," in Comparatiae Biochemistry and Physiology, Vol. 25, 1 No. 3 (1968). 91. C. P. Li, A. Goldin, et al., "Antineoplastic substances from the sea: a review," in Cancer Chemotherapy Reports: Part 2, Vol. 4, No. 3 (1974); T. Natori, K. Akimoto, et al., "Development of KRN7000, derived from agelasphin produced by Okinawan sponge," in Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi, Vol. 110, Suppl 1 (1997); S. Iwasaki, "Natural organic compounds that affect to microtubule functions," in Yakugaku Zasshi, Vol. 118, No. 4 (1998); G. M. Cragg and D. J. Newman, "Discovery and development of antineoplastic agents from natural sources," in Cancer Investigation, Vol. 17, No. 2 (1999); G. Schwartsmann, A. Brondani da Rocha, et al., "Marine organisms as a source of new anticancer agents," in The Lancet Oncology, Vol. 2, No. 4 (2001); P. Proksch, R. A. Edrada, et al., "Drugs from the seas—current status and microbiological implications," in Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 59, Nos. 2-3 (2002); T. Taguchi, "Development of marine-derived anti-cancer compounds," in Gan To Kagaku Ryoho, Vol. 30, No. 5 (2003); M.V. De Souza, "(+)-discodermolide: a marine natural product against cancer," in ScientiftcWorldjourna4 Vol. 4 (2004); D. Sipkema, M. C. Franssen, et al., "Marine sponges as pharmacy," in Marine Biotechnology, Vol. 7, No. 3 (2005). 92. Contribution from the French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER).

93. The present chapter is based on publicly available information, information received from some of the relevant organizations, as well as contributions from the following experts: W. H. Gerwick and M. C. Machado. Valuable information was also Provided by IFREMER.

94. Contribution from W. H. Gerwick.

95. J. M. Gonzalez, W. B. Whitman, et al., "Identifying numerically abundant cultures of bacteria from complex communities: an example from a lignan e"richlyient culture," in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 62, No. 12 (1996); F. Schut, E. J. De Vries, J. C. Gottschal, et al., "Isolation of Typical Marine Bacteria by Dilution Culture: Growth, Maintenance, and Characteristics of Isolates under Laboratory Conditions," ibid., Vol. 59, No. 7 (1993). 96. See http://www.comisecretariat.org/Dev2Go.web?id=250217. e 97. M. Hildebrand, L. Waggoner, et a]., "Approaches to identify, clone, and express symbiont bioactive metabolite genes," in Natural Product Reports, Vol. 21, No. 1 (2004).

98. See http://www.algaebase.org. 99. See http://www.sp2000.org/index.php. 100. See http://www.ifremer.fr/biocean/indexgb.html. 101. See, e.g., http://wdcin.nig.acjp/hpcc.htiiii for a list of culture collections of marine and terrestrial micro-organisms around the world. The World Data Centre for Micro-organisms provides a comprehensive directory of culture collections, databases on microbes and cell lines, and the gateway to biodiversity, molecular biology and genome projects. It lists 552 culture collections in 66 countries.

102. See http://seasquirt.mbio.co jp/mbic/index.php?page=mbichome. I) 103. "Technology Transfer Practices of the US National Cancer Institute's Departmental Therapeutics Programme," Communication from the United States to the World Trade Organization Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, document IP/C/W/341. ton' 104. See www.marine.csiro.au/microalgae and http://www.marine.csiro.au/ inicroalgae/orderform.pdf.

105. See http://www.ciad.mx/caim/. 106. See http://www.ccmm.ma/about.htm and http://www.ccmm.ma/Materi- el%20Transfer%20Agreement%202003.doc. 107. "Marine and coastal biological diversity-stattts and trends of, and threats to, deep seabed genetic resources beyond national jurisdiction, and identification of technical options for their conservation and sustainable use," Note by the Executive Secretary, UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/ 11 / 11. 108. P. Oldham and A. M. Cutter, "Mapping Global Status and Trends in Patent Activity for Biological and Genetic Material," in Genomics, Society and Policy, Vol. 2, No. 2 (2006). 109. See, for example, the databases of the Indian Patent Facilitating Centre (http://pfc.org.in/db/db.htm), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (http://www.nspto.gov/patft/index.httnl), the Japan Patent Office (http:// www.ipdl.ncipi.go.jp/homepg_e.ipdl), and esp@cenet (European Patent Office) (http://ep.espacenet.com/?locale=en_EP).

� 110. In relation to patents related to deep sea organisms, see, for example, ^prospecting of Genetic Resources in the Deep Seabed: Scientific, Legal and Policy Aspects (UNU, Institute of Advanced Studies, 2005). 111. UNEP Regional Seas Report and Studies, No. 178, Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Deep Waters and High Seas (UNEP/IUCN, Switzerland, 2006).

112. See http://www.diversitas-international.org/core_biodisc.html. 113. See http://www.coml.org. 114. See http://www.eu-hermes.net.

f 115. Report of the Workshop on Bioprospecting in the High Seas (University °f Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 27-29 November 2003). d 116. "The commercial use of biodiversity: an update on current trends in demand for access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing, and industry perspec- tives on access and benefit-sharing policy and implementation," UNEP/CBD/WG- A'S�4/INF/5, available at http://www. biodiv.org. , 117. See the Center's website and the Industry Sponsor Program at ttp:/ / cmmed.hawaii.edu/industry.

118. See Diversa website at http://www.diversa.com/index.html. 119. See http://ir.diversa.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=81345&p=irol-newsArticle& ID=638191 &highlight=. 120. See http://www.ifremer.fr/anglais/institut/missions.htm. 1 121. IFREMER Annual Reports 2004 and 2005, available at http://www. i ifremer.fr. j 122. Contribution from M. C. Machado. �

123. "Recent Trends in the Biological Prospecting," Information Paper submitted to the twenty-ninth Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, document 16. Q.- 124. R Terpe, "Overview of bacterial expression systems for heterologous Protein production: from molecular and biochemical fundamentals to commercial systems in Applied Microbiology and Biotechnolopy, Vol. 72, No. 2 (2006). of 125. H. G. Floss, "Combinatorial biosynthesis-Potential and problems," Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 124, No. 1 (2006); U. Galm and B. Shen, "Expression of biosynthetic gene clusters in heterologous hosts for natural product production and "Onibiriatorial biosynthesis," in Expert Opinion. on Drug Discovery, Vol. 1, No. 5 (2006). 126. J. Staunton, "Combinatorial biosynthesis of erythromycin and complex 19^des''' " in Cunent Ofiinion in Chemical Biology, Vol. 2, No. 3 (1998). Fr 127. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-Being, A ramework for Assessment (Washington, D.C., 2003).

128. "Anaerobic-Aerobic Biodegradation of DDT (Dichlorodiphenyl Trichlo- roethane) in Soils Corona-Cruz," in Bttlletin of Environmentnl Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 63 (1999). 129. J. R. Pawlik, M. R. Kernan, et al., "Defensive chemicals of the Spanish dancer nudibranch Flexabranchus sanguineus and its egg ribbons: macrolides derived from a sponge diet," in Journal o, f Fxperimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Vol. I 19, No. 2 (1988).

130. M. J. Brownstein, "Polymerase chain reaction," in Encyclopedic of Biological emlstry, Vol. 3 (2004).

131. N. Hayes, E. Howard-Cofield, et al., "Green fluorescent protein as a tool to study epidermal growth factor receptor function," in Cancer Letter, Vol. 206, No. 2 (2004); V. Ntziachristos, "Flourescence molecular imaging," Annual Preview of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 8 (2006); A. Prinz, M. Diskar, et al., "Application of bioluminescence resonanco energy transfer (BRET) for biomolecular interaction studies," in ChemBioChem, Vol. 7, No. 7 (2006); N. Bevan and S. Rees, "Pharmaceuti- cal applications of GFP and RCFP," in Green Fluorescent Protein (2006, 2nd edition); T. H. Ward and J. Lippincott-Schwartz, "The uses of green fluorescent protein in mammalian cells," ibid. See also http://www.conncoll.edu/ccacad/zimmer/GFP- ww/GFP-l.htm. 132. W. H. Gerwick, P. J. Proteau, et al., "Structure of curacin A, a novel antimitotic, antiproliferative, and brine shrimp toxic natural product from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula" in Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 59 ( 1994). 133. Z. Chang, N. Sitachitta, et al., "Biosynthetic Pathway and Gene Cluster Analysis of Curacin A, an Anti-tubulin Natural Product from the Tropical Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula," in Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 67 (2004); C. Khosla, "Combinatorial biosynthesis: new tools for the medicinal chemist," in Chemtracts, Vol. 11, No. 1 (1998). 134. R. H. Feling, G. O. Buchanan, et al., "Salinosporamide A: a highly cytotoxic proteasome inhibitor from a novel microbial source, a marine bacterium of the new genus Salinospora," in Angeruandte Chemie, International Edition, Vol. 42, No. 3 (2003).

135. P. J. Proteau, W. H. Gerwick, et al., "The structure of scytonemin, an ultraviolet sunscreen pigment from the sheaths of cyanobacteria," in Experientia, 01. 49, No. 9 (1993). 136. C. S. Stevenson, E. A. Capper, et al., "Scytonemin-a marine natural Product inhibitor of kinases key in hyperproliferative inflammatory diseases," in Inflammation Research, Vol. 51, No. 2 (2002). 137. A. M. Burja, B. Banaigs, et al., "Marine cyanobacteria: A prolific source of natural products," Tetrahedron, Vol. 57, No. 46 (2001); W. H. Gerwick, L. T. Tan, et al., "Nitrogen-containing metabolites from marine cyanobacteria," in Alkaloids (Academic Press, 2001), Vol. 57 (Chemistry and Biology); T. L. Simmons, E. Andrianasolo et al., "Marine Natural Products as Anticancer Drugs," Molecular and Cancel Therapeutics, Vol. 4 (2005). p 138. F. Helle, C. Wychowski, et al., "Cyanovirin-N Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Entry by Binding to Envelope Protein Glycans," in Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 281, No. 35 (2006). (2 139. G. Stix, "A toxin against pain," in Scientific American, Vol. 292, No. 4 (2oo5). 140. N. V. Kulagina, T. J. O'Shaughnessy, et al., "Pharmacological effects of the Marine toxins, brevetoxin and saxitoxin, on murine frontal cortex neuronal networks," in Toxicon, Vol. 44, No. 6 (2004); M. A. Grant, X. J. Morelli, et al., "Conotoxins and structural biology: A prospective paradigm for drug discovery," in current Protein and Peptide Science., Vol. 5, No. 4 (2004); Y. S. Cheng, J. D. McDonald,

et al., "Concentration and particle size of airborne toxic algae (brevetoxin) derived from ocean red tide events," Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 39 (2005); V. L. Trainera and G. Daniel, "Baden High affinity binding of red tide neurotoxins to marine mammal brain," in Aquatic Toxicology, Vol. 46 (1999); L. E. Llewellyn, "Saxitoxin, a toxic marine natural product that targets a multitude of receptors," in Natural Products Reports, Vol. 23, No. 2 (2006). 141. J. G. Metz, P. Roessler, et al., "Production of polyunsaturated fatty acids by polyketide syntheses in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes," in Science, Vol. 293 (2001). 142. R. Uauy-Dagach and A. Valenztrela, "Marine oils as a source of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet: how to optimize the health benefits," in Progress in Food & Nutrition Science, Vol. 16, No. 3 (1992). 143. F. M. Shahidi and J. A. Brown, "Carotenoid pigments in seafoods and aquaculture," in Critical Reaietos in Food Sczence and Nutrition, Vol. 38 (1998). 144. S. Singh, B. N. Kate, et al., "Bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria and microalgae: an overview," in Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, Vol. 25 (2005). 145. Z. Khan, P. Bhadouria, et al., "Nutritional and therapeutic potential of Spinilina," in Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Vol. 6 (2005). 146. M. Nishizawa, "Algal polysaccharides in food industry and their utilization as functional foods," in Current Topics in Food Science and Technology (2005); and B. Larsen, "Alginic acid," in Handbook of Phycological Methods: Physiological and Biochemical Method (1978).

147. J. Bendera and P. Phillips, "Microbial mats for multiple applications in 9Uaculture and bioremediation," in Bioresource Technology, Vol. 94 (2004); Guide to Biotechnology (Biotechnology Industry Organization, 2007), available at http;���,.bio.org. t' 148. Y. Cohen, "Bioremediation of oil by marine microbial mats," in Interna- tional Microbiology, Vol. 5, No. 4 (2002); T. Matsunaga, H. Takeyama, et aI., . c^epning of marine microalgae for bioremediation of cadmium-polluted seawa- (��99)� Progress in Industrial Microbiology, Vol. 35 (Marine Bioprocess Engineering)

149. C. M. Boot, K. Tenney, et a]., "Highly N-methylated linear peptides produced by an atypical sponge-derived Acremonium sp.," in Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 69, No. 1 (2006); B. Nicholson, G. K. Lloyd, et al., "Neuteboom ST. NPT-2358 is a tirbulin-depolytnerizing agent: in-vitro evidence for activity as a tumor vascular-disrupting agent," in Anticancer Drugs, Vol. 17 (2006). 150. See CSIRO microalgae research at http://www.rnarine.csiro.au/microal- gae/biotech.html. 151. M. Hildebrand, L. Waggoner, et al., "Approaches to identify, clone, and express symbiont bioactive metabolic genes," in Natural Product I?iports, Vol. 21, No. 1 (2004). 152. A. M. S. Mayer, P. B. Jacobson, et al., "Pharmacological characterization of the pseudopterosins: novel anti-inflammatory natural products isolated from the Caribbean soft coral, Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae," in Life Science.s, Vol. 62, No. 26 (1998).

I 153. K. Russell, "Pseudopterosin production," Patent Cooperation Treaty, International Application (2005). 154. C. P. Li, A. Goldin, et al.; T. Natori, K. Akimoto, et al.; S. Iwasaki; G. M. Cragg and D. J. Newman; G. Schwartsmann, A. Brondani da Rocha, et al.; P. Proksch, R. A. Edrada, et al.; T. Taguchi; M. V. De Souza; D. M. Sipkema, M. C. '�anssen, et al. op. cit., note 91; I. Kitagawa, M. Kobayashi, et al., "Absolute stereostntcture of swinholide A, a potent cytotoxic macrolide from the Okinawan marine sponge Theonella sruinhoei," in Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 112, NO. 9 (1990). 155. D. R. Appleton, M. J. Page, et al., "Kottamides A-D: novel bioactive tmidazalone-containing alkaloids from the New Zealand ascidian Pycnoclaaella kottae," in Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 67, No. 15 (2002); D. D. Baker, and K. A. ~r™i> "Small-molecule natural products: new structures, new activities," in Current pinion in Biotechnology, Vol. 15, No. 6 (2004); R. G. Berlinck, E. Hajdu, et al., `Challenges and rewards of research in marine natural products chemistry in Brazil," in Journal of Natural Products, in Vol.67, No.3 (2004); J. W. Blunt; B. R. Copp, et al., "Marine natural products," in Natural Products Reports, Vol. 23, No. 1 (2006). 156. R. Bai, P. Verdier-Pinard, et al., "Dolastatin 11, a marine depsineptide, arrests cells at cytokinesis and induces hyperpolymerization of purified actin," in Molecu�rpharnzacology, Vol. 59, No. 3 (2001); H. Kamiya, R. Sakai, et al., "Bioactive molecules from sea hares," Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology, Vol. 43 (2006). t 157. G. P. Miljanich, "Ziconotide: neuronal calcium channel blocker for treating severe chronic pain," in Current Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 11, No. 23 (2004); • rommer, "Ziconotide: a new option for retractory pain," in Drugs Today, Vol. 42, No. 6 (2006); E. Prommer, "Ziconotide: can we use it in palliative care?," in 71Ierican Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, Vol. 22, No. 5 (2005).

158. W. R. Kern, "Alzheimer's drug design based upon an invertebrate toxin (anabaseine) which is a potent nicotinic receptor agonist," in Inveriebrate Neurosci- ence, Vol. 3, Nos. 2-3 (1997). 159. J. Cho and Y. Kim, "Sharks: A Potential Source of Antiangiogenic Factors and Tumor Treatments," in Marine Biotechnology, Vol. 4, No. 6 (2002). 160. The International Regime for Bioprospecting: Existing Policies and Emerging Issues for Antarctica (UNU Institute of Advanced Studies, 2003); available at http://www.ias.unu.edu.

- 161. A. Dell'Anno and R. Danovaro, "Extracellular DNA Plays a Key Role in Deep-Sea Ecosystem Functioning," in Sciences, Vol. 309, No. 5744 (2005). 162. J. M. Gonzalez, W. B. Whitman, et al., "Identifying numerically abundant cultures of bacteria from complex communities: an example from a lignon enrichment culture," in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 62 (1996); F. chut, E. J. De Vries, et al., "Isolation of Typical Marine Bacteria by Dilution Cultttre: Growth, Maintenance, and Characteristics of Isolates under Laboratory Conditions," ibid, Vol. 59 (1993). 8 163. C. E. Whibley, R. A. Keyzer, et al., "Antiesophageal Cancer Activity from southern African Marine Organisms," Natural Products and Molecular Thera�ry, Vol. 1056 (2005).

164. Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (Royal Society, 2005); A. Ridgwell and R. E. Zeebe, "The role of the global carbonate cycle in the regulation and evolution of the Earth system," in Earth and Planetnry Science Letters, Vol. 234, Nos. 3-4 (2005); and "Increasing ocean acidity threatens coral reefs worldwide," in Currents (Winter 2004/2005).

165. Article 2 defines in-situ conservation as "the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of sPecies in their natural surroundings and, in the case of domesticated or cultivated species, in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive proper- ties. 11 of 166. Article 2 defines ex-situ conservation as "the conservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats."

167. Secretariat to the Convention on Biological Diversity (2002). "Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of Their Utilization," annex to decision VI/24 "Access and benefit-sharing as related to genetic resources," UNEP/CBD/COP/6/20. 168. The database is available at http://www.biodiv.org/programmes/socio- eco/benefit/measures.aspx. 169. See http://www.biodiv.org/programmes/socio-eco/benefit/regime.aspx. 170. See, for example, decision VIII/4 on access and benefit-sharing, of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention, UNEP/CBD/COP/8/31, annex H

171. See the CITES Glossary at http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/terms/ glossary.shtml.

,, 172. Regulations on Prospecting and Exploration for Polymetallic Nodules �ISBA/6/A/18, 4 October 2000). Prospecting is defined as "the search for deposits of Polymetallic nodules in the Area, including estimation of the composition, size and distributions of polymetallic nodule deposits and their economic values, without any exclusive rights."

173. M. Gorina-Ysern, An International Regime for Marine Scientific Research (Transnational Publishers, 2003).

n' 174. P. Oldham, Global Status and Trends in Intellectual Property Claims: Microorga- lul"1.�", Centre for Economic and Social Aspects of Genomics (2004), Lancaster Universit5,.

175. World Intellectual Property Organization, Understanding Industrial Property, Publication No.895(E), available at http://wipo.int.freepublications/. 176. P. Oldham, "Global status and trends in intellectual property claims: genomics, proteomics and biotechnology" (2004, reproduced in document UNEP/CBD/WG-ABS/3/INF/4), available at http://www.biodiv.org. 177. World Trade Organization, "The Relationship between the TRIPS Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity, Summary of Issues Raised and Points Made," IP/C/W/368/Rev.l and Corr.l. 178. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2002, Paris. Genetic Inventions, Intellectual Property Rights and Licensing Practices: Evidence and Policies. 179. Indian Patent Facilitating Centre (2006), Patenting of Microorganisms.

180.ResearchZlseofPatentedKnowledge:AReview (OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry Working Paper 2006/2), available at http://www.oecd. org/. 181. See, for example, "Interrelation of access to genetic resources and disclosure requirements in applications for intellectual property rights: Report of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)," UNEP/CBD/COP/8/INF/ 7. See also http://www.wipo.int/tk/en/genetic/proposals/index.html.

234. The present section provides an overview of recent activities sUPPorting international cooperation and coordination relating to marine

182. Contribution from UNEP. UNEP and IOC are the lead agencies pursuant to General Assembly resolution 60/30. 183. Contribution from FAO. See D. M. Bartley, H. Harvey, and R. S. V. Pullin (eds), Status of aquatic genetic resources and trends in their management for capture fisheries and aquaculture,: a basis for international policy (FAO/CGRFA/ WFT, 2007).

c 184. The database is accessible at http://www.wipo.int/tk/en/databases/ �ontracts/. �r� 185. The draft report of the meeting is contained in document O/GRTKF/IC/1O/7 Provo 186. The report of the meeting is contained in document UNEP/CBD/COP/8/31, annex I. 18'7. The report of the meeting is contained in CITES document SC54 Doc. 19. N 188. The meeting will be held from 3-15 June 2007, in The Hague, Netherlands.

189. "Review of the Provisions of Article 27.3(B) Summary of Issues Raised and Points Made," Note by the Secretariat, Revision, document IP/C/W/369/Rev-1- 190. "The Relationship Between the TRIPS Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity-Summary of Issues Raised and Points Made-Subrnission by the WTO Secretariat," document UNEP/CBD/COP/8/INF/37. 191. The information papers (1PI3. IP112, IP116) are available at http://www.ats.aq/29atcm/buscador.php. 192. See Final Report of the Twenty-ninth Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. 193. Contribution of the International Whaling Commission to the present report.

htrnl. 194. See http://www.oecd.org/topic/0,2686,en_2649_37437 _1_1_1_1_37437,00. to 195. Contribution from the Secretariat of the Pacific Environment Programme to the present report. 196. Contribution from UNEP to the present report. . 197. For the report on the work of the Working Group, see http://www. globaloceans.org/highseas/index.html. 198. Convention on Biological Diversity, article 2. ÆJri 199. Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Developments, johannesburg, South auctca, 26 August-4 September 2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.03.ILA.1 corrigendum), chap. I, resolution 2, annex.

200. The outcome of the International Conference on Biodiversity: Science and Governance, held in Paris, from 24-28 January 2005, is available at http://www.iisd/ca/sd/icb/. 201. See http://www.imoseb.net. 202. Contribution of the Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention. 203. See annex to decision VIII/1 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, document UNEP/CBD/COP/8/31, annex Is 204. See http://www.palau.biodiv-chm.org.

rue 205. The summary record of the Meeting is available at http://www.icrifo- •"um.org. y , 206. The Action Statement and other outcome documents are available at ttp' . /1 www.Itmems.org/indcx.htm. . 207. See http://www.biodiv.org/programmes/areas/marine/research.shtml. „ 208. A Scientific Experts' Workshop on Biogeographic Classification Systems in per Ocean and Deep Seabed Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction, co-sponsored by he National University of Mexico, Mexico's National Commission for the Knowl- edge and Use of Biodiversity, IOC, the UNESCO's Division on Ecological and Earth Scrences and IUCN-The World Conservation Union and with the financial support of the Governments of Australia, Canada and the JM Kaplan Fund, was held in Mexico City, from 22-24 January 2007.

209. UNEP Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals, November 2006, available at http://www.cms.int/publications/pdf/CMS_ClimateChange.pdf. 210. Contribution from UNEP/Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals. The Mediterranean Monk seal is considered Critically Endangered under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (http://www.iucnredlist.org/). 211. Contribution from UNEP/Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals to the present report. 212. See Convention press release at http://www.cms.int/news/PRESS/ nwPR2006/Year of the_Dolphin.pdf. 213. See joint press release at http://www.cms.int/news/PRESS/nwPR2006/ sprep 17_prE_sep06.pdf.

lea 214. See CITES press releases at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/press_re- lease-shtrni and http://www.cites.org/eng/news/press/2007/070102_caviar_ quoca,ShUnI.

215. UNEP/GPA/IGR.2/6, Ministerial/high level segment background paper; available at http://www.gpa.unep.org. 216. UNEP/GPA, The State of the Marine Environment: Trends ancl processes, The Hague, September 2006. IMO estimates that the average annual input of oil entering the marine environment from ships and other sea-based activities is 592,000 metric tonnes per year (MEPC 55/11/7).

217. Contribution of UNEP to the present report. av 218. For the report of the Meeting, see UNEP/GPA/IGR.2/7, para. 32, available at http://www.gpa.unep.org. p 219'"progress in implementing the Global Programme of Action for the section of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities at the internation- al regional and national levels in the period 2002-2006," UNEP/GPA/IGR.2/2 and UNEP/GpA/1GR.2/7. P 220. UNEP/GPA/IGR.2/7, para. 39. 221. Ibid., annex V.

222. "Key Outcomes of the Second Intergovernmental Review of the Global Programme of Action," available at http://www.gpa.unep.org/documents/igr2. 223. Proposed 2007-2011 programme of work of the United Nations Environ- ment Programme Global Programme of Action Coordination Office, UNEP/GPA/IGR.2/4. 224. Interpol Project Clean Seas. Submission by Interpol to the fifty-fifth session of MEPC (9-13 October 2006), MEPC 55/14. 225. Press release, 30 November 2006, "HELCOM achieves a 50% decrease in illegal oil discharges in the Baltic," available at http://www.helcom.fi. 226. The main objective of the strategy is to ensure compliance with global and regional discharge regulations, eliminate illegal discharges of all wastes from all ships, and ensure environmentally sound treatment of ship-generated wastes. Any discharge of oil, or diluted mixtures containing oil in any form is currently

prohibited pursuant to the international designation of the Baltic Sea as a "special area" under MARPOL 73/78. te 227. Resolution MEPC.154(55) adopted on 13 October 2006. Argentina preserved its position in respect of the adoption of amendments. Report of the fifty- fifth session of the MEPC. See MEPC 55/23, annex 11. 228. Resolution MEPC.156(55) adopted on 13 October 2006. Ibid., annex 13. i 229. IMO briefing 46/2006, 22 November 2006, available at http://www. m°.org,

230. MEPC.l/Circ.540 or MEPC 55/23, annex 8. 231. MEPC 55/23, annex 10. 232. Ibid., annex 9. 233. The Plan is set out in FSI 14/19, annex 11 and was approved by MEPC at its fifty-fifth session. 234. Note by the Secretariat, MEPC 55/9/1. See MEPC 55/23, paras. 9.9-9.11. 235. Argentina reserved its position. MEPC 55/23, paras. 5.21-5.23 and annex 20.

236. Resolution MSC.229(82) in MSC 82/24, annex 21. 237. MEPC 55/23, paras. 8.8-8.10, 8.12 and 8.15. 238. The text of Marine Notice 16/2006 is available at http://www.amsa. 6 vau. The statement by the delegation of Australia is contained in MEPC 55/23, annex 23. ' " 239. A/61/PV.68, 69, 71 and 83.

240. See http://globallast.imo.org. 241. Ships constructed in or after 2009 with a ballast water capacity of less than 5,000 cubic metres. 242. See MEPC 55/23, sect. 2. 243. Resolutions MEPC.151 (55), MEPC.152(55) and MEPC.153(55) adopted on 13 October 2006. The other Guidelines relate to ballast water exchange design and control standards (GIS 1) (resolution MEPC.149(55)); and design and construc- tion to facilitate sediment control on ships ((�12) (resolution MEPC.150(55)). For texts, see MEPC 55/23, annexes 1-5. 244. Resolution 3 (2006) annex, adopted at the twenty-ninth Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting.

Neo The summary record of the meeting (EIHA 06/7/1-E), held from 7 to 9 amber 2006, in Galway, Ireland, is available at http://www.ospar.org. 246. The meeting will take place from 25 to 29 June 2007, in Ostend, Belgium. an 247. The Scientific Committee met from 26 May to 6 June 2006 in Saint Kitts d Nevis- The report of the Committee is contained in document IWC/58/Repl, See wwwiwcoffice.org.

248. The 1996 Protocol entered into force on 24 March 2006. 249. See annotations to the provisional agenda of the twenty-eighth Consulta- tive Meeting of Contracting Parties to the London Convention; IMO document LC28/ 1 / 1, para. 3. 250. The 1972 Convention has 81 ratifications/accessions. The 1996 Protocol has been ratified by 30 countries and replaces the London Convention for those countries. 251. The text of the resolution 1,P.1(1) is contained in annex 6 of IMO document LC 28/15. 252. See LC 28/15, para. 101. 253. The amendments to annex 1 to the Protocol were adopted on 2 November 2006 and entered into force on 10 February 2007. See also LC 28/15, para. 103. 254. The other main greenhouse gases are: methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorocarbons. 255. See resolution LP.1 ( 1 ). 256. Report of the meeting, document LC 28/15, paras. 78-87.

257. IMO document LC/SG-C02 1/7, annex 3. 258. See IMO document LC 28/15, annex 5. 259. The report is available at: http://www.ipcc.ch. 260. See LC 28/15, paras. 41-44. ind 261. The "Probo Koala," a vessel tanker was chartered by "Trafigura," an tndependent commodity trader Group. ta 262. Statement of Ms. Kuwabara-Yamamoto, Executive Secretary of the Secre- tariat of the Basel Convention at the opening of the eighth meeting of the UNEP%C c�og� la0rties, held in Nairobi from 27 November to 1 December 2006, �EP/CHW.8/16.

263. Contribution from the Basel Convention secretariat. See also report of the eighth meeting, document UNEP/CHW.8/16. 264. Statement by Mr. Paul Bailey of ILO during an interview on the occasion of the dispatch of the French aircraft carrier Cle�rreerzce.au. See website of the ILO at http://www.ilo.org. 265. The IMO Council will decide in July 2007 when to convene an international conference. 266. Contribution of IMO to the present report. The text of the draft convention prepared by the MEPC Correspondence Group is contained in MEPC 55/3/2, annex 1.

267. See MEPC 55/3/2, annex 2. 268. See statement by the representative of ILO in the MEPC Correspondence 5g"P' MEPC 55/3/2, annex 7, and at the fifty-fifth session of the MEPC, MEPC paras. 3.34-3.36. Nair269. The meeting took place from 27 November to 1 December 2006 in Nairobi. 270. Contribution of the Basel Convention to the present report of the Secretary-General. (see �1. Thirteen were established by UNEP and six are directly administered by it "ttP://www.tinep.org/regionalseas).

272. The Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, East Asian Sea, Eastern Africa, Mediterranean, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, South Asia Seas, South East Pacific, Wider Caribbean and soon the North-East Atlantic. 273. These publications are available, or will soon be available, at http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/Publications. 274. "The State of the Marine Environment: Regional Assessments," available at http://www.gpa.unep.org.

275. Report of the East Asian Seas IGR-2 Preparatory Workshop, 4-5 Septem- "' �006. Bangkok, Thailand. I 276. See policy brief entitled "Partnership Opportunities for Enhancing GPA mPlementation in the East Asian Seas Region (2007-2011)," available at http;���.cobsea.org.

277. Summary report of the East Asian Seas Congress 2006, International Institute for Sustainable Development. The report of the meeting has not yet been issued. 278. Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles and United Republic of Tanzania. Agreements were signed with Comoros and Kenya in 2005.

„ 279. Report of the Eleventh Meeting of the Mediterranean Commission on Sustainable Development, 24-26 May 2006, Nicosia, see UNEP(DEPI)/MED �G.293/4. M 280. See the Working Document on the Draft Protocol on Integrated Management of Mediterranean Coastal Zones (UNEP(DEPI)/MED WG.298/3), the and Paper on a Possible Compliance Mechanism under the Barcelona Convention ana Its Protocols (UNEP(DEPI)/MED WG. 300/3) and recommendations from the W port of the Extraordinary Meeting of MAP Focal Points (UNEP(DEPI)/MED G.297/8). 281. Cairo Declaration of the Third Euro-Mediterranean Ministerial Confer- "�� on the Environment, Cairo, 20 November 2006. from 282. MAP News Release, 23 October 2006 on the report, "The Mediterranean; 111 assessment to actions." p� 283. An Action Plan approved by the High-Level Coordination Meeting in Ptraeus, Greece, will assist Lebanon with the clean-up, estimated to cost 50 million ^Os (see UNEP/MAP press release, 17 August 2006, "Clean Up Strategy for Oiled lebanese Coast Given Green Light by International Community").

284. See Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the Pacific Region by Dumping, the Protocol on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation in the Pacific Region, and the Protocol on Hazardous and Noxious Substances Pollution, Preparedness, Response and Cooperation in the Pacific Region. 285. Report on the seventeenth South Pacific Regional Environment Pro- gramme Meeting of Officials and Environment Ministers' Meeting, 11-15 Septem- ber 2006, Noumea, New Caledonia. 286. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 179, 2006.

t� Benin, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, beria, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo.

288. The official observing period of the International Polar Year 2007-2008 is from 1 March 2007 until 1 March 2009. It will build on the achievements of the three previous initiatives (1882-83, 1932-33 and 1957-58). 289. "The Scope of Science for the International Polar Year 2007-2008," WMO Publication WMO/TD-No. 1364. 0 2007, available at uploads/I,R*PolarBrochureScientific IN.pdf�. For additional information, see http://www.ipy.org.

290. Adopted on 26 October 2006; available at http://www.arctic-council.org.

291. Minutes of the twentieth Meeting of Heads of Delegation, 14-15 December 2006, at http://www.helcom.fi. " 292. "HELCOM to unveil draft Baltic Sea Action Plan at March Conference,' press release, 26 January 2007, at http://www.helcom.fi. 293. Final Declaration-Opinion of the Conference of the Baltic Sea Area on the Green Paper "Towards a future Maritime Policy for the Union: A European vision for the oceans and seas," Kiel, Germany, 21 September 2006, which is available at http://www.maritimeconference2006.com. 294. Statement of the Baltic Sea and European Marine Strategy-Linking Science and Policy Conference, Helsinki, 13-15 November 2006, available at http://www.eu2006balticsea.net.

av 295. Summary record, MASH 06/9/1-E, Horta, Portugal, 2-5 October 2006, available at http://www.ospar.org. OSP 296. "Human Impacts on the Marine Environment under the Spotlight," �SPAR press release, 17 November 2006, available at http://www. environmentalexchange.info. ^ 297. Contracting Parties are: Azerbaijan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, an Federation and Turkmenistan. 298. IUCN press release, 25 August 2006 (www.iucn.org/en/news/archive/ Web/08); BBC News, 15 August 2006 (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific); C News 25 August 2006. 299. BBC News, 21 January 2007 (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk); Environ- � �' News Semice, 23 January 2007 (www.ens-newswire.com/ens).

300. Contribution of UNEP to the present report. 301. For more information see http://www.biodiv.org/doc/meeting.aspx? mtg=WSFAPAS14)1. 302. The reports are available from the website of the secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity at http://www.biodiv.org. 303. The report is available from the website of the World Bank at http://www.worldbank.org. 304. The Panel does not carry out research nor does it monitor data. It bases its assessment mainly on peer reviewed and published scientific/technical literature. See website at http://www.ipcc.ch/index.html.

305. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/. Representatives from 113 Governments opted the Summary for Policymakers and accepting the underlying report at the Tenth Session of Working Group I, Paris, 29 January-1 February 2007. The full report of Working Group I is expected to be released in May 2007. The reports of Working Group II (impacts, adaptation and vulnerability) and Working Group III (mitigation options) will be finalized in early April and May 2007, respectively. have 306. The global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane have increased from pre-industrial values of about 280 parts per million and 715 parts per billion respectively, to 379 parts per million and 1,774 parts per billion in 2005, These values exceed the natural range over the last 650,000 years as determined from ice core samples. r. ^07. Widespread decreases in glaciers and ice caps have contributed to sea level Ve e. New data show that losses from the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica have very likely contributed to sea level rise over 1993 to 2003. sh 308, Satellite data since 1978 show that annual average Arctic sea ice extent has link by an estimated 2.7 per cent per decade, with larger estimated decreases in

summer of 7.4 per cent per decade. There is observational evidence for an increase of intense tropical cyclone activity (hurricanes and typhoons) in the North Atlantic since about 1970, correlated with increases of tropical sea surface temperatures. 309. The likely ranges are I.I'G-6.4'C. Models of sea level rise do not include the full effects of changes in ice sheet flow. 310. In some projections, Arctic late-summer sea ice disappears almost entirely by the latter part of the twenty-first century. - despite such 311. Temperatures in the Atlantic region are projected to increase despite such changes owing to the much larger wanning associated with projected increases of greenhouse gases.

312*Report of the Conference of the Parties on its twelfth session, held at Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006. FCCC/CP/2006/5 and FCCC/CP/2006/ 5/Add.l (advance version). 313. "Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change, Executive Summary," available at http://www.sternreview.org.tik. This study estimates that the total cost over the next two centuries of climate change associated with emissions under a business as usual scenario involves impacts and risks equivalent to an average reduction in global per-capita consumption of at least 5 per cent, and could be as high as 20 per cent. Stabilization of greenhouse gases at or below 550 parts per ntillion COa equivalent will require global emission to be 25 per cent below current levels by 2050, and stabilization at 500-550 parts per million C02 equivalent will cost average around 1 per cent of annual global gross domestic product by 2050. 314. See article 9 of the Kyoto Protocol. p 315. Report of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol on its second session, held at Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006. FCCC/KP/CMP/2006/10 and FCCC/KP/CMP/2006/10/Add.l (advance version).

316. "The Shifting Power Equation: Exploring the Implications," World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2007, 24-28 January, Davos, Switzerland, available at http://www.weforum.org/en/events/AnnualMeeting2007/index.htm. 317. UNEP/('�C/24/INF/24, "Background paper for the ministerial-level consultations on globalization and the environment," Nairobi, Kenya, 5-9 Febmary 2007. 318. General Assembly resolution 61/201 on protection of global climate for present and future generations of mankind, adopted by a recorded vote of 137 votes in favour, none against, and 47 abstentions. 319. Statement of the United Nations Secretary-General to COP-12 and CMP-2, available at http://www.un.org/webcast/unfccc/2006/statements/061115annan_ e.pdf.

320. Second meeting of the G8+5 Climate Change Dialogue, Washington, D.C., globe' February 2007. The Washington Statement is available at http://www. heinternational.org/content.php?id=2:8:0:237:0.

321. See press release No. 45/06 of 30 May 2006 at http://curia.europa.eu/ en/actu/communiques/cp06/aff/cp060045en.pdf. See also A/61/63, para. 275. 322. See "Note on the citation of articles of the Treaties in the publications of the Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance" at http://curia.europa.eu/en/ content/juris/noteinfo.htm. 323. See Offirial Journal of the European Union, C 165/2 of 15 July 2006 at littp://ctiria.eti.int/jtirisp/cgi-bin/forin.pl?lang=EN&Siibiziit=rechercher&niiinaff'� C-459/03.

th 324. The Consultative Process was established by resolution 54/33 to facilitate e annual review of developments in ocean affairs by the General Assembly, and extended for two three-year periods by resolutions 57/141 and 60/30.

354. Trust fund for the purposes of defraying the cost of participation of the ;embers of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf from developing States in the meetings of the Commission. In 2006, New Zealand made a °ntribution of $30,000 and Ireland contributed $59,905, making a total of

325. In 2006, Ireland pledged €150,000 to this trust fund to be paid in three annual instalments (see A/61/63/Add.I, para. 186). 326. In 2005, Ireland pledged €120,000 to this trust fund to be paid in three annual instaltnents (see A/61/63, para. 53). 327. The members of the panel of experts, which assists the Division in the examination of applications to the trust fund in 2006, were as follows: the Permanent Representatives of Mexico, Norway, Papua New Guinea and Senegal, the Deputy Permanent Representatives of Japan and the Russian Federation; and the Law of the Sea Director, Department of Foreign Affairs of Ireland.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 3 3 1
Full Text Views 3 3 3
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0