A Regional Approach to Marine Environmental Problems in East Africa and the Indian Ocean

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A Regional Approach to Marine Environmental Problems in East Africa and the Indian Ocean

in Ocean Yearbook Online

References

1. For a review of the Regional Seas Programme, see "UNEP: An Update on the Regional Seas Programme," in Ocean Yearbook 4, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983), pp. 450-63. For a discussion of coastal resources conservation in East Africa, see R. DuBois, "Catchment Land Use and Its Implications for Coastal Resource Conservation in East Africa," in this volume. 2. N. Meith and R. Helmer, "Marine Environment and Coastal Resources in Southeast Asia: A Threatened Heritage," in Ocean Yearbook 4, pp. 260-94.

3. Except where otherwise noted, the following discussion is taken from R. W. Fairbridge, B. C. Heezen, T. Ichiye, and M. Tharp, "Indian Ocean," in The Encyclope- dia of Oceanography, ed. Rhodes W. Fairbridge (New York: Rheinhold Publishing Com- pany, 1966), pp. 370-402; and M. Pathmarajah, Pollution and the Marine Environment in the Indian Ocean, UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 13 (UNEP, 1982): 4- 52.

4. B. R. Rosen, "The Distribution of Reef Coral Genera in the Indian Ocean," Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 28 (1971): 263-99. 5. R. Salm, "Coral Reefs of the Western Indian Ocean: A Threatened Heritage," Ambio 12, no. 6 (1983): 349-53. 6. Rosen, "The Distribution of Reef Coral Genera." 7. United Nations Environment Programme, Note by the Director of SACEP on Regional and National Activities Relevant to the Development of an Action Plan for the Protection and Management of the South Asian Seas Region (UNEP/WG.105/4, 1984), p. 9, hereafter UNEP, Note from the Director of SACEP. 8. Pathmarajah, Pollution and the Marine Environment, p. 36.

9. UNEP, Note from the Director of SACEP, pp. 8-9. 10. Pathmarajah, Pollution and Marine Environment, p. 36. I1. R. Raghu Prasad and P. V. R. Nair, "India and Indian Ocean Fisheries," Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 15, no. 1 (1977): 1-19. 12. Ibid.

13. J. D. Ardill, "Fisheries in the Southwest Indian Ocean," Ambio 12, no. 6 (1983): 341-44. 14. F. Gjoseeter and K. Kawaguchi, A Review of the World Resource of Mesopelagic Fish, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 193, nos. 12 and 13 (1980): 71-85. 15. Pathmarajah, Pollution and the Marine Environment, p. 50.

16. UNEP/Unesco, Marine and Coastal Area Development. in the East African Region, UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 6 (UNEP, 1982): 9. 17. UNEP/IMO, Oil Pollution Control. in lhe East African Region, UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 10 (UNEP, 1982), p. 21; hereafter UNEP, Oil Pollution Control.

18. UNEP, Oil Pollution Control, pp. 29, 32. 19. J. Ferrari, "Oil on Troubled Waters," Ambio 12, no. 6 (1983): 354-57. 20. UNEP, Oil Pollution Control, p. 9.

21. Salm, "Coral Reefs of the Western Indian Ocean," p. 352. 22. I. Bryceson, "Tanzanian Coral Reefs at Risk," New Scientist, October 12, 1978, p. 115. 23. Salm, "Coral Reefs of the Western Indian Ocean," p. 352. 24. Except where otherwise noted, this section is taken from Pathmarajah, Pollu- tion and the Marine Environment, pp. 69-71.

25. A. S. Steinbach, "Industry and Environment in the Msimbazi Valley Drain- age, Dar es Salaam," East African Society and Environment, University of Dar es Salaam, 1980, 10 pp. (unpublished report). 26. A. Hall and I. Valente, "Effects of Port and Town Activity on Lourenco Marques Bay," Marine Pollution Bulletin 5, no. 1 (1974): 165-68.

27. M. I. Jahangeer, "The State of Aquatic Pollution in Mauritius," 6th FAO/ SIDA workshop on aquatic pollution in relation to protection of living resources, FIR:TPLR/78/Inf.28 (FAO, 1978). 28. Pathmarajah, Pollution and the Marine Environrraent, pp. 110—11.

29. D. Finn, "Land Use and Abuse in the East African Region," Ambio 12, no. 6 (1983): 296-301.

30. Hall and Valente. 31. Pathmarajah, Pollution and the Marine Environment, pp. 123-28. 32. The following discussion is based on P. Bliss-Guest, "Regional Seas: The Tide Comes in for East Africa," Arnbio 12, no. 6 (1983): 358.

33. V. K. Dhargalkar, T. W. Kureishy, and M. V. Bhandare, "Deposition of Tar Balls (Oil Residue) on Beaches along the West Coast of India," Mahasagar-Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography, India 10, nos. 3 and 4 (1977): 103-08. 34. R. Sen Gupta, S. Z. Qasim, S. P. Fondekar, and R. S. Topgi, "Dissolved Petroleum Hydrocarbons in some Regions of the Northern Indian Ocean," Marine Pollution Bulletin 11, no. 3 (1980): 65-68.

35. S. P. Fondekar, R. S. Topgi, and R. J. Noronha, "Distribution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Goa Coastal Waters," Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 9 (1980): 286-88. 36. V. D. Ramamurthy and P. Nammalvar, "Effects of Oil Tanker Disaster on the NE Coast of the Arabian Sea," in Marine production export development authority, Cochin, Kerala, India. Book of abstracts of papers presented at Joint Oceanography Assembly, Edinburgh, UK, September 13-24, 1976. (Rome: FAO, PS-3, 1976), p. 201.

37. Pathmarajah, Pollution and the Marine Environment, p. 110. 38. UNEP, Note by the Director of SACEP, p. 13.

39. V. Gopalakrishnan, P. Ray, and B. B. Ghosh, "Present Status of Pollution in the Hooghly Estuary with Special Reference to the Adverse Effects on the Observed Fishery Resources." Proceedings of the Symposium on Environmental Pollution, Cen- tral Public Health Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur, India, 1973. 40. R. S. Dhaneshwar, S. Rajagopalan, A. K. Basu, and C. S. G. Rao, "Characteri- zation of Wastes from Pulp and, Paper Mills in the Hooghly Estuary," Proceedings of the First II T-K Symposium on'Industrial Wastes (Kanpur: Indian Institute of Tech- nology, 1969). ' 41. P. N. Ganapati and A. V. Raman, "Mass Mortality of Fish in Visakhapatnam Harbour," Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 5, no. 1 (1976): 134-35. 42. R. V. Unnithan, M. Vijayan, E. V. Radhakrishnan, and K. N. Remani, "Inci- dence of Fish Mortality from Industrial Pollution in Cochin Backwaters," Indian Jour- nal of Marine Sciences 6, no. 1 (1977): 81-83. 43. R. Sen Gupta and V. N. Sankaranarayanan, "Pollution Studies off Bombay," Mahasagar-Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography, India 7, nos. 1 and 2 (1974): 72-78.

44. V. N. Sankaranarayanan, K. S. Purushan, and T. S. S. Rao, "Concentration of Some of the Heavy Metals in the Oyster, Crassostrea madrasensis (Preston) from the Cochin Region," Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 7, no. 2 (1978): 130-31. 45. V. N. Sankaranarayanan and S. Rosamma, "Particulate Iron, Manganese, Copper and Zinc in Waters of the Cochin Backwater," Indianjournal of Marine Sciences 7, no. 3 (1978): 201-03. 46. T. W. Kureishy, M. D. George, and R. Sen Gupta, "Total Mercury Content in Some Marine Fish from the Indian Ocean," Marine Pollution Bulletin 10, no. 12 (1979): 357-60; and S. Y. S. Singbal, S. Sanzgiri, and R. Sen Gupta, "Total Mercury Concen- trations in the Arabian Sea Waters off the Indian Coast," Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 7, no. 2 (1978): 124-26.

47. B. L. K. Somayajulu and Rama, "Mercury in Sea-food from the Coast off Bombay," Current Science 41, no. 6 (1972): 207-08. 48. M. A. A. Beg, S. N. Mahmood, and A. H. K. Yusufzai, "Industrial Effluents, Their Nature and Disposal in Karachi Region Part 1. Survey of the Polluted Lyari River," Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences 12 (1975): 115-31. 49. UNEP, Note by the Director of SACEP, p. 9. 50. Ibid., p. 13. 51. P. N. Ganapati and A. V. Raman, "Capitella capitata (Fabricius, 1780) (Polychaeta: Capitellidae): An Indicator of Pollution in Visakhapatnam Harbour," Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 5, no. 2 (1976): 251.

52. T. Sreeramulu, M. U. Rao, and V. E. Premila, "On the Growth and Survival of Ulvafasciata in the Polluted Waters off Visakhapatnam Harbour," Botanica Marina 20, no. 6 (1977): 401-04. 53. R. V. Unnithan, M. Vijayan, and K. N. Remani, "Organic Pollution in Cochin Backwaters," Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 4, no. 1 (1975): 39-42. 54. K. N. Remani, P. Venugopal, K. Serala Devi, S. Lalitha, and R. V. Unnithan, "Sediments of Cochin Backwaters in Relation to Pollution," Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 9, no. 2 (1980): 111-14. 55. P. S. Gore, O. Raveendran, and R. V. Unnithan, "Pollution Status of the Cochin Beach," Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 8, no. 3 (1979): 187-90. 56. K. K. Rao, "Ecology of Mandovi and Zuari Estuaries, Goa: Distribution of Foraminiferal Assemblages," Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 3 (june 1974): 61-66. 57. A. Tewari, "The Effect of Sewage Pollution on Enteromorpha prolifera var. tubulosa Growing under Natural Habitat," Botanica Marina 15, no. 3 (1972): 167. 58. M. A. A. Beg, N. Mahmood, A. H. K. G. Yusufzai, "Survey of the Polluted Lyari River-Its Effects on the Arabian Sea." International Conference on the Management of the Environment, Part II (Islamabad: Pakistan Academy of Science, 1975), pp. 97- 103. 59. UNEP, Note from the Director of SACEP, p. 12.

60. S. Tanabe and R. Tatsukawa, "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in the North Pacific and Indian Oceans," Journal of the Oceanographical Society of Japan 36 (1980): 217-26. 61. Pathmarajah, Pollution and the Marine Environment, p. 128. 62. S. Y. S. Singbal, S. P. Fondekar, and C. V. G. Reddy, "Chemical Characteris- tics of the Inshore Waters in Velsao Bay, Goa," Mahasagar-Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography, India 9, nos. 1 and 2 (1976): 35-40. 63. P. N. Ganapati and A. V. Raman, "Organic Pollution and Skeletonema Blooms in Visakhapatnam Harbour," Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 8, no. 3 (1979): 184-87.

64. K. C. Pillai and N. N. Dey, "Radiourethenium in Coastal Waters," Reference Methods for Marine Radiation Studies II. IAEA Technical Reports 169 (Vienna, 1975).

65. List taken from: UNEP, Note from the Director of SACEP, pp. 17-24.

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