* EDtTOtts' NoTE.-A summary of the text of the International Court of Justice, Judgement of 12 October 1984, Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Gulf of Maine Area (Canada/United States of America) appears in Appendix B of this vol- ume. 1.TheFisheriesofGloucester (Gloucester: Procter Brothers, 1876), p. 42. 2. See, e.g., William Robbins, "New Englanders Protesting Loss of Fishing Area," NewYorkTimes (October 22, 1984), 2d section, pp. 1, 9; Douglas Martin, "Nova Scotia Is Not Overjoyed by Its Fishing Share," NewYorkTimes (October 23, 1984), 2d section, p. 1.
3. U.S. Department of State, MaritimeBoundaryDisputeSettlementTreaty,withAgreementsbetweentheUnitedStatesandCanada,SignedatWashingtonMarch29,1979. Treaties and Other International Acts Series 10204 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1981).
4. For further information see Richard H. Backus, ed., GeorgesBank (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984). 5. Court of Arbitration, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the French Republic, Delimitationof theContinentalShelf, Decision of June 30, 1977. 6. For a discussion of the state of customary law concerning maritime boundary delimitation prior to the Gulf of Maine ruling, the reader is referred to Mark B. Feldman, "The Tunisia-Libya Continental Shelf Case: Geographie Justice or Judicial Compromise," AmericanJournalofInternationalLazu 77 (1983): 219-38; Nicholas P. Dunning, "Editor's Introduction to International Court of Justice Judgement of Feb- ruary 24, 1982: Case Concerning the Continental Shelf (Tunisia/Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)," OceanYearbook4, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983), pp. 515-32.
7. International Court of Justice, ReportsofJudgements,AdvisoryOpinions,andOrders,1969, North Sea Continental Shelf (The Hague). 8. In this sense, by failing to ratify the Fisheries Agreement of 1979, which assured Canadians limited access to certain stocks regardless of where the boundary was drawn, the United States probably lost any reasonable hope of gaining all of Georges Bank. 9. On a national scale this is certainly true (e.g., fishing industries account for somewhat less than 1 % of the Canadian GNP, just over 1 % of Canadian national employment, and much lower percentages of U.S. GNP and employment), but at regional and local levels effects may be quite noticeable.
10. John Donaldson and Giulio Pontecorvo, "Economic Rationalization of Fisheries: The Problem of Conflicting National Interests on Georges Bank," OceanDevelopmentandInternationalLaw 8 (1980): 149-69. 11. See, e.g., Gordon R. Monroe, "Canada and Fisheries Management with Ex- tended Jurisdiction," EconomicImpactsofExtendedFisheries jurisdiction, ed. Lee G. An- derson (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Science Publishers, 1977), pp. 29-50; David Van der Zwaag, "Canadian Fisheries Management: A Legal and Administrative Overview," OceanDevelopmentandlnternalionalLaw 13, no. 2 (1983): 171-211; U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Establishinga200-MileFisheriesZone (Washington, D.C., 1977); and U.S. Department of Commerce, AMarineFisheriesProgramfortheNation (Washington, D.C., 1976).
12. K. Y. Emery and E. Uchupi, "Western North Atlantic Ocean: Topography, Rocks, Structure, Water, Life, and Sediments," AmericanAssociationofPetroleumGeologists,Memorial17 (1972); J. S. Schlee and J. Grow, "Buried Carbonate Shelf Edge beneath the Atlantic Continental Slope." OilandGasjournal 78, no. 8 (1980): 148-56. 13. U.S. Department of the Interior, DraftEnvironmentalImpactStatement,Pro-posed1982OuterContinentalShelfOilandGasLeaseSaleOffshsoretheNorthAtlanticStates,No.52 (Washington, D.C., 1982), p. 1. 14. Lynne M. Newman, "Can Fish and Fuel Coexist on Georges Bank?" SeaGrantToday 12, no. 1 (1982): 14-15. 15. U.S. Department of the Interior, DraftEnvironmentalImpactStatement,No.52. 16. Peter Harrison, "Offshore Oil and Gas: Development, Transportation, and Coastal Impacts," OceanYearbook4, pp. 319-46.
17. Ibid.; and U.S. Department of the Interior, DraftEnvironmentalImpactState-ment,No.52, pp. 236-58. 18. James K. Mitchell, "Coastal Zone Management: A Comparative Analysis of National Programs," OceanYearbook3, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Gins- burg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), pp. 258-319. 19. Felix A. Kwamena, "Offshore Oil and Gas Development and the Atlantic Fisheries," StudiesinMarineandCoastalGeography, no. 1, Coastal Studies in Canadian Geography (Halifax: St. Mary's University, 1982) pp. 19-59. 20. U.S. Department of the Interior, DraftEnvironmentalImpactStatement,No.52, pp. 236-58. 21. Ibid. 22. Ibid. 23. Kwamena, "Offshore Oil and Gas Development and the Atlantic Fisheries." 24. B.E. Brown, TheStatusof theFisheryResourcesonGeorgesBank (Woods Hole, Mass.: Northeast Fisheries Center, 1980); and U.S. Department of the Interior, DraftEnvironmentalImpactStatement,No.52. 25. U.S. Department of the Interior, DraftEnvironmental ImpactStatement,No.52. 26. Kwamena, "Offshore Oil and Gas Development and the Atlantic Fisheries."
27. Peter Odell, "Offshore Resources: Oil and Gas," in TheMaritimeDimension, ed. R. Barston and P. Birnie (London: Allen & Unwin, 1980), pp. 76-107; and A. D. Couper and H. D. Smith, "The North Sea: Bases for Management and Planning in a Multi-State Sea Region," paper presented at the 16th Annual Law of the Sea Institute Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia, June 21, 1982.