1. James M. Broadus, "Seabed Materials," Science 25 (February 1987): 853-60.
2. Vince E. McKelvey, "Seabed Minerals and Law of the Sea," Science 209 (July 1980): 464-72. 3. U.S. Bureau of Mines, MineralsCommoditySummaries (Washington, D.C.: Gov- ernment Printing Office, 1987), p. 189.
4. Peter Halbach, D. Puteanus, and Frank T. Manheim, "Platinum Concentra- tions in Ferromanganese Seamount Crusts from the Central Pacific," Naturwissen-schaften 71, no. 11 (1984): 577-79. 5. See McKelvey.
6. A. D. Little, TechnologicalandEconomicAssessmentofManganeseNoduleMiningandProcessing, report prepared for U.S. Department of Interior (November 1979), p. 75. 7. Peter Halbach, personal communication, 1987.
8. M. D. Hannington, J. M. Peter, and S. D. Scott, "Gold in Seafloor Polymetallic Sulphide Deposits," EconomicGeology 81 (1986): 1867-83. 9. R. Kekinian, M. Fevrier, H. D. Needham, F. Avedik, and P. Cambon, "Sul- phide Deposits, East Pacific Rise Near 13° N," EOS,Transactions 62 (1981): 913; P. F. Lonsdale, R. Batiza, and T. Simkin, "Metallogenesis at Seamounts on the East Pacific Rise," MarineTechnologySociety Journal 16, no. 3 (1982): 54-61. 10. P. F. Lonsdale, "Hot Vents and Hydrocarbon Seeps in the Sea of Cortez," Oceanus 27, no. 3 (1984): 21-24. 11. I. B. Lambert and T. Sato, "The Kuroko and Associated Ore Deposits of Japan: A Review of Their Features and Metallogenesis," EconomicGeology 69, no. 8 (1974): 1215-36; L. M. Bear, "The Mineral Resources and Mining Industry of Cy- prus: Nicosia, Cyprus, 1963," GeologicalSurveyBulletin, vol. 1 (1963).
12. John E. Flipse, AnEconomicAnalysisofaPioneerDeepOceanMiningVenture, Texas A&M University Sea Grant College Program, TAMU-SG-82-201, COE Report no. 262 (August 1982), p. 131; J. D. Nyhart and M. S. Triant, APioneerDeepOceanMiningVenture, MIT Sea Grant College Program, MITSG 84-14 (June 1983), p. 253; Arthur D. Little, TechnicalandCostAnalysesofManganeseNoduleProcessingTechniquesandTheirSignificantVariations, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Contract no. NA 83-SAC-00637 (September 1984); Charles J. Johnson and James M. Otto, "Manganese Nodule Project Economics," Re-sourcesPolicy 12 (March 1986): 17-28. 13. State of Hawaii Department of Planning and Economic Development and U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service, MiningDevelopmentScenarioforCobalt-RichManganeseCrustsintheExclusiveEconomicZonesoftheHawaiianArchipelagoand JohnstonIsland, 1987.
14. Ibid.; and U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service and State of Hawaii Department of Planning and Economic Development, ProposedMarineMineralLeaseSaleintheHawaiianArchipelagoand johnstonIslandExclusiveEco-nomicZones, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, OCS EIS/EA, MMS87-0004 (Jan- uary 1987). 15. Editors' note.-For additional information on the consortia listed in table 7, see Marne A. Dubs, "Minerals of the Deep Sea: Politics and Economics in Conflict," OceanYearbook6, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: Univer- sity of Chicago Press, 1986), pp. 55-83. 16. See Broadus (n. 1 above).
17. Editors' note.-For additional information about Preussag AG of Hannover, Germany, see E. Blissenbach and Z. Nawab, "Metalliferous Sediments of the Seabed: The Atlantis-II-Deep Deposits of the Red Sea," OceanYearbook3, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), pp. 77- 104; and M. A. Dubs, "Minerals of the Deep Sea: Politics and Economics in Conflict," OceanYearbook6, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: Univer- sity of Chicago Press, 1986), p. 73.