Expanding Horizons of Pacific Minerals

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References

1. James M. Broadus, "Seabed Materials," Science 25 (February 1987): 853-60.

2. Vince E. McKelvey, "Seabed Minerals and Law of the Sea," Science 209 (July 1980): 464-72. 3. U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Commodity Summaries (Washington, D.C.: Gov- ernment Printing Office, 1987), p. 189.

4. Peter Halbach, D. Puteanus, and Frank T. Manheim, "Platinum Concentra- tions in Ferromanganese Seamount Crusts from the Central Pacific," Naturwissen- schaften 71, no. 11 (1984): 577-79. 5. See McKelvey.

6. A. D. Little, Technological and Economic Assessment of Manganese Nodule Mining and Processing, report prepared for U.S. Department of Interior (November 1979), p. 75. 7. Peter Halbach, personal communication, 1987.

8. M. D. Hannington, J. M. Peter, and S. D. Scott, "Gold in Seafloor Polymetallic Sulphide Deposits," Economic Geology 81 (1986): 1867-83. 9. R. Kekinian, M. Fevrier, H. D. Needham, F. Avedik, and P. Cambon, "Sul- phide Deposits, East Pacific Rise Near 13° N," EOS, Transactions 62 (1981): 913; P. F. Lonsdale, R. Batiza, and T. Simkin, "Metallogenesis at Seamounts on the East Pacific Rise," Marine Technology Society Journal 16, no. 3 (1982): 54-61. 10. P. F. Lonsdale, "Hot Vents and Hydrocarbon Seeps in the Sea of Cortez," Oceanus 27, no. 3 (1984): 21-24. 11. I. B. Lambert and T. Sato, "The Kuroko and Associated Ore Deposits of Japan: A Review of Their Features and Metallogenesis," Economic Geology 69, no. 8 (1974): 1215-36; L. M. Bear, "The Mineral Resources and Mining Industry of Cy- prus: Nicosia, Cyprus, 1963," Geological Survey Bulletin, vol. 1 (1963).

12. John E. Flipse, An Economic Analysis of a Pioneer Deep Ocean Mining Venture, Texas A&M University Sea Grant College Program, TAMU-SG-82-201, COE Report no. 262 (August 1982), p. 131; J. D. Nyhart and M. S. Triant, A Pioneer Deep Ocean Mining Venture, MIT Sea Grant College Program, MITSG 84-14 (June 1983), p. 253; Arthur D. Little, Technical and Cost Analyses of Manganese Nodule Processing Techniques and Their Significant Variations, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Contract no. NA 83-SAC-00637 (September 1984); Charles J. Johnson and James M. Otto, "Manganese Nodule Project Economics," Re- sources Policy 12 (March 1986): 17-28. 13. State of Hawaii Department of Planning and Economic Development and U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service, Mining Development Scenario for Cobalt-Rich Manganese Crusts in the Exclusive Economic Zones of the Hawaiian Archipelago and Johnston Island, 1987.

14. Ibid.; and U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service and State of Hawaii Department of Planning and Economic Development, Proposed Marine Mineral Lease Sale in the Hawaiian Archipelago and johnston Island Exclusive Eco- nomic Zones, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, OCS EIS/EA, MMS87-0004 (Jan- uary 1987). 15. Editors' note.-For additional information on the consortia listed in table 7, see Marne A. Dubs, "Minerals of the Deep Sea: Politics and Economics in Conflict," Ocean Yearbook 6, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: Univer- sity of Chicago Press, 1986), pp. 55-83. 16. See Broadus (n. 1 above).

17. Editors' note.-For additional information about Preussag AG of Hannover, Germany, see E. Blissenbach and Z. Nawab, "Metalliferous Sediments of the Seabed: The Atlantis-II-Deep Deposits of the Red Sea," Ocean Yearbook 3, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), pp. 77- 104; and M. A. Dubs, "Minerals of the Deep Sea: Politics and Economics in Conflict," Ocean Yearbook 6, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: Univer- sity of Chicago Press, 1986), p. 73.

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