South American Antarctic Policies

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South American Antarctic Policies

in Ocean Yearbook Online

References

1. Evan Luard, "Who Owns the Antarctic?" Foreign Affairs 62 (Summer 1984): 1192; and Barbara Mitchell, "The Southern Ocean in the 1980s," Ocean Yearbook 3, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), pp. 349-85.

2. Luard, p. 1190; and J. R. V. Prescott, "Boundaries in Antarctica," in Australia's Antarctic Policy Options, ed. Stuart Harris, CRES Monograph 11 (Canberra: Australian National University, 1984), p. 111.

3. The Antarctic Treaty, signed December 1, 1959, 402 United Nations Treaty Series (UNTS) 71. Article XII states that the treaty expires 30 years from the date of entry into force. The treaty entered into force on June 23, 1961, and, therefore, expires in 1991. The text of the treaty may be found in G. L. Kesteven, "The Southern Ocean," Ocean Yearbook 1, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), pp. 493-99.

4. For a review of the dispute, see "Beagle Channel Arbitration (Argentina v. Chile) (1977)," International Legal Materials (ILM) 17 (1978); and "Argentina-Chile: Negotiations and Conclusions of Border Dispute Agreement (February 20, 1978- January 14, 1985)," ILM 24 (1985): 1. 5. Joint Declaration of Peace and Friendship between Argentina and Chile (Jan- uary 23, 1984) and Treaty of Peace and Friendship (November 29, 1984), ILM 24 (1985): 10-28; and see Michael A. Morris, "Southern Cone Maritime Security after the 1984 Argentine-Chilean Treaty of Peace and Friendship," Ocean Development and International Law 18, no. 2 (1987): 235-54.

6. See Michael A. Morris, "Structure and Prospects of Latin American Navies," Ocean Yearbook 4, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: Univer- sity of Chicago Press, 1983), pp. 347-65; and see Michael A. Morris, Expansion of Third World Navies (London: Macmillan, 1986).

7. Howard T. Pittman, "Geopolitics and Foreign Policy in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile," in Latin American Foreign Policies: Global and Regional Dimensions, ed. Elizabeth G. Ferris and Jennie K. Lincoln (Boulder: Westview, 1981), pp. 169, 175.

8. "Region/Antarctica," Southern Cone Report (June 28, 1985), p. 8 (RS-85-05).

9. Federico Marull Bermudez, Mar de Chile y Mar Andino: Antecedentes para una Political Ocednica Comun, University of Chile, Serie de Publicaciones Especiales no. 7 (Santiago: Departmento de Estudios Internacionales, 1975), p. 6.

10. Ibid., pp. 17, 19. 11. Howard T. Pittman, "Chilean Foreign Policy: The Pragmatic Pursuit of Geopolitical Goals," in The Dynamics of Latin American Foreigrc Policies: Challenges for the 1980s, ed. Jennie K. Lincoln and Elizabeth G. Ferris (Boulder: Westview, 1984), p. 132. 12. Jorge A. Fraga, La Argentina y el Atlkntico Sur (Buenos Aires: Instituto de Publicaciones Navales, 1983), p. 85.

13. United Nations General Assembly, Questions of Antarctica, Study Requested under General Assembly Resolution 38/77, Report of the Secretary-General, pt. 2, Views of States, vol. 2, A/39//583 (pt. 2) (1984), pp. 17-18.

14. Ram6n Canas Montalva, "Chile: El Pais Mas Austral de la Tierra," Geosur 2 (July 1981): 34, reprinted from Tierra Australis, vol. 14 (1951). 15. Hernan Ferrer Fouga, "Importancia Geoestrategica de la Antarctica," Revista de Marina (Marzo-Abril, 1984), pp. 161-74.

16. Montalva, pp. 32-34. 17. See John E. Bardach, "Fish Far Away: Comments on Antarctic Fisheries," Ocean Yearbook 6, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: Univer- sity of Chicago Press, 1986), pp. 38-54, at 53. 18. Alberto Casellas, Antlrtida, Un Malabaris�no Politico (Buenos Aires: Instituto de Publicaciones Navales, 1981), pp. 38-42, 82-85, 96.

19. Peter J. Beck, "Britain's Antarctic Dimension," International Affairs 59 (Sum- mer 1983): 429-44.

20. Michael A. Morris, International Politics and the Sea: The Case of Brazil (Boul- der: Westview, 1979), esp. chap. 6.

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